It is worth noting that countries are thinking about reducing strategic offensive weapons in the late 1960-s. To that, the moments of the USSR and the USA have accumulated such nuclear arsenals, which made it possible not only to turn each other’s territory into ashes several times, but also to destroy all human civilization and life on the planet. In addition, the nuclear race, which was one of the attributes of the Cold War, seriously hit the two countries' economies. Huge monetary funds were spent on building up the nuclear arsenal. Under these conditions, negotiations between the Soviet Union and the United States began in 1969 in Helsinki to limit nuclear stocks.
These negotiations led to the signing of the first treaty between the countries - SALT-I (strategic arms limitation), which was signed in 1972. The agreement signed by the USSR and the USA fixed the number of means of delivery of nuclear weapons for each of the countries at the level at which they were at that time. True, by that time, both in the United States and in the USSR, they had already begun to equip their ballistic missiles with separable warheads with blocks of individual guidance (they carried several warheads at once). As a result, it was during the period of detente that a new, previously unseen, avalanche-like process of building up nuclear potential began. At the same time, the treaty provided for the adoption of new ICBMs deployed on submarines, strictly in the quantity in which land-based ballistic missiles were previously written off.
The continuation of this agreement was the SALT-II agreement, signed by countries on June 18, 1979 in Vienna. This agreement forbade the launch of nuclear weapons into space; it also set limits on the maximum number of strategic carriers: ICBM launchers, SLBM launchers, strategic aircraft aviation and missiles (but not actually nuclear warheads) below the existing level: up to 2400 units (including up to 820 ICBM launchers equipped with a shared warhead). In addition, the parties pledged to reduce the number of carriers to 1 by January 1981, 2250. Of the total number of strategic systems, only 1320 carriers could be equipped with warheads with individual guidance warheads. He also imposed other restrictions: he forbade the design and deployment of ballistic missiles based on watercraft (except for submarines), as well as on the seabed; mobile heavy ICBMs, cruise missiles with homing missiles, limited the maximum throwing weight for submarine ballistic missiles.
Barack Obama and Dmitry Medvedev after signing the START III Treaty in Prague 8 April 2010
The next joint treaty to reduce strategic offensive arms was the indefinite Treaty on the Elimination of Medium and Shorter-Range Missiles from the 1987 of the Year. He banned the development and deployment of ballistic missiles with a range from 500 to 5500 km. In accordance with this treaty, for three years, the country had to destroy not only all ground-based ballistic missiles of these types, but also all launchers, including missiles in both the European and Asian parts of the Soviet Union. The same treaty introduced the universal classification of ballistic missiles by range for the first time.
The next treaty was START-1, signed by the USSR and the United States 31 July 1991 in Moscow. It came into force after the collapse of the Soviet Union - December 5 1994. The new contract was designed for 15 years. The terms of the signed agreement prohibited each party to have more than 1600 nuclear weapons delivery units (ICBMs, SLBMs, strategic bombers) on combat duty. The maximum number of nuclear charges themselves was limited to 6000. 6 December 2001 of the year, it was announced that countries had fully met their obligations under this contract.
The START-1993 treaty, signed back in 2, was initially unable to ratify for a long time, and then was simply refused. The next agreement in force was an agreement to reduce the offensive potentials of the DPR, which limited the maximum number of warheads to another three times: from 1700 to 2200 units (compared to START-1). At the same time, the composition and structure of the arms that fell under the arms reduction were determined by the states themselves, this moment was not regulated in the agreement. The contract entered into force on June 1 2003.
START 3 and its results
The treaty on measures to further reduce and limit strategic offensive arms (START-3) entered into force on February 5 of the year 2011. He changed the START-1 agreement and canceled the DPR Agreement from 2002 of the year. The treaty provided for further large-scale reductions in the nuclear arsenals of Russia and the United States. According to the terms of the 5 February and 2018 agreement, the total number of weapons did not exceed the 700 deployed ICBMs, SLBMs and strategic missile-carrying bombers, 1550 charges on these missiles, and 800 deployed ICBMs, SLBMs and heavy bombers (BTBs). . It was in the START-3 agreement that the concept of “non-deployed” carriers and launchers, that is, not in combat readiness, was first introduced. They can be used for training or testing and do not have warheads. The treaty also separately stated a ban on the basing of strategic offensive arms outside the national territories of the two states.
The START-3 treaty, in addition to limiting nuclear weapons directly, implies a two-way exchange of telemetry data that was obtained during test launches. The exchange of telemetric information on missile launches is carried out by mutual agreement and on a parity basis for no more than five launches per year. At the same time, the parties are obliged to exchange information on the number of carriers and warheads twice a year. Inspection activities were also spelled out separately, up to 300 people can participate in the inspection, the candidatures of which agree within a month, after which they are issued two-year visas. At the same time, the inspectors themselves, members of the inspection delegations and flight crews, as well as their aircraft, during inspections in the two countries, enjoy full immunity.
The 2018 year is expected to extend the START-3 agreement, since it expires only in the 2021 year. As the US ambassador to Russia, John Huntsman, noted in January 2018, trust between the states in the matter of arms reduction is not lost at the moment - Washington and Moscow are successfully working on implementing START-3. “We are working in a positive direction with regard to START-3, I call it“ the moment of inspiration ”, after February 5 the work will not stop, the work will be more intensive. The fact that we are approaching this date of achieving our goals inspires confidence, ”the ambassador noted.
As TASS notes, on 1 September 2017, the Russian Federation had 501 deployed nuclear weapons carrier, 1561 nuclear warhead and 790 deployed and non-deployed launchers of ICBMs, SLBMs and TB. The United States had 660 deployed carriers, 1393 warheads and 800 deployed and non-deployed launchers. From the published data, it followed that for Russia, in order to fit into the limit on START-3, it was necessary to reduce 11 warheads.
Nuclear Arsenal of Russia and the USA
To date, the basis of modern strategic weapons continues to make nuclear weapons. In some cases, it also includes high-precision weapons with conventional warheads, which can be used to destroy strategic enemy targets. By purpose it is divided into offensive (shock) and defensive weapons. The strategic offensive weapons (START) include all ground-based ICBM complexes (both mine and mobile), strategic nuclear missile submarines (ARPL), as well as strategic (heavy) bombers, which can be carriers of strategic air-launched missiles. surface "and atomic bombs.
Topol-M mobile version
The following ICBMs under the effect of the START-3 agreement as part of the Strategic Missile Forces (Strategic Missile Forces): RS-12М Topol; PC-12М2 Topol-M; PC-18 (according to NATO codification - “Stiletto”), PC-20 “Dnepr” (according to NATO codification “Satan”), Р-36М УТТХ and Р-36Х2 "Voevoda"; PC-24 Yars. According to the TASS, currently the Russian group of Strategic Missile Forces is located near the 400 ICBM with warheads of various types and different capacities. Thus, more than 60 percent of weapons and warheads of the strategic nuclear forces of the Russian Federation are concentrated here. A notable difference from the United States is the presence in the ground component of the nuclear triad - mobile complexes. If in the USA, ICBMs are located exclusively in stationary mine installations, then in the Strategic Missile Forces, along with mine-based, mobile ground-based missile systems based on the multi-axle MZKT-79221 chassis are used.
In 2017, the Strategic Missile Forces were replenished with the 21 new ballistic missile. Future plans include the decommissioning of Topol ICBMs, replacing them with more modern and sophisticated Yars ICBMs. At the same time, Moscow expects to extend the service life of the heaviest ICBM P-36М2 "Voivod" in service with the RVSN up to at least 2027 of the year.
The maritime component of the Russian nuclear triad is represented, as of 1 March 2017, of 13 nuclear submarines with intercontinental ballistic missiles on board. The basis of the 6 submarine missile-carriers of the project 667BDRM "Dolphin", which are armed with ballistic missiles R-29RMU2 "Sineva" and their modification "Liner". Also in the ranks are still three submarines of the earlier project 667BDR Kalmar and one boat of the project 941UM Akula - Dmitry Donskoy. She is also the largest submarine in the world. It was at “Dmitry Donskoy” that the first tests of the new Russian ICBM were carried out, falling under the effect of the START-3 agreement - the P-30 “Bulava” missile, which is produced in Votkinsk. In addition to the above-mentioned submarines, three nuclear submarines of the new 955 Borey project, armed with the Bulava, are boats: K-535 Yuri Dolgoruky, K-550 Alexander Nevsky and K-551 Vladimir Monomakh ". Each of these submarines carries on board up to 16 ICBMs. Also on the upgraded project "Borey-A" in Russia 5 such rocket carriers are being built.
Submarine project 955 "Borey"
The basis of the air part of the nuclear triad in Russia consists of two strategic bomber, falling under the treaty START-3. This is a supersonic strategic bomber-bomber with a variable sweep wing Tu-160 (16 units) and an honorary veteran - a turboprop strategic bomber-bomber Tu-95MS (around 40 deployed). According to experts, these turboprop aircraft can be successfully used up to 2040 year.
The modern US nuclear arsenal consists of the Minuteman-III mine ICBMs (there are 399 deployed launchers of ICBMs and 55 non-deployed), ballistic missiles on Trident II submarines (212 deployed and 68 non-deployed), as well as cruise missiles and air bombs with nuclear warheads, which carriers are strategic bombers. Rocket Minuteman-III for a long time is the basis of the American nuclear deterrent, it is in service with the 1970 year and is the only land-based ICBM in service with the American army. All this time, the missiles were constantly being upgraded: the replacement of warheads, power plants, control systems and guidance.
Test launch of ICBM Minuteman-III
Trident II ICBM carriers are Ohio-class nuclear submarines, each of which carries on its 24 board such missiles equipped with individual-targeting reusable warheads (no more than 8 warheads per rocket). In total, 18 of such submarines was built in the USA. At the same time, 4 of them have already been converted into carriers of cruise missiles, the modernization of the rocket mines made it possible to place on them up to 154 7 cruise missiles in the mine. Converted 22 mine, two more are used as sluice chambers for docking mini-submarines or special modules to exit the combat swimmers. Since 1997, this is the only type of American SSBNs in service. Their main weapon is the Trident II D-5 ICBM. According to American experts, this rocket is the most reliable weapon in the strategic arsenal of the United States.
The Pentagon is also included in the number of deployed strategic bombers - 49 machines, including 11 stealth strategic bombers Northrop B-2A Spirit and 38 «oldies» Boeing B-52H, even 9 B-2A and 8 B-52H listed as non-deployed. Both bombers can use both cruise missiles with nuclear warheads and free-fall atomic bombs and guided bombs. Another American strategic bomber B-1B, developed in 1970-s specifically for launching missile strikes on the territory of the Soviet Union, has been converted into a carrier of conventional weapons since the 1990-s. By the time the START 3 ends, the US Army does not plan to use it as a carrier of nuclear weapons. According to the 2017 year, the US Air Force included the X-NUMX B-63B Lancer bomber.
Unobtrusive Northrop B-2A Spirit strategic bomber
Mutual claims of the parties
US Assistant Secretary of State John Sullivan explained the condition that must be met for the United States to comply with the treaty on measures to further reduce and limit strategic offensive arms (talking about the START-3 treaty) and the treaty on the elimination of medium-range and short-range missiles. According to Sullivan, the United States "wants to abide by arms control agreements, but to do this, their interlocutors must be" set up in the same way, "reports his agency Interfax. It is worth noting that in January 2018 of the State Department confirmed that Russia fulfilled the conditions of the START-2010 agreement signed in 3, however, the United States continues to blame Russia for violating the INF Treaty. In particular, Washington believes that a new ground-based cruise missile, a land modification of the famous Caliber, was created in Yekaterinburg in the Novator Design Bureau. The Russian Foreign Ministry, in turn, notes that the example of a ground-based cruise missile 9М729 complies with the terms of the contract.
At the same time, according to the chairman of the Russian State Duma Committee on Defense, Vladimir Shamanov, Moscow has serious doubts about the fulfillment by Washington of its commitments on START-3. Shamanov noted that Russia did not receive confirmation of the re-equipment of Trident II missile launchers and B-52M missile launchers. The main issues of the Russian side relate to the re-equipment of US strategic offensive weapons. As Vladimir Putin noted during a meeting with the leaders of the leading Russian media 11 in January 2018, the United States must verify the changes being carried out so that Russia can verify that there is no return potential on some carriers. Moscow’s lack of such evidence is of concern. According to Russian Ambassador to the US Anatoly Antonov, the dialogue with the American side continues on this issue.
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