Military Review

Cattle and war

31
The publication of materials on the party leadership of the evacuated population during the war years aroused considerable interest among the IN readership audience, who first encountered this kind of detailed and reasoned research. However, many were interested in issues related to the evacuation of industry, works of art, finances, prisoners (they, too, were evacuated to the East, so that "they would not get to the enemy") and even ... cattle. Well - it will not be easy to answer all your wishes right away, but gradually, perhaps, you will be able to cover some topics. So far, we have managed to pick up materials only on the topic of livestock evacuation. The most interesting thing is that for the first time my opinion on this problem was also addressed by my supervisor in the postgraduate course of the Kuibyshev State University, Professor A.I. Medvedev, who introduced me to the decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) 1943 of the Year “On measures of assistance to the population of the temporarily occupied regions of the country”, and drew attention to the fact that the cattle evacuated to the East came back according to their list composition! And what exactly it in many ways and for many years undermined the livestock of the Middle and Lower Volga region. Well, now with the situation with the cattle evacuation, it is possible to get acquainted in more detail.


Our acquaintance with the party leadership of the evacuated population during the years of the Great Patriotic War helped us to imagine the truly titanic efforts that the Communist Party of the USSR had to make in order to relocate people to the eastern regions who could be in the occupation zone. And not just to relocate, but to adjust their life, provision with accommodation and food, to restore the factories and factories exported to the “pure field” (and there was even such!) And make them work. However, besides people, evacuations were also subject to ... animals - cows, horses, pigs, because cattle is the same wealth of the country as DIP machines, and even more, because if there is no food, there will be no one to serve the machines .

Cattle and war

Animals go from war!

In addition, the evacuation was carried out by absolutely old-fashioned methods. There were not enough trains to transport people. What is there to evacuate by rail. The cattle were driven by herds, driven under the bombs of German aircraft, the pilots of which were often amused by the fact that they were reduced to a strafing flight with the sirens turned on. The cows scattered in horror, fell into the pits and maimed, many lost their milk from fright. Especially in the confusion and confusion killed calves.

On the hauls of the herd it was necessary to water and feed, organize their protection, collect the beaten off cattle. There were few people to accompany them - men were needed in the army, weapons it was not enough, in the end, the losses among the cattle being distilled were simply enormous. But even when the cattle reached the safe areas, his ordeal continued. In advance of the feed for such a number of animals arrived was not stored. Nobody supposed that they would have to fight on their own land, and not on the territory of the enemy, and where was this excess feed to be taken? Urgently mow?

A characteristic feature was the increased mortality of livestock, tormented by long-distance hauls, weakened, animals became easily vulnerable to diseases. And although it should be emphasized that история does not know examples of such a large-scale evacuation of livestock from one region of the country to another, the price of this evacuation turned out to be very expensive!

It can be said that transferring all the cattle in the areas of occupation to the eastern regions was simply higher than human strength, with the result that horses still fell into the hands of the Germans - 7 million, cattle - 17 million heads, pigs - 20 million , and also 27 million goats and sheep and 110 million heads of various poultry, some of the animals went under the knife, and some were immediately taken to Germany.

The consequences of the occupation for cattle breeding of the USSR became very difficult. Thus, the number of cattle relative to the level before the war fell by 60%, sheep and goats decreased by 70%, pigs - by 90%, horses - by 77%. In Ukraine, the number of cattle, respectively, decreased by 44%, sheep and goats - by 74%, pigs decreased by 89%, and horses by 70%. The losses in Belarus were also very noticeable.


Cows on Senate Square

At the same time, not only the quantity but also the quality of livestock was dealt a blow, as the fascists drove a large number of breeding cattle to Germany, and the breeding cattle that did not manage to steal was simply destroyed during the retreat. True, many cattle still managed to evacuate, and a large number of horses on the way to the East transferred the army. Part of the evacuated livestock in the process of moving surrendered to the meat, so that at least some benefit even cattle that did not reach safe areas brought. Many cattle were placed in the Stavropol Territory, in the Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, in the Stalingrad region and also in the North Caucasus. Incredibly, individual herds of cattle from collective and state farms of Ukraine were able to get to the East Kazakhstan region on their own.

However, in the summer of 1942, a second cattle evacuation began. I had to drive cattle from the front-line areas of the North Caucasus, the Middle and Lower Don, the Stalingrad and Astrakhan regions. Moreover, this evacuation had to be carried out in two stages: at first the cattle were transported across the Volga, and due to the actions of the enemy aviation while many people and animals died; and then herds of cattle had to be driven on. Losses of livestock here were less, since at least no one bombed the herds and did not fire from the air, but still part of the exhausted animals had to be slaughtered for meat. However, the troops of the nearest fronts and the strategic strategic reserves of the Headquarters of the Supreme High Command were supplied with this meat.


Germans are loading trophy cattle

The party and the government showed great concern for the preservation of the young. 11 March 1942, the SNK of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), adopted a special resolution “On measures to preserve young stock and increase livestock numbers on collective and state farms”. In 1942, the collective farmers purchased 5,4 million heads of personal livestock, which made it possible to raise the number of public livestock of cattle, sheep and goats in collective farms in the rear by about 10%.

But by 1 in January 1943 the number of cattle in the country again decreased compared to 1 in January 1941 by 48%, including cows - decreased by 50%; sheep and goats on 33%, pigs - on 78%. The reason for the reduction of the feed base, because the stock of feed was simply no one to create. Livestock productivity also fell sharply. So, in 1942, for one fodder cow on collective farms, we received just 764 liters of milk versus 949 liters in 1940.

Drought and crop failure 1943 g. Even more negative impact on livestock. There was a shortage of not only banal hay, but also such forage waste as oilcake, bran, silo. In 1943, the livestock mortality was 2 — 3 times higher than in the prewar years. In only seven months 1943 from hunger and exhaustion only in the Altai region fell 52 000 horses, 120 160 cattle heads, 449 300 sheep and goats, 44 860 pigs - in fact a huge herd, which our country has lost. And this is in Altai, where there are many beautiful pastures.

It is clear that after this the harvesting of meat products has been sensitively reduced. Thus, in 1942, livestock and poultry (in terms of slaughter weight) 780 thousand tons were harvested, or just 60% of the 1940 level, milk and dairy products - 2,9 million tons, or 45% of the pre-war level. Due to the lack of pork, the collective farms had to take cattle and sheep for meat, as well as take cattle in exchange for bread, seeds and other products.

In response, the party and the government took action. It was allowed to reduce the slaughter of livestock. In 1943, a statement was made to return cattle that had been evacuated to the rear to the liberated western regions of the country. The case is, of course, necessary and good, but it was carried out according to our traditional principle “they wanted the best, but it turned out as always!” The fact is that it was necessary to return the cattle by payroll, that is, how much it went through evacuation. But in the rear areas only a small part of the evacuated cattle survived, the mass of cattle fell from starvation, a lot of cattle surrendered to meat. Therefore, the collective and state farms had to give up their own cattle, which for a short time were simply withdrawn from them and transferred to the areas affected by Hitler’s occupation. What it turned out for donor areas you can imagine. Particularly affected areas such as Kuybyshev, Ulyanovsk, Penza, Astrakhan. In fact, their livestock was hit, comparable to the German occupation.

And, of course, in the country socialist competition was announced for who will return more cattle to the West. As a result, on 1 in January 1944, the collective farms of the liberated areas were returned 630,8 thousand livestock instead of the planned 591,5 thousand. In addition, the state purchased and sold the collective farms of the liberated areas 250,6 thousand of various livestock. In the areas affected by the occupation, 886,8 thousand calves and lambs were received to recruit livestock farms instead of those provided by 604 thousand, more than 516 thousand hens, ducks, geese, ie almost 17 thousand heads of poultry more than was set by the government.

Thus, the Azerbaijani collective farmers transferred about 4,5 thousand heads of cattle to the Stalingrad region. Georgian 26 sent thousands of livestock to Ukraine. 35 thousand livestock returned to the North Caucasus. In total, 1944 sent 1 720 thousand heads of cattle, 253 907 pigs, sheep and goats to 3 in January, which contributed to the revival of collective and state farm cattle breeding in the liberated areas and undermined it in areas not affected by the war. In total, about 1 million heads of cattle were transferred to the liberated areas, including more than XNUMX million cattle.

Successes on the front contributed to the success and in the rear. Already with 1944, yields began to increase gradually, the wool was grown, the loss of livestock decreased, and the number of pigs increased. The indicators of 1945 have become even more noticeable.


Theft of cattle from the Leningrad region

It should be emphasized that as a result of increased attention to small-scale livestock farming, such areas as poultry farming and rabbit breeding have emerged as an independent branch of agricultural production and have significantly improved the country's nutritional structure.

In the rear areas, pig and horse breeding suffered the most. The number of horses in the country by 1945 was reduced by 10,7 million heads, or 49%, and by 9 million heads it decreased in areas of the Nazi occupation.

During the war years, mandatory deliveries of livestock products to the state were strictly controlled and naturally increased. In general, during the war years, due to increased slaughter, it received on average 17,8% more cattle meat per year than on average before the war, and 2,2 times more sheep and goat meat. And here's an interesting question, with a mass case, lack of food and a lack of feed due to which all this was achieved? After all, even in the most difficult year for agriculture 1943, the collective and state farms of the country handed over to the state almost as much meat (686,3 ths. Tons) as in 1940 (691,5 thsd tons) for compulsory deliveries. And if in the early years of the war, meat deliveries on a higher scale could have been achieved by slaughtering the evacuated cattle, and in 1944 — 1945. there was no such source, and then the question arises, where did they get this most extra livestock, from whom? The answer can be only one - among collective farmers who raised their own livestock with greater efficiency than the collective farm herd, and put in such circumstances that they simply had to hand it over to the state.


Theft of cattle from the Leningrad region

And then in 1943 — 1945. in the western territories of the USSR liberated from the enemy, the restoration of the 3093 MTS was started, where, again, from the central regions of the country, the Volga region and Siberia, by the end of 1945 more than 26 thousand tractors, 40 thousand other agricultural machines and more 3 million cattle were received. The result is known to us: if we look at the map of the economic development of the USSR, it is easy to see that its most developed and economically successful republics, except for the republics of the Caucasus, were Ukraine (including Western Ukraine), Moldova, Belarus and the Baltic states, being!

P.S. By the way, about the evacuation of livestock during the Great Patriotic War, you could make an excellent movie with a fascinating plot.
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  1. Streletskos
    Streletskos 28 February 2018 05: 14
    +19
    then few people thought that they would have to resort to such cattle driving
    game ... for the 20th century
    as in the days of Attila
    but people overcame everything
  2. XII Legion
    XII Legion 28 February 2018 07: 01
    +18
    Livestock is an important element of the national economy.
    And the hardest hit
    Not only people, but also animals suffered
    In the name of a common victory
    Thank you!
  3. Amurets
    Amurets 28 February 2018 07: 16
    +2
    And if in the first years of the war meat deliveries in increased sizes could be carried out due to the slaughter of the evacuated cattle, and in 1944-1945. such a source was no longer there, and the question arises, where did they get this extra cattle from whom? There can only be one answer - among the collective farmers who raised their own livestock with greater efficiency than the collective farm herd, and placed in such circumstances that they simply had to surrender it to the state.

    Shakhurin also wrote well about this as the workers of aircraft factories were provided with products. And in quite a bit of detail: “I recall the winter of 1941/42, when the situation was particularly difficult with food and supplies for workers. In some factories of the Urals and Siberia, bread was mixed with bark and bran, people suffered from vitamin deficiency.
    Here is a document dated February 1942, addressed to the designer S.V. Ilyushin:
    “The nutritional status of the workers is very poor. Even bread has been lacking in recent days. Workers are often given only one plate of“ dumplings ”- water with flour ... There is an urgent need for clothes and shoes, especially for Leningraders who arrived lightly and for adolescents from vocational schools and the Federal Law "..... When it was especially difficult with meat products, hunting brigades were created in the factories, which were shooting wild animals. At the Ural plant once received a license to shoot 150 moose. Moose carcasses were transported by air. The meat was transferred to working canteens and kindergartens. And in the village of Kalinniki, a factory team was fishing, supplying workers with fish. But the main deliveries of meat and dairy products came from stocking, decentralized procurement and subsidiary plots. "This is only part of the chapter" Life of Aircraft Builders ", but it also shows how hard it was to forge victory weapons. The crankshafts limited the output of engines. The bottleneck in them the manufacture was a grinding operation for the central necks. The operation was difficult and complicated, it was performed by highly skilled workers, whom I knew well. I asked the grinders Gorbunov and Abramov to increase the processing per shift (11 hours) at least by a half-cranked shaft.
    - We would have done it, comrade director, - Gorbunov responded, - but feed us at least good cabbage soup. You see how we are swollen, we can hardly drag our legs.
    After consulting with the ORS workers, I decided to slaughter several pigs that were available at the feed mill's feedlot. According to internal coupons, they organized meals for these workers. A week later, the plant increased the delivery of engines by one per day, and subsequently we further increased the production of engines necessary for the front.
    It is only necessary to say that we did not have the right to spend meat on our own at that time, the meat was distributed centrally. A big trouble awaited us, but thanks to the intervention of the People's Commissar, everything worked out well. "
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 28 February 2018 07: 55
      +1
      I liked the article very much! You can, of course, say that you didn’t have time, couldn’t do it here or there ..... However, most importantly, the Nazis in their plans didn’t expect anything at all from our evacuation, we thought that they would get absolutely all the resources !!! !
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 28 February 2018 07: 16
    +1
    I was impressed by the photo of the train .... pigs!
    Cows, horses, understandably, but pigs!
    What could reach the end? I think that nothing ....
    1. bubalik
      bubalik 28 February 2018 14: 04
      0
      I was impressed by the photo of the train .... pigs! What could reach the end? I think that nothing ....

      For 1941 – 1942 2390 thousand cattle were evacuated,
      of which: 914 thousand cows; 186 thousand pigs, Xnumx thousand sheep and goats, xnumx thousand horses,
      The history of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union 1941 - 1945
      In 6 Vol. 2
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 28 February 2018 15: 24
        0
        Quote: bubalik
        186 thousand pigs,

        but not under its own power?
    2. Weyland
      Weyland 28 February 2018 23: 16
      +1
      Quote: Olgovich
      Cows, horses, understandably, but pigs!

      That is yes. Why in Ukraine pigs became the main object of breeding? Due to the constant raids of nomads: pigs cannot endure long transitions, and it is pointless to steal them (so this rule worked long before the bulk of the hostile nomads Islamized).
      1. your1970
        your1970 1 March 2018 09: 26
        0
        in the Aleksandrovo-Gaysky district (1941), a herd of pigs went roughly 150 km from the Volga into the war. A barge arrived, drove away from it and drove to its new homeland ...
  5. andrewkor
    andrewkor 28 February 2018 07: 24
    +4
    I don’t know which category of pack animals?
    ND Yakovlev, head of the GAU during the Second World War, pack companies in the Caucasus: "In each of them (units), in addition to drovers, there were an average of 100 donkeys. These are hardy animals, although they had a small load (up to 40 kg. each donkey), were literally indispensable on narrow mountain ropes.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 28 February 2018 08: 38
      +3
      Quote: andrewkor
      These hardy animals, although they had a small load (up to 40 kg for each donkey), were literally indispensable on narrow mountain ropes.

      I will not look for quotes, V. Gneushev "The Secret of the Marukh Glacier" writes about the same. As for the defenders of the passes: Naursky, Kluorsky Marukhsky, local Svans helped with their donkeys. So yes there were such participants in the war. And you answered the question yourself: CURRENCY and there were modifications of weapons, which were called mining packs
      1. andrewkor
        andrewkor 28 February 2018 09: 16
        +1
        You, of course, are talking about the standard armament of mountain rifle units, but I'm talking about military improvisation and the urgent need to use all the resources that were at hand in a difficult time. I didn’t touch on the topic of cavalry and horse-drawn artillery, this is far from cattle. , I asked a question to which I doubted how to answer. Thank you for not being left without attention.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 28 February 2018 09: 34
          +3
          Quote: andrewkor
          You, of course, are talking about the standard armament of mountain rifle units, but I'm talking about military improvisation and the urgent need to use all the resources that were at hand in a difficult time.

          I mean that 810; The 811 and 812 joint ventures were ordinary rifle regiments armed with conventional weapons aimed at defending the passes of the Main Caucasus Range, and local highlanders and their animals, who were engaged in transporting everything necessary, including weapons, helped to defend.
          1. Reptiloid
            Reptiloid 28 February 2018 10: 25
            +1
            I recollected some old children's book, how camels passed through the city in winter ??? and from their wool grandmother knitted mittens and sent ours to the front.
            1. Amurets
              Amurets 28 February 2018 10: 33
              +1
              Quote: Reptiloid
              and from their wool grandmother knitted mittens and sent ours to the front.

              Dima! Camel hair is very warm and practical. I had a sweater from it, then there was one flaw, a strong unpleasant smell
              1. Reptiloid
                Reptiloid 28 February 2018 17: 42
                +1
                Yeah, interesting. I have never met. I recalled this childhood story that it was in Siberia ..... ??? How, where did these camels during the Second World War ?? It is interesting that often I remember such articles that I forgot to think about and wouldn’t remember. Sometimes seen, read, and sometimes someone’s words .... Very strange ...
                1. your1970
                  your1970 28 February 2018 19: 42
                  +3
                  Quote: Reptiloid
                  How, where are these camels during WWII ??
                  - from Kalmykia, Stalingrad, Astrakhan-evacuated from Kazakhstan and Mongolia -
                  A rather unpretentious animal, very strong, a lot of meat when slaughtered once, very (!!!) warm wool, much warmer than sheep. For the army as a draft animal it’s not very fit, an individual camel to harness a couple like horses or bulls is almost impossible, one can drag almost like a bull (well, a little smaller) - and this is really a lot, horses are much weaker. Well, and burrows - he doesn’t want to, you can force, but he will drink blood, the driver must be morally stronger - the camel is an Asian animal.

                  The strong smell of camel wool is a violation of the technology of harvesting and processing. Usually the smell is like from products made of sheep’s wool — it smells wet, dry barely
                  I came across a photo of Leningrad (!!) (1944-45) with a column of camels walking through the city ..
                  1. Cetron
                    Cetron 1 March 2018 21: 36
                    0
                    Recently I saw a photo of camels from the artillery in Berlin on the 45th.
                2. Amurets
                  Amurets 28 February 2018 23: 27
                  +3
                  Quote: Reptiloid
                  I recalled this childhood story that it was in Siberia ....

                  Dima! At the end of the XNUMXth century, at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, camels were used to deliver goods to Zeya mines. The benefit was twofold, cargo was delivered, usually flour, cereals, tobacco, and camels went for meat. In the photo: Camels in Blagoveshchensk.

                  your1970
                  The strong smell of camel wool is a violation of the technology of harvesting and processing. Usually the smell is like from products made of sheep’s wool — it smells wet, dry barely
                  It is from a wet sweater when washing or when you sweat a lot.
                  1. Reptiloid
                    Reptiloid 1 March 2018 05: 36
                    +1
                    Good day to you, Nikolai! Camels ----- from the mines !!!!! There are memories of Blagoveshchensk, Birobidzhan, Vyazemsky, Nikolaevsk on the Amur ..... Now it is difficult to imagine camels in the streets.
                    Especially in Leningrad ....
                    1. Amurets
                      Amurets 1 March 2018 06: 25
                      0
                      Quote: Reptiloid
                      There are memories of Blagoveshchensk, Birobidzhan, Vyazemsky, Nikolaevsk on the Amur ...

                      Dima! It is even more difficult to imagine them in the snow of Siberia and the Far East. American author's book: "The Journey of the American on the Trans-Siberian Railway / 1894-1896 //"
                      1. Reptiloid
                        Reptiloid 1 March 2018 07: 39
                        +1
                        Probably, these amazing animals can live in any climate, but they "chose" the desert, thanks for the unique photos, Nikolai.
                      2. your1970
                        your1970 1 March 2018 09: 26
                        +1
                        Mongolia's climate is very harsh, large temperature differences, strong winds
  6. BAI
    BAI 28 February 2018 09: 20
    +4
    Successes on the front contributed to the success and in the rear. Already with 1944, yields began to increase gradually, the wool was grown, the loss of livestock decreased, and the number of pigs increased. The indicators of 1945 have become even more noticeable.


    Camels reached Berlin.
  7. Huumi
    Huumi 28 February 2018 11: 20
    +1
    In Germany, so many cattle roamed at 45! -Tobuns of non-milking cows. According to the words of Russia, there were no cattle left, they all raked out. There would be no sending escheons with him back to Russia, and there was only one transport! There were trains with ammunition and everything Germany, if they had set up and sent the same empty trains with cattle back but ... Everyone was on the drum, and empty cars went to Russia back and the cattle doh were not fed milking by the thousands ...
    1. thinker
      thinker 28 February 2018 11: 34
      +4
      What empty cars, they themselves came up with.
      According to the report, the USSR seized property worth over 66 billion marks of the GDR ($ 15,8 billion) from its occupation zone and subsequently from the GDR. According to the General Trophy Administration, published in the 1990s by Russian researchers, in the USSR, in particular, 72 thousand wagons of building materials, about 3 thousand factories, 96 power plants, 340 thousand machine tools, 200 thousand electric motors, 1 million 335 thousand head of cattle, 2,3 million tons of grain.

      http://tass.ru/info/1854338
      1. Huumi
        Huumi 28 February 2018 16: 20
        +1
        I don’t know what the veteran said in reports that he himself saw-to Germany-full trains-back-empty and cattle dozed off. He himself saw how empty trains left — that surprised him pretty much. The soldiers would want to eat — or they would shoot a pig or a cow - the leg is chopped off and the rest is lying around - rotting
        1. your1970
          your1970 28 February 2018 19: 49
          +2
          Quote: Huumi
          He himself saw how empty trains departed back.
          -And he apparently knew what it was — a traffic plan, a plan for the formation of trains, where trains are formed, where they are sorted, at which stations it is possible to load, where are the docking stations and other railway wisdom ???

          And that's how veteran tales are born .... "I saw it myself !!!" - but what about, the holy truth .....

          I would try someone in the NKPS just to drive away an empty car during the war - yeah ...
    2. bubalik
      bubalik 28 February 2018 13: 24
      +3
      Empty cars were on everyone’s drum.

      ,,, never went empty, example:

      In 1943, 133 799 freight cars were sent to the deep rear, of which 21 114 weapons and property cars and 112 685 scrap cars

      Archive of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR, f. 67, op. 264796, d. 119, l Xnumx

      Order of the NPO On the procedure for using captured national economic property from January 19 to 1945
      Order of the NPO On the Formation of Working Battalions and Herds of Cattle from 29 January 1945
  8. nnz226
    nnz226 28 February 2018 14: 55
    +4
    Yes, that only the Russian people could not bear !!! And anyway - WIN!
  9. Looking for
    Looking for 28 February 2018 16: 20
    0
    Quote: andrewkor
    These hardy animals, although they had a small load (up to 40 kg for each donkey), were literally indispensable on narrow mountain ropes.

    I don’t understand something. Otherwise, I don’t imagine a donkey like with an Uzbek. Tajik or Shurik on it. But a person weighs a lot more than 40 kg.