The nuclear aircraft carrier CVN-78 USS "Gerald Ford" is still the same "aircraft carrier", equipped with a very primitive shipboard SAM "SeaRAM" and ESSM in a simplified version. It is worth noting that the “carrier-based” modification of the “Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile” employs an inclined two-module PU Mk 29 mod 4 / 5, each module of which is a quad TPK (total 8 anti-aircraft missiles). Unlike the ESSM used on the Arley Burke, the aircraft carrier uses a simplified RIM-162D SAM, which is not equipped with an OVT gas jet system, which means it has less maneuverability
PROBLEM OF MODERNIZATION OF RUSSIAN Fleet: AS FRIGATES PR. 22350 AND PROJECT SHIPS OF PROJECT 22160 WILL IMPROVE NET-CENTRIC FLEXIBILITY OF THE BLACK SEA AND THE BALTIC NAVIES
A very wide range of encouraging information about the programs for updating the naval staff of the Russian Navy, as well as the modernization of existing warships, pleased the leading Russian news and analytical online publications over the past two years. For example, for the planned transfer of such surface warships as 5 frigates, pr. 3 (Admiral Gorshkov, Admiral Kasatonov and Admiral Golovko) to the Navy of Russia in the next 22350 years, as well as 5 patrol ships of the far sea 22160 pr. zones (Vasily Bykov, Dmitry Rogachev, Pavel Derzhavin) make rather serious bets, as they are capable of fundamentally changing the anti-ballistic and anti-submarine contours of small ship strike groups assigned to the Black Sea and Northern Fleets.
So, for example, 3 of the first frigate of the 22350 project (including the head Admiral Gorshkov) equipped with the Redut shipboard anti-aircraft missile systems of the long range are designed to reinforce the “anti-missile umbrella” of the operational and strategic association of the Federation Council during the passage of a heavy missile cruiser 11442M "Admiral Nakhimov" comprehensive modernization of weapons on the stocks of OAO PO Sevmash. The Admiral Nakhimov TARK is expected to return to the upgraded “Calibers”, “Onyxes” and “Redoubt” no earlier than the middle of the 2021 year, while today the far-off air defense of the Northern Fleet is provided only thanks to its sistership “Peter the Great”.
The problem is that “Peter the Great” is armed with 1 ZRK S-300F, “Zent” 1 — 300-fly objects) cannot work on remote aerial targets outside of a radio horizon. The 48M6DM anti-aircraft missiles (must be tested in the near future and entered into the Redoubts ammunition) are capable of hitting a much larger list of targets, including over-the-horizon, as well as ballistic, anti-aircraft maneuvers. These interceptor missiles are equipped with “gas-dynamic belts” of transverse control engines, by analogy with “Aster-48” and MIM-6F MSE, which makes it possible to reach the maneuvering target using the “throwing” method with overloads up to 2 - 6,6G, realizing the principle of kinetic destruction with a direct hit Hit-to-kill All other advantages of the shipboard Redoubts aboard the 4,5 Avenue frigates consist in obtaining target designation from 5-sided multi-purpose Polymer radars, which have an important advantage over the staffing AN / SPY-9D, consisting in the X-band operation. As is known, this (centimeter) range allows not only to tie up the tracks of air objects, but also to capture them for accurate auto tracking, which in practice provides illumination of targets for anti-aircraft missiles with semi-active radar seeker, as well as improved targeting accuracy for missiles with active RSGSN.
In open sources, it is indicated that the total target canal of the four webs of phased arrays of the Polyment radar complex consists of 16 targets (4 units per web), and therefore the 3 frigate of this project, intended for the SF, will be equivalent to the air defense and missile defense tasks of the upper line 4 atomic cruisers of the 11442 Ave. (two “Three Hundreds” of each of them are capable of firing at only 12 targets). Among the positive features of the new frigates, it is impossible not to mention the advanced onboard radio-electronic "stuffing" built around the combat information and control system "Sigma-22350" with an open architecture and a tactical information exchange station via encrypted radio channels. This allows hardware upgrades of equipment, as well as updating the software of anti-submarine and anti-aircraft subsystems even in combat conditions. As for the modules for the exchange of tactical information about underwater, surface and air situations, each Sigma surface ship operator and other advanced CICS will automatically be integrated into a common network-centric network, which allows you to avoid the hamlet principle when repelling enemy anti-ship missiles or striking according to enemy targets. In a simpler language, in the ship grouping of the frigates of 22350 Ave., united in a network-centric network, the erroneous seizure of the same target by the "Polyment-Redut" complexes of several ships is excluded. As a result: saving ammunition and the release of additional target channels "Reduta."
In the near future, the Black Sea Fleet will also receive a noticeable increase in combat potential due to the commissioning of the above patrol ships of the distant maritime sea zone of the 22160 Vasily Bykov project. These warships, despite the small displacement within 1800 tons and length in 94 m (equivalent to the class "corvette"), have a very impressive arsenal of anti-submarine and anti-aircraft weapons, as well as decent radar and sonar equipment. For example, as a shipborne radar detector on patrols, radar with PFAR “Positiv-МЭ1” with a target detection range with an 3 EPR radar is used. m order 110 km. It is synchronized with all PC X XUMUM armament complexes, and has modes: detecting and tracking large air targets at the instrumental range of 22160 km, detecting and tracking surface targets (including over-the-horizon with increased refraction), determining state ownership using the integrated interrogator, classifying the target according to degree of threat and level of priority, as well as in the mode of target distribution and diagnosis of the performance of individual hardware radar units.
Ship-based anti-aircraft missile system “Shtil-1” can become the main consumer of the radar information “Positiv-МЭ1”. If the main modification for the Russian Navy will be the 22160 Avenue with “Stiel”, then for a patrol ship with such a small displacement, the presence of such an anti-aircraft missile system is simply unique, because usually “Stiel-1” is the main anti-aircraft component of surface ships of the “frigate” class , for example, pr. 11356 "Admiral Grigorovich." In the 24-x transport-launch containers MS-487, 2 grouped below deck vertical launchers 3S90E.1 must place anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M317ME, equipped with a gas jet control system and a high-torque, and "long-playing» 2-regime's solid rocket motors.
Due to this, the speed of the new missile defense system for the “crumpled” Buka reached 5580 km / h (comparable to C-300PS and 5B55Р rockets), and the efficiency of the gas-jetting system of the ORT remains unchanged. Equipping the missile with an active radar homing head makes it possible to fire at targets hiding outside the radio horizon, and also to continue intercepting the object even if it is hidden behind the elevations of the terrain at the moment the patrol ship performs the operation near the coast. No less important detail is the ability of 9М317МЭ to strike at surface and coastal radio-contrast objects, including ships of the main classes, missile boats, armored vehicles, as well as armored vehicles and coastal artillery.
The Shtil-1 air defense system also has some drawbacks related to the maximum speed of the target being hit in 830 m / s, while the 9М317М rocket as part of the Buk-M3 ground-based system operates at speeds in 2800 m / s. This is due to the speed limits inherent in the radar software for highlighting the OP-3 (popularly “Nut”). At the same time, for a ship of this class it is more than offset by good anti-submarine abilities. So, the hydroacoustic appearance of the patrol ships of the 22160 Ave. will be represented by three HSCs at once. First, it is a hydro-acoustic station “Vignette-EM” based on a low-frequency flexible extended towed antenna with a frequency of 0,015 - 0,5 kHz, 64-channel bandwidth and the possibility of direction finding of sound-emitting sources in the second far zone of acoustic illumination. Secondly, this is an in-situ hydroacoustic complex MGC-335EM-03, designed for direction finding of enemy submarines in the near zone of acoustic illumination (from 3 to 5 and from 5 to 12 km) with the possibility of communicating with the crew of a submarine of the enemy on hydroacustral 1500 km) with the possibility of communicating with the crew of the submarine of the enemy on hydroacoustological subscriber units for hydro acoustic of the subscriber unit. The complex operates in the frequency range from 7000 to 500 Hz. Thirdly, this is the anti-sabotage hydroacoustic complex "Pallas", designed to detect underwater swimmers at a distance of XNUMX m.
All information from the above mentioned hydroacoustic complexes is aggregated and output to the CUUS terminals of the patrol ships of the 22160 project in the form of generalized information about the tactical underwater situation, after which targeting of the most priority targets can be sent to the indicator terminal of the operator responsible for the Kalib-NK universal shooting complex, presented by two lifting quadruple container 3C14УК2 PU. In addition to 3M54E anti-ship missiles and 3М14Т strategic cruise missiles, these 533-mm launchers can use 91РЭ2 Caliber-NKE anti-submarine missiles that attack enemy submarines at 40 km. For fire work with the use of PLUR 91РЭ2, surface ships must be equipped with an auxiliary combat information and control subsystem “Requirement-M” linked by a multiplex information exchange bus with the Vignetka-EM and MGC-335EM-03 hydroacoustic systems.
Meanwhile, updating the fleets with the above-described surface ship projects will improve exclusively the defensive qualities of the naval strike groups of the Russian Navy at local sea / ocean TVDs, and even then at a minimum distance from the Russian coast, where substantial support can be provided from multi-role fighters and anti-submarine aircraft of the Marine aviation Russian Navy. It should be recognized that the Russian fleet is currently not ready for large-scale naval clashes with the NATO and US Navy in remote parts of the World Ocean, and will not be ready until at least 8 nuclear destroyers of the Leader Ave. 23560–3 heavy aircraft carriers of the 4 Storm project and more than 23000-10 modernized frigates of the 15M Super-Gorshkov project, not to mention the need to accelerate the pace of serial production of promising multi-purpose nuclear submarines of the 22350M Yasen-M project. At the same time, the situation with the number of modern surface ships and submarines in service with the Russian Navy leaves much to be desired, and it would be much more expedient to analyze the capabilities of the same Northern Fleet in the confrontation with aircraft carrier strike groups of the US Navy, led by the latest nuclear-powered aircraft carriers of the Gerald Ford class, on the closer approaches to our western maritime borders.
ARE THE NORTHERN FLEET OF THE NAVY OF RUSSIA AND THE VKS ARE READY TO TAKE UP WITH THE STRENGTHENED AUG OF NATOVSKY FLEETS?
Questions about the outcome of a possible collision between our only AUG headed by the Admiral Kuznetsov TAKR and one or more AUGs of the US Navy are regularly raised by our observers and military experts in comments on various analytical resources and in countless forums dedicated to naval topics. This is not surprising, because the outcome of such a confrontation, for example, in the southern part of the Norwegian Sea, will depend on the inviolability of the conditional zone of restriction and prohibition of access and maneuver A2 / AD, established around the most important strategic facilities of the Northern Fleet in the Murmansk region. In simpler language, if one or several American AUGs are southeast of Jan Mayen Island (Norway), the Northern Fleet will protect its strategic hubs in the northern part of the Murmansk region from massed air strikes of deck aircraft of the US Navy operating from the North Atlantic. The fact is that the total depth of impact of deck multipurpose F / A-18E / F "Super Hornet" fighter jets using AGM-158B JASSM-ER tactical long-range cruise missiles can be around 1900 km (medium range + plus JASSM missile range Er).
From this it is not difficult to conclude that any USG AUVMS should be disabled even off the western shores of Iceland. If, however, we consider the option that the United States carrier-based aviation uses AGM-84H SLAM-ER high-precision long-range missiles, the above-mentioned depth of the Super Hornets will decrease to 1100 — 1200 km, and the maximum allowable destruction limit of the AUG will move to the northern areas of the Norwegian Sea. The containment of American aircraft carrier groups on the above lines is a critically necessary operational and strategic measure, since the C-300PM1 and C-400 air defense regiments that cover Murmansk and Severomorsk will definitely face a huge amount of air attack weapons (Tomahawks, AGM-X-X). D CALCM) to intercept. Adding to this list also hundreds of “Super Hornets” with rocket armament on hangers can finally “add up” even a powerful “anti-missile umbrella” over Murmansk.
F / A-18E "Super Hornet" with a tactical missile AGM-84H SLAM-ER at the point of suspension
In determining the acceptable range and quantity of anti-ship / anti-submarine weapons for the destruction of the American AUG, aimed at blocking our naval strike groups in the North Atlantic, it is necessary to take into account a number of important points.
Firstly, in view of the clear understanding by the command of the US Navy and Allied Naval Forces of the capabilities of our Navy and Airborne Forces, the carrier group will be represented by more than one “Gerald Ford” and a standard order of escort from the 2-x missile cruisers of URO class “Ticonderoga” and 4-x destroyers URO class "Arleigh Burke". Our only carrier strike grouping of the Northern Fleet will be opposed by a reinforced carrier carrier consisting of at least two aircraft carriers of the Gerald Ford and Nimitz classes, as well as one aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy of Great Britain, R08 HMS Queen Elizabeth. His R09 HMS “Prince of Wales” sistership is likely to remain in the North Sea to control the southern part of the Baltic Sea with the F-35B Wing, because under the conditions of war and domination of our VCS over the Baltic, flights of hulking Rivets of Joint with a large EPR will become impossible.
As a warrant of escort 3 of the above aircraft carriers, at least four Ticonderogs, six Arleigh Burks, two or three British destroyers Type 45 "Daring", several Type 23 "Global Combat Ship" frigates and ships tankers. Among the underwater components of the enemy, covering the enhanced AUG, one can mention such multipurpose nuclear submarines as Astute, Virginia, and also Los Angeles (more than 26 - 12 units). Possessing a minimum level of noise, these attack submarine cruisers will hunt our "aircraft carrier killers" - MAPL of 15A Antey Ave. (the latter’s task is to preempt NATO aircraft strategic operational associations until the surface component approaches). And this “hunt” cannot be called ineffective even in advance, since it is known that the level of acoustic secrecy in 949A pr. (By modern standards) leaves much to be desired.
So, Arleigh Burke class URO destroyers, using advanced in-situ sonar systems AN / SQQ-89 (V) 10-15, will be able to detect "Antei" (at full speed) up to the second far zone of acoustic illumination (70 - 120 km) in normal hydrological conditions, which is associated with the absence of such an option as a water-jet propulsion unit and a less perfect 2-cascade depreciation of the propulsion system, while on more modern MAPL three-stage depreciation. Consequently, to evade the enemy’s passive hydroacoustic equipment (including the RSL dropped from Poseidon P-8A) and successfully launch 24 heavy anti-ship missiles at the above described AUG, our “anti-aircraft” submarine strike cruisers K-119 Voronezh, K -410 "Smolensk" and K-226 "Eagle" must perform combat duty in advance at slow speed on the path of the enemy's mixed AUG approach. And even such tactics cannot guarantee the 100% disabling enemy carrier strike groups, since the main armament of 949 Ave. is not flawless anti-ship missile system 3K45 "Granit".
The 24М225 “Granit” heavy supersonic 3М45 “Granit” missiles deployed in 1,7-s inclined launchers of SM-0,5, despite the complex programmable distribution of 2-flywheel missiles between targets, depending on the degree of threat and the presence of on-board EW missiles on board, have a large radar signature (EP) to 162 m174), and also not the best G-limit in making anti-aircraft maneuvers, which makes them extremely vulnerable to modern anti-aircraft guided missiles of the US Navy RIM-156 ESSM, RIM-30 ERAM, RIM-10B, as well as Aster-18 "Applied british class destroyers "Daring". Considering that the protection order for the above enhanced AUG will be 3 "Aegis" cruisers / destroyers with 45 target channels each, and at least 12 X Type 216 destroyers with 18 target channels each (ship PAAMS air defense system) enemy attacks can amount to 2 units.! And this is not taking into account the capabilities of the F / A-XNUMXE / F links raised in the air to intercept anti-ship missiles approaching the AUG, the coordinates of which will be transmitted to Super Hornet E-XNUMXD Advanced Hawkeye.
“Granites” will be detected by Hokai at a distance of about 180 - 200 km, after which targeting will be sent both to the Aegis and the deck fighter aircraft via the JTIDS channel, therefore, there will be more than 72 minutes to intercept 4 anti-ship missiles what "Aegis" will do perfectly well. Conclusion: the use of bulky and low-maneuverable "Granites" with a large EOP and a height of about 50 m against modern anti-aircraft interceptors such as RIM-162 ESSM is absolutely unpromising. A similar conclusion holds for the Granit anti-ship / multi-purpose complexes deployed onboard the Peter the Great TARK (20 missiles) and the Admiral Kuznetsov TAKR (12 missiles). As for the 1164 "Marshal Ustinov" missile cruiser (class "Atlant"), its upgraded anti-ship complex П-1000 "Vulkan" with 16 missiles 3М70, at first glance, looks a bit more serious. Unlike the early 4K77 “Basalt” missiles, the 3М70 are equipped with a much more modern А21 autopilot running the onboard computer B9. The new “brain” made it possible to reduce the flying height from 50 to 12 — 20 m, which significantly reduced the range of the radio horizon for the enemy’s ship’s air defense systems. But in general, the situation is not in favor of the Vulcan, because the radar visibility and dimensions of this rocket are even larger than those of the Granit 3М45.
The issue of 279-th separate naval fighter air regiment deployed on the heavy aircraft carrier “Admiral Kuznetsov”, we have already considered in our previous reviews. Mounted on heavy carrier-based fighter-bomber Su-33 outdated onboard radar N001 with antenna array Cassegrain and low noise immunity, as well as ancient RLPK-27K (not unified with modern missiles of aerial combat RVV-SD) will not be allowed to win the superiority even over 1 / 6 from common carrier-based air group located on aircraft carriers enhanced by the United NATO Navy AUG. The entire air group on 3-x aircraft carriers will be approximately 130 multifunctional F / A-18E / F fighters with AFAR radar AN / APG-79 and long-range AIM-120D, 20 “Growler” missiles, as well as 22-30, and the X-chrome. and vertical landing of the F-35B aboard the British Queen Elizabeth.
There is simply nothing to oppose the Admiral Kuznetsov air regiment. Moreover, at that time, as the software of the Super Hornets' weapons control complex was already adapted to use AGM-158C LRASM anti-ship missiles, our deck "Dryers" did not adapt to the use of X-2 "Mosquito" X-41 anti-ship missiles . Unfortunately, neither the defensive nor the shock capabilities (using air-to-surface guided missiles) Su-33 can distinguish today; the ultimate dream is a more or less high-precision bombardment of ground targets due to the installation of the specialized computing subsystem SVP-24-33 "Hephaestus" on some machines. Conclusion: With the current equipment of the Su-279, the 33-th OKIAP cannot seriously affect the outcome of the collision between our and NATO aircraft carrier strike groups, and can only partially cover the long-range approaches to the AUG, led by Admiral Kuznetsov, from anti-ship modifications of missile missiles "Tomahawk" - RGM / UGM-109B TASM ("Tomahawk Anti-Ship Missile"), and even then with the risk of being destroyed in long-range air duels with "Super Hornet" and F-35B.
The only axiom that can be derived from all of the above, looks very simple. For the destruction of NATO's enhanced aircraft carrier group in the waters of the North Atlantic, an integrated strategic anti-ship and anti-submarine operation involving ultra-low-noise multipurpose nuclear submarines of the 885 / M Yasen / -M project and other 971 Shchuka-B, as well as dozens of tactical units will be required. aviation with supersonic anti-ship missiles X-31AD on suspensions. Su-35С in conjunction with Su-34 can become the most suitable machines here.
Two types of machines are able to form an excellent multifunctional "tandem" in which each can perform both an anti-ship strike and a standoff with an airborne enemy at an average distance. In the same turn, the Su-35C will be able to cover the “thirty-four” in long-range air combat with the deck F / A-18E / F and F-35B, which Su-33 has not dreamed of. But this ability today is “hanging in the air” due to the unclear prospects of the RVV-AE-PD air combat missile project with an integral rocket-ramjet engine, which has been suspended in 2012 year. To carry out an unprecedented anti-ship mission against NATO AUG in the North Atlantic, the air bases of the Severomorsk-3, Severomorsk-1 and Kipelovo can be used, where the necessary number of Su-35С and Su-34 can be redeployed. Pike-B and Yaseni-M will be able to reach their full potential due to the extremely high acoustic secrecy that allows you to get to the enemy's AUG on 220 — 350 km and produce deadly volleys with subtle and highly maneuverable 3X54E and Onyx anti-ship missiles. Already it will be much easier for them to do this than for the Antheans.