Military Review

Under the northern lights

18



October 1941 Shel fifth month of the war, the enemy occupied the Baltic republics, most of Belarus and Ukraine, came close to Moscow. The front line stretched from the Barents to the Black Sea. In the Karelian direction, the fascist rushed to Murmansk and Kandalaksha, trying to cut off the Kola Peninsula from the mainland and deprive the Northern Fleet of naval bases.

5 October 1941 The Arkhangelsk Party Committee appealed to the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) with a proposal to use riding reindeer as vehicles on the northern sector of the front. In Moscow, the initiative was supported. And they decided to supply 6000 sledges, 1200 cargo and sledges with harness from the Nenetsky District for the needs of the Karelian Front, and also organize 600 mushers no later than 01 in January 1942.

Under the northern lights


22 November 1941, military commissioner of the Nenets Autonomous District Panov S.Е. received an order according to which deer, people and even dogs were mobilized.

The first to begin the implementation of the order in the Canino-Timansky area, there simultaneously began to form 1, 2 and 3-th echelons. The commanders were appointed: I. Dyatyatev, S. Panyukov, I. Taleev. Each of them was subordinate to 100 people who served under 1000 deer. They had to go from Nizhnyaya Pesha to Arkhangelsk, the pace of movement was set 50 km per day. It was November, the month of great darkness, there were terrible frosts. Beating out of their strength, people and deer marched to the front, in conditions of complete off-road, the trains could get through 10-15 km per day. Every day, every minute of this journey was a feat.

At that time, the 4 echelon began to take shape in Kotkino, the Preobrazhensky B.V. For three days, four teams were formed. Transfiguration brought to the collection site 2 500 riding deer.

The zootechnician scientist Boris Veniaminovich published a large number of articles and works on reindeer husbandry, was the winner of the Stalin Prize 2 degree (1951), the holder of the Order of Honor, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences (1954). He was proud of the medal "For Valiant Labor during the Great Patriotic War," received "for organizing reindeer-ski battalions for the Red Army."


According to the norms of nutrition, each participant of the train per day was entitled 900 gr. Bread, 20 gr. Flour, 140 gr. Gr., 30 gr. Pasta, 150 gr. Meat, 20 gr. Vegetable oil, 35 gr. Sugar, gr. 1 tea gr. , shag 20 gr., for a month were given three boxes of matches. However, the ration was calculated taking into account the fact that all echelons were to come to Arkhangelsk by the first of January. But even the first three echelons, which were formed the closest to Arkhangelsk, arrived late in a fortnight.

Now few are able to overcome the road that deers and people walked. The hardest way lasted thousands of miles. Echelons went to places with no fodder, deer fell exhausted and were laid on sledges, while the shepherds themselves walked alongside, on foot. According to the laws of wartime, the loss of a deer was punished severely. Only in the middle of January, when the trains approached Arkhangelsk, did people and deer get eight days of rest.

For further training, people and deer are identified in the 295 th regiment, which is formed in Rikasihi and Shikharih, here are also mobilized fighters of the ski battalions.



During the fighting of the Karelian Front, the reindeer-ski battalions passed through the rear of the enemy 16 thousand km, captured 47 "tongues", destroyed more than 4000 fascists, removed the reindeer sled 10 thousand wounded, transported more than 17 thousand military cargoes, delivered from the tundra 162 damaged aircraft. Forwarded to perform combat missions around 8000 guerrillas and military personnel, many - in the rear of the enemy.



Reindeer herders saved many lives of soldiers and commanders of the 14th Army and Northern fleet. The army leadership praised the contribution of the reindeer transport in achieving victory.

Commander of the 14 Army of the Karelian Front, Lieutenant-General Vladimir Ivanovich Shcherbakov:
Deer transport, existing in the 14 Army, for two years of World War II, fully justified themselves and are vital, in addition to other types of transport.



TSAMO Archive, 214 Foundation, 1437 Inventory, 537 Case, 387 Document

The military officers of that time, Konstantin Simonov and Yevgeny Petrov, reflected their impressions of the deer parts.
Or, passing in the immediate vicinity of the front line, you suddenly stop in front of the spectacle, from which the heart of any boy or geography lover will be beaten: a man in a peaked cap and a fur coat will ski down the mountain at the speed of a motorcycle. It rushes past you for a moment, wrapping a bony brown, wrinkled face towards you with no signs of vegetation. This is a reindeer driver, a Nenets, who came with his deer three thousand kilometers from the Bolshezemelskaya tundra to fight the Germans. Then you see a herd of deer. They are harnessed to long high sledges. The deer here bring ammunition to the scouts and take the wounded to the rear.
Evgeny Petrov RECORDS FROM CENTERS



Photo Archive TSAMO, 214 Foundation, 1437 Inventory, 2190 Case, 6 Document

After the Petsamo-Kirkenes operation, the remaining deer was transferred to the Polish state farm, only seven sled bulls returned to their native Nenets tundra.
Look into these eyes, they look carefully a little sad. The deer knows that he was born to serve man, to be his helper, friend. They had a difficult journey from the native tundra to Murmansk and the Karelian Front. The mushers are proud of their animals!


Monument “To the feat of the participants of the transport battalions during the Great Patriotic War”, Naryan-Mar.


Based on:
https://pamyat-naroda.ru/
http://www.nexplorer.ru/news__12277.htm
http://soldatnao.blogspot.ru/2014/12/3_13.html
http://www.soldat.ru/doc/gko/gko1941.html
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18 comments
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  1. Amurets
    Amurets 23 February 2018 07: 05
    +6
    Look into these eyes, they look carefully a little sad. The deer knows that he was born to serve man, to be his helper, friend. They had a difficult journey from the native tundra to Murmansk and the Karelian Front. The mushers are proud of their animals!
    Thank! Little is known about the war in the North, I mean the land front. Something about the defense of the peninsulas is in Ponochevychny and Kabanov. Pikul, in the novel "Ocean Patrol" has a little So you have to collect grains. Thanks to the author for opening another, little-known WWII page.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. bionik
      bionik 23 February 2018 08: 38
      +1
      Quote: Amurets
      Very little is known about the war in the North,

      "Arctic War on the rocks" Reference:
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j59Smmg5q9E In the film there is a mention of "deer parts".
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 23 February 2018 07: 43
    +4
    After the Petsamo-Kirkenes operation, the remaining deer were transferred to Polish state farm, only seven riding bulls returned to their native Nenets tundra.

    After the Petsamo-Kirkenes operation, the remaining deer was transferred to the Polish state farm, only seven sled bulls returned to their native Nenets tundra.
    Probably Kola?
    Now few are able to overcome the road that deer and people walked on. The hardest way lasted thousands of miles.
    Interestingly, did anyone follow this path after the war?
    1. verner1967
      verner1967 23 February 2018 07: 48
      +1
      Quote: Olgovich
      transferred to the Polish state farm

      yes, if this is not a mistake, it is clear where the thousands of captured Poles have gone)))) This is their place for the Tukhol camps.
    2. bubalik
      23 February 2018 09: 04
      +2
      Interestingly, did anyone follow this path after the war?
      Motor rally along the way deer deer army "deer army"
      http://dorogavnao.blogspot.ru/2014/03/72.html
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 23 February 2018 08: 01
    +5
    Northern war workers ... Thanks, author!
  4. baudolino
    baudolino 23 February 2018 09: 08
    +5
    It was always a pity for horses suffering in human showdowns. And then there are deer ...
  5. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 23 February 2018 09: 34
    +2
    A deer is a friend of man! Happy Anniversary, comrades!
  6. Curious
    Curious 23 February 2018 09: 37
    +4
    All with the Day of the Soviet Army and Navy.
  7. bionik
    bionik 23 February 2018 10: 10
    +5
    Reindeer are still relevant. As part of a separate Arctic motorized rifle brigade of the Northern Fleet, there is a special unit of motorized rifle on reindeer and dog teams. They regularly conduct exercises on the basis of reindeer husbandry in the area of ​​the village of Lovozero (Murmansk region), where they use local reindeer herders and mushers to practice the management of traditional modes of transport of the indigenous peoples of the north.

    1. Amurets
      Amurets 23 February 2018 12: 19
      0
      Unfortunately I did not find a photo where cadets master such transport
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. bionik
        bionik 23 February 2018 13: 06
        +1
        Quote: Amurets
        Unfortunately I did not find a photo where cadets master such transport

        Video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a-M5URpFrF0
        Photo.https: //structure.mil.ru/structure/forces/na
        vy/media/photo/[email protected]
        ry
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 23 February 2018 13: 55
          +1
          You gave links to the North Sea, and I was looking for similar shots of students of the DVOKU. Here I found on the TV channel "Star" .https: //tvzvezda.ru/news/forces/conten
          t / 201802081619-v74w.htm
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 23 February 2018 12: 23
      +2
      Quote: bionik
      Reindeer are still relevant. As part of a separate Arctic motorized rifle brigade of the Northern Fleet, there is a special unit of motorized rifle on reindeer and dog teams.

      So in DVOKU they began to prepare cadets at the Arctic faculty.
    3. Paranoid50
      Paranoid50 24 February 2018 00: 45
      +3
      Quote: bionik
      based on reindeer husbandry in the area of ​​the village of Lovozero

      Thank you, respect! hi As if twenty years ago he came back. In our unit, "cultural and business contacts" were established with the Lovozero reindeer herders. yes We went to them regularly for various needs. And from Lovozero, local artists came to us. I am glad that the economy exists to this day. Thanks again!
  8. vlad43
    vlad43 23 February 2018 12: 28
    +4
    Both dogs and horses and deer and camels fought, they all contributed to the Great Victory. And also deserve a good memory.
  9. Tests
    Tests 23 February 2018 20: 28
    +5
    Dear author! In accordance with the rules of the Russian language, it was necessary to write in RikasikhE and ShikharikhE. Please share links to documents stating that 295 reserve regiments were located precisely in these villages: Rikasikha and Shikharikha, Primorsky district, Arkhangelsk region. I heard from childhood that there was a regiment in the vicinity of the Rikasikha station (to the right and left of the Severodvinsk railway (during the war years Molotovsk) - Arkhangelsk) and in the village of the Old Believers Koroda (there is now SNT Belomor from Sevmash), on the western shore of Lake Korodskoye . Between Rikashikha village and Rikashikha station about 10 km ...
    Dear Amur! The journalist and maritime historian Oleg Borisovich Khimanych lives in Severodvinsk, for many years he has been working in the city weekly “Evening Severodvinsk,” he leads the “Ship side” section of the newspaper, he has traveled hundreds of miles on ships and ships across the Arctic seas, knows what he writes about. A few years ago Oleg Borisovich published the book "Forgotten Pages of the Great War in the North. The Altar of Victory." , on the cover of the photo of the famous Eugene Chaldea "Arctic, deer Yasha, 1941", it seems that this book can be ordered via the Internet.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 24 February 2018 01: 58
      0
      Quote: Tests
      The journalist and maritime historian Oleg Borisovich Khimanych lives in Severodvinsk,

      Thank. I not only heard about Himanych, but also read some of his works, mainly about the Novaya Zemlya landfill. I’ll look for a book.