As a potential replacement for existing tanks in the past, cars known under the working designations “195 Object” and “640 Object” were considered. According to known data, in these projects new ideas were proposed that were not yet typical for domestic tank building, which allowed to get a noticeable increase in characteristics and overall efficiency. A few years ago, work on these projects was discontinued. At the same time, officials noted that certain ideas and solutions worked out within closed projects will be used to create a promising tank, now known as the Armata T-14.
Unfortunately, fans of military equipment, most of the information about the projects "Object 195", "Object 640" and T-14 is still closed. For this reason, the considerable amount of data currently available is based on individual fragmentary messages or even on estimates and assumptions. However, even in such a situation one can see which specific developments of closed projects could find application in creating the newest domestic tank.
Recall that the main battle tank "Object 195" was created by the Ural Transport Engineering Design Bureau (Nizhny Tagil). The development started before the collapse of the USSR and was implemented in the framework of the Improvement-88 program. The aim of the project was to search for new constructive solutions capable of obtaining the highest possible characteristics. At the same time, engineers had to abandon a number of traditional ideas.
According to known data, the development of technical documentation was completed no later than the second half of the nineties, and soon the Uralvagonzavod enterprise built at least one experienced tank. Then, probably, the “195 Object” came to the test, during which it confirmed or denied the calculations of its creators. Some of the project work continued until the end of the two thousandth.
In the spring of 2010, the leadership of the Ministry of Defense announced the discontinuation of the development of an existing project in favor of the new Armat program. A little later, the corporation "Uralvagonzavod" announced plans to complete the creation of the T-95 tank, but without the support of the military. According to the statements of that time, the army considered the proposed tank as obsolete and inadequate. After 2010-11, there have been no new reports about the “195 Object”, which may indicate a complete shutdown of work.
In 1997, the Omsk Transport Engineering Design Bureau for the first time showed its own version of the tank of the future called “640 Object”. This armored vehicle was also called the “Black Eagle”. Later, the second experimental version of the tank on the recycled chassis appeared and was shown. Both versions of the tank received a characteristic low-profile turret, which, however, was always closed by a camouflage net.
Rumors and fragmentary data about the continuation of work on the "640 Object" with the possible adoption in the future appeared for several years, although it was never a matter of specific dates or figures. In 2009, the leadership of one of the structures of the Ministry of Defense indicated that no “Black Eagle” tank or “640 Object” exists. However, already in 2011, it became known that some of the achievements of a “non-existent” project would be used in the development of the Armat platform.
In 2015, the first public demonstration of a promising T-14 tank, built on the basis of the Armata universal platform, took place. Despite the extremely limited amount of data available, it was possible to understand that the new project actually used some or other developments on the older “195 Object” and “640 Object”. This has led to a certain external similarity, as well as the appearance of some common features that cannot be seen from the outside.
According to known data, both projects of the recent past provided for a significant reworking of the traditional layout, which significantly increased the security of the crew. The new project "Armata", as can be judged, borrowed similar ideas from the T-95 tank. So, in front of the T-14 hull an isolated armored capsule is placed with the jobs of the entire crew. Behind it there is an automated fighting compartment, and the feed contains power units. The Black Eagle project offered a different layout. In general, it was similar to the classic, but provided for the placement of the entire crew below the roof of the hull.
"Black Eagle" at the site. Photo Militaryrussia.ru
According to the experience of operation and combat use of modern tanks, both of the old projects suggested using their own body armor, as well as dynamic and, possibly, active protection. To counter some threats, tanks could carry the Blind optical-electronic suppression system. The new project "Armata" also uses such approaches. It is proposed to install Malachite Dynamic Protection Blocks over the hull armor. Protection of the tank from flying ammunition rests on the complex "Afghan". A characteristic feature of the T-14 tank is the "double" armor protection of the crew. In addition to the external case, it is protected by the armor of the inner habitable capsule. The new project was mine protection, which included reinforced bottom panels and means for the remote disposal of explosive devices.
Earlier it was reported that the tank "Object 195" is completed with an X-shaped diesel engine with a capacity of at least 1500-1600 hp. Later it became known that the power plant of this type is used on the T-14 armored vehicle. At the same time, according to reports of recent years, the engine "Armata" will be able to develop power to 1800 HP The driver will be able to independently select the maximum power.
Tanks "Object 195", "Object 640" and "Armata" differ from their predecessors in the layout and design of the chassis. In connection with the growth of combat mass and some increase in the size of the hull, we had to use a chassis with seven support rollers on each side instead of the “traditional” six. However, the similarity of the new models ends there. The Black Eagle and T-95 should have been completed with a torsion suspension, while the T-14 project involves the use of an active suspension. Automation should monitor the features of the route and change the parameters of the shock absorbers. This should increase the mobility of the tank on rough terrain, and in addition, improve shooting accuracy in motion.
In the projects "Object 195" and "Object 640" different approaches to the creation of a fighting compartment were used. Nizhny Tagil tank received branch monitors, fully serviced by automatic. In the case of the Omsk project, a low-profile tower was used, and crew jobs were placed below the hull roof. In addition, two tanks differed weapons. Using the available capabilities, the authors equipped the T-95 with a more powerful 152-mm tool.
The T-14 project, like the “195 Object”, uses an uninhabited fighting compartment, all actions in which are carried out only by automatic commands from the crew. Devices with remote control are responsible for targeting weapons, preparing weapons for firing, etc. Human participation is necessary only when preparing an armored vehicle to enter the battlefield. After that, all the main tasks are assumed by automatics.
Taking the main layout ideas from its predecessor, the Armata tank did not borrow more powerful weapons. At the request of the customer, this project uses a gun-launcher caliber 125 mm. This gun, which received the designation 2А82, is capable of using all existing domestic tank shots for various purposes. In addition, new ammunition is being developed for it. However, in the future, the Armata project may make certain changes aimed at increasing the firepower. It was repeatedly reported that a new modification of such a tank could get an 152-mm gun.
Tanks "Black Eagle" and T-95 different composition of additional weapons. Thus, certain targets for which the 152-mm gun would be redundant, the tank "Object 195" had to attack with the help of the 30-mm automatic gun 2-42. The project "Object 640" in this regard was more conservative: the tank gun was complemented by a pair of machine guns of different caliber. In the main T-14 tank, the approach characteristic of the 640 Object and other previous projects is implemented. It is equipped with two machine guns, paired and anti-aircraft; and the second is mounted on a remotely controlled combat module.
There is no exact information about the fire control systems developed for the experienced tanks of the nineties. It is only known that the characteristic layout of the "195 Object" required the creation of new sighting devices based on optical-electronic components. Due to the impossibility of using traditional optics, the crew should rely on video systems that output the signal from the cameras to the screens of workplaces. Tank "Armata" also received an isolated crew capsule, in connection with which it is completed only with optical-electronic sighting devices.
Experienced T-95 at the landfill. Photo Militaryrussia.ru
According to known data, the project "Black Eagle" provided for the construction of only a tank that differs from the existing equipment with enhanced characteristics. Similarly, the situation with the "Object 195", but from a certain time indicated that the chassis of the main tank in the future may be the basis for other types of armored vehicles. On a sevenkat chassis with a powerful engine, it was possible to build self-propelled artillery installations, tank support vehicles, engineering equipment, etc.
The project under the code "Armata" developed these ideas. From the very beginning, it envisaged the creation of not a specific combat or special vehicle, but a universal tracked platform that could be used in various projects. Taking into account the needs of the army, the tank became the first variant of equipment based on this platform. Also developed a heavy infantry fighting vehicle and repair and recovery vehicle. In the foreseeable future, new unified designs are expected.
At the turn of the decades, the Russian Ministry of Defense determined how armored troops would develop in the foreseeable future. Apparently, by this time the project "Object 640" was no longer considered as a possible replacement for the existing technology. The future of the army was tied to an alternative development, the “195 Object”. However, this tank could not reach mass production and operation in the army.
At the very end of the last decade, the command of the armed forces decided to abandon the existing T-95. With all its advantages, this tank turned out to be too complicated and expensive for mass production. The army required equipment with sufficiently high characteristics and a number of advantages over modern models, but at the same time having acceptable economic and operational indicators. It is these considerations that led to the closure of the 195 Object project in favor of the new Armat program.
It should be noted that such a decision of the military department was criticized by experts and lovers of military equipment. Until now, they remind that by 2010, the “195 Object” managed to go through a significant part of the tests and refinements, and it took a lot of time to develop the “Armata”. As a result, industry and the army, having received economic and other benefits, were forced to pay for them with the loss of time. The announced deadlines for the supply of serial T-14 to the troops are still used as an argument in favor of this opinion.
The development of a new unified platform and equipment at its base was entrusted to the research and production corporation Uralvagonzavod, the only Russian tank manufacturer at the moment. The corporation by this time included both developers of future tanks from the nineties, and their experience could be used in the new program. The well-known results of the T-14 project clearly show what developments in previous projects were used to create a promising tank.
Indeed, from a certain point of view, the new T-14 tank looks like a redesigned, improved and somewhat simplified version of the previous T-95. You can see that the "Armata" is inferior to the "Object 195" only in terms of the caliber of the main and the composition of additional weapons. In other respects, two tanks are at least equal. Modern radio-electronic systems, improved protection and other innovations should give a newer tank noticeable advantages over its predecessor.
Known problems of the nineties caused a serious blow to the development of the national armored vehicles. Developed and tested new tanks, but they could not bring to mass production due to lack of funding. And by the time the required capabilities appear, the existing new projects are morally outdated. As a result, the Ministry of Defense had to launch a completely new program, in which, however, it was proposed to use the existing developments.
Available information shows that the existing solutions, developed in the framework of the new project, have not disappeared and have found application. At the same time, they were connected with new ideas, as a result of which a main battle tank appeared, having great advantages over both domestic and foreign models. In the foreseeable future, the armored T-14 “Armata” will be put into service and will begin to be supplied to the troops. Thus, the developments of the eightieth-nineties, after a certain rethinking, will still give a real result in the context of updating the fleet of army vehicles.
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