In mid-July, a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers appeared 1963, according to which the industry had to develop a new ultra-high-passable chassis equipped with an electric transmission. The creation of such a model was entrusted to a number of organizations, including the Moscow Plant to them. Likhachev. By this time SKB ZIL had managed to study the subject of electric transmission, and therefore could cope with the task. However, it needed the help of other enterprises engaged in the production of electrical equipment.
Experienced all-terrain vehicle ZIL-135 in the museum. Photo State Military Technical Museum "/ gvtm.ru
About a month after the release of the Council of Ministers decision, the SCB ZIL team headed by V.A. Grachev formed the requirements for the future prototype model. At the same time, A.I. Filippova. In September, the necessary documents, including the terms of reference, were sent to the State Pilot Plant to them. Dzerzhinsky (later renamed the Moscow aggregate plant "Dzerzhinets"), who was asked to develop the necessary electrical devices. V.D. became the leading designer of the all-terrain vehicle electrical equipment. Zharkov.
Only at the end of March next year, the ZIL and the Avtotraktorny Department of the Ministry of Defense signed a contract for the design of a new all-terrain vehicle. A little later, the Defense Ministry allocated funds for the development of the project and the subsequent construction of an experimental electric ship.
It was proposed to create a new project based on the existing one. As a base for all-terrain vehicle with electric transmission, it was proposed to use the newest ZIL-135K machine. After appropriate processing of the structure, it should have been called ZIL-135E. The project also received an informal name - "Electrohod"
In order to pre-process the main decisions of the new project in the middle of 1964, a prototype model with the unofficial name ZIL-157E was built. Serial truck type ZIL-157 lost its regular transmission and rear truck. In the back of the van they installed a gasoline engine and a generator, which supplied current to the motor-wheel. Such an electric ship showed not the highest performance, but still allowed to collect the necessary data. At the beginning of 1965, ZBB Design Bureau analyzed the test results of an experimental electric ship and took them into account in further work on the main project ZIL-135E.
To speed up the work and simplify the further construction of the experienced vehicle, the ZIL-135E all-terrain vehicle was decided to do on the basis of the already existing ZIL-135K machine. It had to be reworked in a certain way to install new units, but at the same time a significant number of existing parts and assemblies could be saved. In the future, it was also supposed to facilitate the launch of mass production and operation of equipment in the army or the national economy.
The main element of the design experienced ZIL-135E was an oblong frame, borrowed from the base all-terrain vehicle. In front of her were the engine compartment and the cabin. Other areas were intended for the installation of a variety of equipment. The original ZIL-135K was developed as a carrier of a cruise missile, and therefore its cargo area had the maximum possible dimensions. Under the frame there were several metal sheets of various shapes and sizes that protected the internal aggregates from negative impacts.
The use of electric transmission gave certain advantages. The machine did not need large and complex mechanisms to distribute power to eight driving wheels; Electrical devices took up much less space on the frame and inside the case.
The ZIL-135E project envisaged the preservation of the power plant in the form of two ZIL-375 petrol engines rated for 180 horsepower. Each engine was connected to its own GET-120 DC generator with a power of 120 kW. Such gas-electric units were placed in the front of the frame, directly under the cockpit. On the sides of the case were placed eight motor-wheels with DT-22 engines, equipped with two-stage planetary gearboxes.
The section (left) and the kinematic diagram (right) of the motor-wheel of the ZIL-135E machine. Drawing "Technique and weapons"
As in other projects of the ZIL-135 family, it was proposed to use the so-called. the onboard transmission scheme in which each of the engines transmitted power to the wheels of its own side. In the case of the “Electrohod”, this meant that each generator provided the power supply to the engines of its own side. Despite a certain complexity, such an electric transmission architecture gave certain advantages.
Even in the early stages of design, it became clear that the used electrical units will differ in increased heat generation. As a result, ZIL-135E received an advanced air cooling system for electrical equipment. With the help of a system of fans, air ducts and flexible hoses, the devices were blown with cold outside air. In the cooling system, centrifugal fans of type Ц9-55 and KP-2-320 dust-separating fans were tested.
The first version of the ZIL-135E project envisaged the use of a running gear with rigid mounting of all eight wheels. Wheel hubs turned out to be too large for the use of existing car tire production models. At first this problem was solved by installing fiberglass wheels with tractor tires of X-NUMX-15.00 type I-30. Similar products were used in the early stages of testing. The first and fourth axles of the chassis were made manageable. The driver controlled the position of the wheels with a hydraulic booster.
Being a deep modernization of the ZIL-135K all-terrain vehicle, the new prototype with the letter “E” retained the characteristic chassis design with an uneven distribution of axles on the base. The first and third spacing between the wheels had a length of 3 m, the central spacing was 1,6 m. Wider areas between the wheels were used to install hydraulic jacks. The base chassis was intended for the missile complex, and the Electrokhod at its base retained devices for hanging before firing.
Experienced ZIL-135E received a serial four-seater cabin, made of fiberglass. A characteristic feature of the ZIL-135K chassis and the machines based on it was the reverse inclination of the frontal glazing, associated with the need to remove the reactive gases of the launched missile. Access to the cabin was provided by a pair of side doors and upper hatches. In connection with the use of a new transmission, the post control in the cabin was supplemented with a number of special devices. The driver could control all the main instruments of the power plant and electrical transmission.
The entire central and rear part of the frame was a large cargo area for the installation of the target equipment or body. Initially, the onboard body of one of the production trucks was mounted on this site, partially covered with an awning. The landing gear was noticeably larger than the body, which gave the all-terrain vehicle a specific appearance. Subsequently, an experienced ZIL-135E assembled a lightweight closed van with seats for people and the possibility of carrying cargo.
The new all-terrain vehicle was very large. Its length reached 11,45 m width - 2,9 m, height - 3,2 m. Curb weight - a little less than 12 tons. According to calculations, the “Electrokhod” ZIL-135E could take on board up to 8,1 tons of cargo and move along highways with speed 80 km / h When entering the rugged terrain, he could overcome the most difficult obstacles and transport the cargo in different conditions. The real characteristics of the machine had to be established during full-scale tests.
Assembly of units for the future prototype began in early October 1965. In the last decade of the month, the final assembly of the car began, and the XILUM of October the ZIL-29E all-terrain vehicle drove through the plant for the first time in October. In mid-November, ZBL Specialized Design Bureau held a technical council with representatives from plant No. XXUMX and the Autotractor Directorate of the Ministry of Defense, in which experts discussed the creation and operation of an electric transmission.
23 November experimental all-terrain vehicle under its own power went to the Research and test autotractor test site in the city of Bronnitsy. For four days, the car passed 212 km, and then returned to Moscow. After such a run-in, the “Electrohod” should have gone to full-scale tests.
At the same time, the plant them. Likhachev built an experienced car ZIL-135LN, equipped with hydromechanical transmission. It was proposed to try ZIL-135E and ZIL-135ЛН together, and then compare the results obtained. Both prototypes had the same engines and were equipped with tires of 15.00-30 dimension, which allowed to fully compare power plants and transmissions.
On a field with a snow cover up to 450 mm thick, the “Electrohod” was able to accelerate to 17,6 km / h, showing a competitive advantage in 1,6 km / h. Both cars climbed the slope of 12 ° covered with snow. Movement was provided on 800-mm snow virgin. In all cases, the machine with electric transmission more efficiently used the engine power and therefore had some advantages. However, with a sharp redistribution of load between the wheels, the fuses in the power circuits worked.
In the summer of 1966, the experienced ZIL-135E underwent repairs and upgrades. The authors of the project decided that the rigid attachment of the first and fourth pairs of wheels did not justify itself. Instead of a stiffer suspension, independent systems with torsion damping were installed. In addition, new wheels were installed with fiberglass wheels and wide-profile tires 1550x450-840. Such an update of the chassis allowed the payload to be increased to 11,5 t and the total weight of the 24 t.
In the autumn of the same year, the updated Electrohod set off for tests, the purpose of which was to check the temperature conditions of the units. When driving on different surfaces with different loads, the maximum temperature on the brushes of the generators and traction motors did not exceed 90-100 ° C. Current loads remained within the allowable range.
In the summer of the next 1967, the experienced ZIL-135E and ZIL-135ЛН underwent stress tests on cobblestones, macadam, marshy and sandy roads. The maximum speed reached 80 km / h, but the load on the wheel with the new tire was only 2,5 t. Increasing the load to 3 t reduced the maximum speed to 69 km / h. The car confidently moved through the mud to a depth of 500 mm and overcame the 800-mm ford. The ditches with a width of 1,5-2 m were overcome. At the same time, the wheels hung in the air did not increase the speed of their rotation.
In 1968, two all-terrain vehicles traveled to the Uzbek SSR to check on the sandy landfill near the city of Termez. Driving along fortified sands did not differ from work on dirt roads, although an elevated temperature of air led to more heating of the aggregates. Average speed was 38 km / h. In the dunes, all-terrain vehicles could go at a speed of about 5 km / h. On the ridges of dunes, cars were often hung out and stopped for a short time. A typical problem at this stage was the formation of steam plugs in the cooling system, due to the decrease in speed at stops. In contrast to the ZIL-135LN, the “Electrohod” did not need to use a booster pump until the end of the movement. During the tests in the desert, two experimental machines passed 1300 km.
During inspections in the desert, it was found that the electric transmission is less complex operation. So, every 500 km of the road to the ZIL-135LN had to lubricate the cardans, but even with this service, the two crosses still broke. Motor-wheels did not require such maintenance and never failed.
The only experienced all-terrain vehicle in the museum. Photo State Military Technical Museum "/ gvtm.ru
In September, 1968, two all-terrain vehicles were tested in the foothills of the Pamir. At altitudes up to 1400-1500 m above sea level, machines with electrical and hydromechanical transmissions showed similar results. Then the ZIL-135LN began to overheat the oil. Later it was found that the transmission of this machine uses the energy of the engine less efficiently and therefore loses its capabilities to electrical devices. Mining tests have shown that the ZIL-135E needs some modifications to the chassis. In particular, the location of the braking resistors turned out to be unsuccessful: these devices were not sufficiently well blown in while moving and could overheat with the risk of failure.
The prototype model ZIL-135E “Electrohod” passed various tests in various conditions and showed very good results. In addition, the machine clearly demonstrated the advantages of electric transmission over hydromechanical. For all the time checks machine mileage amounted to 17 thousand. Km. Due to the imperfection of electrical equipment in the early stages of testing and refinement, breakdowns of traction motors took place. After SKB ZIL solved this problem, the all-terrain vehicle passed 8 thousand km without breakdowns.
After solving some of the remaining issues and correcting the last drawbacks, the all-terrain vehicle based on the ZIL-135E could be put into a series. In 1969, an economic analysis of the project was carried out, which allowed to present the effectiveness of the production of such equipment. It was found that the car with electrical devices is noticeably cheaper than a similar all-terrain vehicle with hydromechanical transmission. At the same time, it turned out to be more expensive than the traditional “mechanics”.
The series already had several relatively cheap chassis of high and ultra-high maneuverability used in the construction of various military and special equipment. The leadership of the industry and the Ministry of Defense decided that in such a situation, the launch of the serial production of ZIL-135E does not make sense. However, the developments on the subject of electric transmission are not lost. Calculations showed that such an architecture of mechanisms is of great interest in the context of the development of heavy-duty vehicles. Moreover, in parallel with the testing of the “military” ZIL-135E, preparations were being made for the serial production of the first mining dump trucks with electric motors.
Becoming a self-propelled laboratory, all-terrain vehicle received a closed van. Photo State Military Technical Museum "/ gvtm.ru
Upon completion of all the necessary tests, the only built "Electrohod" became a self-propelled laboratory. For the convenience of researchers, it installed a closed body van in which it was possible to put this or that equipment. Until the end of the eighties, the unique machine performed the functions of a laboratory and worked on the test and development base of the ZIL in the village of Chulkovo (Ramensky District, Moscow Region).
At the beginning of the last decade, the plant's base was liquidated, and a number of equipment samples were transferred to the museum. Later, the only ZIL-135E changed owners, and since 2007, it has been kept in the State Military Technical Museum in p. Ivanovo. In the same place there are several other unique samples of the experienced equipment of the ZIL brand.
Even before the closure of the project ZIL-135E Special Design Bureau of the Plant. Likhachev received an order from the space industry. The enterprises of the latter needed a special heavy-duty transport vehicle, distinguished by high maneuverability. In the 1967 year, on the basis of some developments on the "Electrohod", a prototype model ZIL-135Sh was created.
In the course of the ZIL-135E project, the specialists of the ZIL enterprise and related enterprises have accumulated considerable experience in the field of ultra-high-traffic machines and electrical transmission systems. These developments could not be implemented within the framework of mass production of equipment based on the existing prototype model, but they nevertheless found application in new projects. The next experimental project was not expected to reach mass production, but contributed to the development of domestic all-terrain vehicles.
Kochnev E.D. Secret cars of the Soviet Army. - M .: Yauza, Eksmo, 2011.
R. Danilov Electric way. // Technique and weapons, 2014. No.7.