In the Russian Defense Ministry journalists of the newspaper “News»Said that from 2018, the system of mobilization reserve in our country will begin to work in full. Required for this regulation were adopted earlier. So, the Ministry of Defense has already conducted an experiment on the formation of an organized mobilization reserve in certain regions of Russia. The experiment lasted for almost two years, its results are evaluated as successful. The decree "On the creation of a mobilization human reserve of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation" was signed by the President of Russia 17 July 2015. The first paragraph of this decree prescribed the creation of a mobilization human reserve of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for the period of the experiment to introduce a new system of training and accumulation of mobilization human resources. The mechanism for attracting citizens to new structures and the terms of contracts concluded with them are set forth in the Law on Military Duty and Military Service, which says that reserve personnel who have gone through a medical commission can become reservists.
It is worth noting that the mobilization reserve exists in the armies of many countries of the world, this is a very common practice. For example, in the US, the number of reservists is almost the same as the number of regular armed forces. Reserve components include reserves of all five types of armed forces, as well as ground forces and air forces of the US National Guard. At the same time, the US National Guard itself, whose military personnel combine combat training with work in the main specialty, is an organized reserve. There is also an unorganized (individual) reserve, which consists of persons with sufficient military training, that is, those who have recently completed military service and do not need to undergo additional training.
In general, it can be noted that the formation of a mobilization reserve of people who sign a contract with the Russian Ministry of Defense is another step towards the formation of a modern professional army in the country. In the Russian army, the number of contract soldiers already exceeds the number of recruits. 7 November 2017, the Chief of the General Staff, Army General Valery Gerasimov, said that the number of contract soldiers in the army over the past 5 years doubled and amounted to 384 thousands of people. According to the plans, by the end of 2018, 425 thousands of contract soldiers, 220 thousands of officers and 50 thousands of ensigns and midshipmen should serve in the Russian army. Thus, the share of professional soldiers will reach 70 percent.
Currently, military registration and enlistment offices are responsible for the formation of a mobilization reserve. Not all of them have begun the relevant work. At the same time, in some, for example, in the Rostov region - a set of reservists is already underway. In the military registration and enlistment office of Novoshakhtinsk in the Rostov region, military personnel of the reserve can already sign a contract for service in reserve. As the newspaper "Izvestia" notes with reference to the military registration and enlistment office of Novoshakhtinsk, for this, citizens need to appear at the military registration and enlistment office, having a military ID and passport with them. After the contract is signed, the reserve soldier will be required to complete a special 2-3 day study every month and annual fees ranging from 20 to 30 days. It will be possible to call a person from the mobilization reserve into the service at any time: in case of conducting large-scale exercises, declaring a special or threatened period, emergency situations, or simply with an acute shortage of military specialists in units.
Previously, an experiment to form a new mobilization reserve took place in some regions of Russia. The Northern Fleet also participated in the experiment, which actively collaborated with the military commissariats of the Murmansk region. The purpose of the experiment, which started in the North navy in August 2015, there was an improvement in the existing system of training and accumulation of mobilization human resources. In an interview with the newspaper "A red star»The head of the organizational-mobilization department (WMD) of the Northern Fleet Headquarters, captain of the 1 rank, Vladimir Kondratov, said that the first contract in the mobilization reserve on a voluntary basis subscribes to the 3 of the year, subsequent contracts for up to 5 years. At the same time, there are age restrictions for reservists, they are for each category of citizens in the reserve. For example, soldiers, sailors, sergeants, warrant officers and ensigns can conclude the first contract to be in the mobilization reserve before the age of 42, junior officers - up to 47 years, senior officers - up to 57 years.
The main difference of the new approach to the formation of a mobilization reserve is that when a mobilization is announced, the reservist himself must arrive at the military unit, bypassing the military registration and enlistment offices, and proceed to fulfill their duties in accordance with their position in accordance with the staffing and job category. In addition, the reservist once a year goes to military training for up to 30 days and every month for one to three days with him various training sessions are held according to the plans of military units and formations to which the reservist is assigned in accordance with the contract. At the same time, the total duration of fees, which for a year in the mobilization reserve cannot exceed 54 days, is taken into account.
The new system of organized mobilization reserve will allow to prepare and then maintain highly qualified personnel in combat readiness, ensuring a quick transfer of personnel to different theaters of operations, which will require the deployment of new formations, but the local mobilization resource is not enough. According to military expert Viktor Murakhovsky, the new system for attracting personnel will increase the defense capability of the Far East. Parts of this region have technology, but there is a shortage of personnel.
According to Izvestia, soldiers and officers entering the mobilization reserve will receive a lump-sum payment when entering into a contract: for a three-year period - in the amount of salary, for 5 and more years - in 1,5 times more. The salary of a professional reservist will consist of his official salary, regional coefficient and payments for the title. For example, a platoon commander with the rank of senior lieutenant in the central part of the Russian Federation will receive 27,5 thousand rubles. The squad leader in the rank of sergeant in the Kemerovo region (there is a regional premium: "northern" - 30 percent) - 25,3 thousand rubles. However, in full, this amount of money will be paid only during the passage of military charges. During the rest of the year, that is, 11 months in a year, reservist contract servicemen will pay only 12 percent of their salary. In this case, the senior lieutenant from the Central part of Russia will receive 3,3 thousands of rubles a month, a sergeant in the Kemerovo region - 3,036 thousands of rubles.
This payment procedure is stipulated by the Government of the Russian Federation Decree “On establishing the amount of the monthly salary of citizens of the Russian Federation staying in the mobilization reserve, with the exception of the period of military training” from December 23 of 2015. During the passage of fees, the state guarantees the reservist the preservation of the average salary or scholarship. In addition, it will take on all the costs of renting housing, travel fees for fees and return home, travel allowance.
Separately provided extra charges for long service. For example, after 3, after being included in the mobilization reserve, reservists will be able to additionally receive 10 percent of salary. Over the years, this payment will grow, the maximum premium - 50 percent will be available after 20 years of continuous stay in the mobilization reserve.
How it will work
An important difference, which has already been mentioned above, will be that the reservist will be assigned to a specific military unit or to the MDRI - the Mobilization Deployment Support Center, where he will undergo charges. This is one of the main advantages of the personnel reserve. To create truly combat-ready and trained units, when the fighters are well acquainted with each other (at least at the level of offices and crews) and have real experience of interaction in the framework of studies and military training, is impossible due to the usual vaults that appear in the army at best once in many years of being in stock.
Military expert Vladislav Shurygin, commenting on the formation of a mobilization reserve to journalists of Izvestia, noted that there are such concepts as current and temporary shortages (TNK and VNK). For example, a soldier transferred to a new duty station, and no one has yet been appointed to replace him. This is a temporary shortage. And if a soldier is sick and can no longer perform his direct duties - this is the current shortage. Thus, TNK and KSS can significantly affect the combat capability of military units. For example, in a battalion, not only a few mechanic wrestlers and machine gunners, but also a company commander may be missed. Their absence will significantly affect the ability of this battalion to perform combat missions. There are also posts that are introduced only in the event of war, for example, an assistant machine gunner. In peacetime, such posts are not needed, but in combat conditions are necessary. TNK and VNK will be able to be replaced by contract reservists who have entered into a contract and are assigned to a specific military unit; their other task will be to compensate for losses in wartime.
Separately, experts distinguish the fate of the bases for the storage and repair of military equipment (BHiRVT), which will be disbanded. Until recently, only in the Ground Forces there were more than 40 such bases (14 motorized rifle). At present, Russia is already in the process of reorganizing motorized rifle BHiRVT. About a third of them are closed. For the most part, they had previously only kept the equipment, while the staffing of such bases did not allow maintaining the stored equipment in proper technical condition. Now, in the TsOMR created on their basis, they will both store military equipment and train reservists. If necessary, such centers will be transformed into full-fledged units and military units.
It is known that a new modern infrastructure will be built for the MSC. So, back in 2016, the Russian Ministry of Defense signed a contract for the design of a new BHiRVT, located on Sakhalin. This project can be called an illustration of how the Center for mobilization deployment will look like. The planned military camp near the village of Dachnoye will be equipped with barracks to house the 521 soldier and sergeant, a staff and training building, a parking space of 700 thousand square meters, heated storage for 1,2 thousands of parking spaces, and warehouses for rocket artillery weapons and property. There will also be built special areas for storage and repair of equipment. This infrastructure will allow in the case of charges without any problems to take a whole battalion of reservists, to carry out with them the necessary exercises and work on the planned maintenance of military equipment.