Military Review

What would kill the poor knight? (Swords and daggers of the Middle Ages - part three)

44
22: 6 ... picked up the fire and the knife, and went both together ...
(Being)



It is estimated that the word knife in the Bible is found only five times, while the sword 194. What does this mean? Of course, the greater importance of the latter before the first. The knife is something household, economic, ordinary. The sword is what separates a weak person from a strong one. He took a sword in his hands and got certain rights. After all, no wonder, by the way, the Bible does not specify what Cain killed Abel. Most likely, he simply stabbed him with a shepherd's knife. But a message about this, being recorded, could lead to unpredictable consequences, which is why it was not placed in the text.


One of the very remarkable miniatures of its time, which may well be considered the original source, despite all the mythology of its plot. And the plot is banal: "He found (that is, Samson - VO) a fresh donkey's jaw and, stretching out his hand, took it, and killed a thousand people with it." The miniature is taken from the manuscript "Mirror stories, Dated 1370 - 1380 (National Library of France, Paris). However, we will remove the donkey's jaw from it, and typical warriors of the era of mail and plate armor will appear before us. ” On their heads are helmet basquets without a visor of typical French uniforms, on one - a “caphel de fer” (“iron hat”), and the warriors themselves are dressed in chain mail, with tubular armor on their hands, along with plate gloves. But note: one of the Philistines swings at Samson with a typical Rondel dagger! So ... at that time such daggers were already in use!

So in the Middle Ages, only the man who had a sword with him and — most importantly, knew how to use this sword — was free. After all, a peasant could, in principle, hang a sword on his hip, but without many years of training he couldn’t do anything against a knight who was given a wooden sword at the age of seven, and since then he has only done that he studied the art of a swordsman.


But this is a miniature of the famous "Chronicles of France from Saint-Denis" and the years are almost the same, 1380 - 1400. (British Library). Again, pay attention to the details: on all warriors, Bundhugel-type basquets, mail armor - aventail, caftans Djupons (or zupons), under which armor is hidden, but armor on legs, including loops of greaves, are perfectly visible. It is not clear why, but the kneecaps of all those depicted in the figure are for some reason shown gilded. And the same zhupone some belted, and some do not. The figure clearly depicts knight initiation right on the battlefield, but more interesting is the Rondel daggers, drawn as a dress belonging to two knights. Both of them hang with the handle down and this is the way it should be, since the handle of this dagger was heavier than the blade. But he did not fall out of the scabbard, it means there was some kind of “latch” there. In addition, neither one nor the other warrior has a sling on which the sheath would hang. So they were sewn right on the zhupon! But ... where do they have swords? The bandages, after all, is not visible?

However, today we are again interested not so much in swords as in daggers. Moreover, if in the previous material the source base of our research was directly their artifacts and effigy, today we turn to medieval miniatures — that is, drawings in manuscripts or "manuscripts". We have already referred to miniatures from medieval books several times, and this allows us to draw a number of interesting conclusions.


"And this is how they were used in hand-to-hand!" It is believed that the same Rondel was used to finish off his opponents. And despite the fact that killing a knight meant the same thing as cutting a hen that laid golden eggs. However, on this miniature 1400 - 1425's. from the National Library of France in Paris, we see a strange picture: the knight’s suicide in the foreground, behind which the warrior in an iron hat strikes his opponent with a rondel in the viewing slot.

What would kill the poor knight? (Swords and daggers of the Middle Ages - part three)

Helmet bascinet such as those depicted on these miniatures from the collection of the Museum of Medieval War at the Castle Castelnau in Perigon, France.

First, medieval miniaturists have not owned a historical perspective for a long time. For example, there is a mass of miniatures depicting the crucifixion of Christ, and in all these “pictures” we see people dressed in the clothes of their time, that is, the time when this miniature was made. But weapon in the hands of the "Roman legionaries" can be very original and unlike any weapon at all. That is ... the artist obviously understood that “then, it is not now” and somehow wanted to emphasize this. The simplest thing was to invent and draw a fantastic type of weapon, whereas it was also long and troublesome to invent clothes.


The fact that everything was so, says the frequency of repetitions of miniatures in manuscripts in different countries. For example, on this miniature of their 1410 Chronicle of the Year (National Library of the Netherlands), we see the battle of the Knights of Flanders, and they are also dressed in zhupone, and they are not belted by someone, and they are also fighting with dungeons.


1380 Manuscript Thumbnail - 1400 from the British Library. It shows how the winners finish off the losers. Finish them with swords, axes, daggers and war hammers. Interestingly, the warrior's dagger in the center hangs on his belt for some reason on the left, instead of the sword, and he “works” with an ax! That is, the sword, this "friend" has not earned?

Secondly, the images of weapons served a specific purpose. For example, very often the Saracens were depicted with an eerie type of "curved swords" that never really existed. They are not even on the Arab miniatures proper - all have straight swords. That is, by this very fact they emphasized their dissimilarity with Christian warriors. But we often see the same swords in the hands of European warriors. How to explain it? It is clear that these are not trophies, it is impossible to take as a trophy what is not. What then? And this is an evil satire !!! "Ours" are depicted as expected, but the enemy is armed with infidel weapons. That is - "they are bad." And, by the way, this method is used in propaganda today.


An example of the image of weapons that archaeologists have not yet found, and perhaps they will never find, is this miniature from the Ab Urbe Condita manuscript 1400 – 1425. (National Library of France, Paris). Here we see felchen, as well as two absolutely terrible axes, while the rest are fighting with spears and axes. Daggers on the clothes no one else has. But all in typical for the time helmets, bascinet and zhuponah.

So you can trust medieval miniatures as a source, but provided that miniatures depicting the Trojan War from the 13th century manuscript are not recorded in the sources for the Trojan War, as well as the miniatures from “Roman about Alexander” (meaning Alexander the Great) . Further, they can be trusted if the images on them are correlated with the artifacts that have reached us. That is, shields with a convex image of a human face most likely should be recognized as a miniaturist's fantasy. But shields with shackles and umbon - reality, because we see them in bas-reliefs, in the hands of effigiy, and a number of such shields found in the swamps and ... even now we can hold some of them, preserved in the walls of castles and monasteries.


Strange kind of scene. One knight pierces another with a sword, and for some reason he holds a dagger in his hand ...


A very entertaining fight scene. 1400 Wandering Knight (National Library of France, Paris). On the knight on the left is a typical brigandine, and with two chains and a hook for a spear. The crown on the helmet can mean anything, it can be a king, a baron, and just a positive character, such was the fashion. The eastern knight on the right had an amazing (judging by the sheath) sword, but lost it somewhere. Judging by the mythical shield and scabbard from the sword, it is ... "not our man," "bad." But all the rest of the equipment is similar to the “hero” on the left. Well, did not the miniaturist see the eastern knights and how to depict it "in the oriental way"? So he added a sword and a shield to him, and even the dagger gave him an ordinary hand - the usual Rondel!

The same goes for weapons. The frequency of finds and images should be correlated, that is approximately the same. And if this does not happen, then we can assume that we are dealing with ... beautiful fashion, a tribute to time, or even the unbridled imagination of the artist.


But on this series of miniatures from the site "military miniature" shows the "fate" of a knight struck with a dagger.

Amen!
Author:
44 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. andrewkor
    andrewkor 24 February 2018 05: 43
    +4
    In the Crusaders of Senkevich, a young knight Zbyshko, eighteen years old, squeezed juice from an oak branch with his hand. This is to say that the knight trained from childhood, which is what the author mentioned.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 24 February 2018 09: 50
      +7
      Well, Senkevich is still that source, especially about the "clairvoyant gentlemen." And any knight since childhood had no choice but to comprehend the basics of the future profession (if he was going to live for a relatively long time).
      1. andrewkor
        andrewkor 24 February 2018 11: 15
        +4
        At least not worse than Drewoon!
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 24 February 2018 11: 17
          +2
          Actually worse: Druon is not Russophobe, at least.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 24 February 2018 13: 10
            0
            In the light of "our answer to Chamberlain" (Senkevich) from the hudlite, I propose reading the "Pursuit of Grunwald" (K. Tarasov)
          2. andrewkor
            andrewkor 24 February 2018 18: 17
            +2
            As a child, I read The Crusaders and watched the film of the same name, very tragic and heroic, it doesn’t smell like Russophobia. Now, with the advent of Glasnost, closets with skeletons open and former idols are thrown down, stereotypes are destroyed.
            I’ll definitely find the “Chase” on the Internet, download and read it, thanks.
            1. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 24 February 2018 18: 22
              +1
              Come on Senkevich, even my deeply respected Stanislav Lem turned out to be a Russophobe, in the 70-s he was not completely translated, but in the 90-s everything was translated.
              1. andrewkor
                andrewkor 24 February 2018 18: 46
                +5
                Thank you for the information, but I don’t want to know about their Russophobia either. I don’t need to take their books to the waste paper. It's like about gays and castrates - talented little devils in singing, the rest is not important, in my opinion, but I hate Zelensky and his ilk with all my heart! But I’ve already downloaded the “Chase.” “Primordial Russia” is one of my favorite books, in the mainstream of the discussion of the article — the emergence of chivalry in Russia!
                1. Aviator_
                  Aviator_ 24 February 2018 18: 54
                  +3
                  I also think that Lem simply ruined his talent with primitive Russophobia, while the same Strugatsky brothers, who began with excellent works, ended up with Candlelight Conversations or the Jews of St. Petersburg. Hackwork - suicide for the purpose of profit, read such a definition somewhere.
                  1. andrewkor
                    andrewkor 25 February 2018 07: 19
                    +1
                    Thanks again for the information, the literary critic of me is not important.
                  2. kalibr
                    25 February 2018 21: 04
                    0
                    Aviator_ The goal they lost is this ... there is only one "soul-searching".
        2. Flooding
          Flooding 25 February 2018 08: 47
          +1
          Quote: andrewkor
          At least not worse than Drewoon!

          Dear, if you are about your personal tastes, then it makes no sense to argue.
          Well, if you objectively compare the works of Druon and Senkevich from a historical point of view, then the comparison will clearly not be in favor of the latter.
          This is a given.
  2. Serge72
    Serge72 24 February 2018 07: 26
    +22
    The fate of a knight struck by such a dagger is really unenviable
    Amen!
  3. igordok
    igordok 24 February 2018 07: 29
    +7
    It’s quite easy to criticize contemporary “designer girls”. Images of modern technology, as well as weapons and equipment of the times of WWII and WWII are very accessible. But in order to criticize the "girls-designers" of the Middle Ages, one must be in the subject. Thank you for the article.
    It should be remembered the domestic "girls-designers", from the Middle Ages, depicting the Mongoloids with European faces.
    1. Moore
      Moore 24 February 2018 08: 10
      +4
      Quote: igordok
      It should be remembered the domestic "girls-designers", from the Middle Ages, depicting the Mongoloids with European faces.

      Here are the “girls” and the non-domestic:

      Maybe they actually looked like that ??
    2. Sverdlov
      Sverdlov 24 February 2018 19: 18
      +5
      Ha! In the Asian republics of Lenin on all posters were with "Asian" faces :)
      1. igordok
        igordok 24 February 2018 19: 28
        +2
        Quote: Sverdlov
        Ha! In the Asian republics of Lenin on all posters were with "Asian" faces :)

        "Girls designers," they are everywhere and always. You can’t get anywhere from them.
      2. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 25 February 2018 21: 48
        0
        And in Petrozavodsk, Lenin was a Karelian-Finnish
  4. polpot
    polpot 24 February 2018 09: 18
    +4
    Thanks for the article, wonderful illustrations, we look forward to continuing.
  5. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 24 February 2018 12: 04
    +3
    The illustration of the "strange scene" (unfortunately, Vyacheslav Olegovich, against the habit, did not cite the source) is very interesting! I will put forward the assumption that it is imprinted not a duel, but a murder. Hence the difference in the weapons used. By the way, the way to hold the blade of a knight with a sword is very well drawn and is "fencing" (the hilt of the sword is located along the brush, and not perpendicularly).
    1. kalibr
      24 February 2018 12: 12
      +5
      The original article contained THREE illustrations from the same source - a manuscript from Germany, the Nuremberg library. There are generally creepy scenes further ... But for some reason ... there is no end, the word is ONE ... and that’s it. Although Amen refers to the picture with the poor thing in the coffin! Apparently, the volume of HE did not allow to contain it in its entirety. This happens!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 24 February 2018 12: 45
        +4
        I meant the third picture below. As for the last image, if the drawing is accurate, then the winner is also a non-resident, apparently the femoral or iliac artery was opened. If the latter, then he had only fifteen minutes to live. In the first case there was a chance, but small.
      2. svd-xnumx
        svd-xnumx 24 February 2018 19: 32
        +1
        The eastern knight on the right had an amazing (judging by the scabbard) sword, but somewhere he lost it. Judging by the mythical shield and scabbard from the sword it is ... "not our man", "bad"
        The knights have swords under their feet, one hilt is visible (by the way, similar to each other), the rest is covered by shields.
  6. sib.ataman
    sib.ataman 24 February 2018 12: 33
    0
    Of course, we thank the author for the work of writing the article. However, I would like, taking into account the rich knowledge of Vyacheslav in the field of weapons and ammunition of the Middle Ages, in his articles see a more in-depth analysis of the development of weapons and, accordingly, equipment, taking into account the trends that influenced this process, and, if possible, with examples of historical figures, which By the way, he repeatedly demonstrated in past articles.
    1. kalibr
      25 February 2018 07: 35
      +1
      I would like to see this myself in my articles, but ... sometimes there is information, and sometimes not. Sometimes there is a mood, and sometimes not, sometimes there is time, and sometimes not. Therefore, sometimes articles turn out like you (and I, too!) Would like to see them always, and sometimes no!
  7. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 24 February 2018 13: 21
    +2
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, about the "free man" in the Middle Ages, let me disagree. The degree of freedom was not determined by the presence of a sword and in different periods significantly varied. And the periodization itself is historical, the concept is very vague, depending on the interpretation of the historical process by one or another research school.
  8. Michael_Zverev
    Michael_Zverev 24 February 2018 14: 15
    +1
    It is not for nothing that, incidentally, the Bible does not specify what Cain killed Abel with. Most likely, he just stabbed him with a shepherd’s knife. But a message about this being recorded could lead to unpredictable consequences, and therefore they did not begin to place it in the text.

    Something is not clear, what consequences?
    1. kalibr
      24 February 2018 19: 22
      +2
      A new symbol could appear - "the weapon with which Cain killed Abel." And there was already a cross ... why multiply entities?
      1. Michael_Zverev
        Michael_Zverev 25 February 2018 18: 07
        0
        I allow myself to disagree, the story about Cain and Abel is more ancient, it appeared back in Genesis, the first book of the Pentateuch (Torah), the Old Testament and the entire Bible in general, long before the gospel events and the establishment of the veneration of the cross. And Cain was a farmer, Abel was a shepherd. Rather, he killed him with a hoe or sickle: "and, having called Abel in the field, he killed him."
        1. kalibr
          25 February 2018 21: 02
          +1
          That's it. The earliest symbols of Christianity are a fish, a shepherd with a sheep behind her ... and then a sickle, a staff or a hoe is added ... We, of course, can only speculate. But still, I was always wondering why the subject of the murder was not named?
          1. Michael_Zverev
            Michael_Zverev 26 February 2018 18: 43
            0
            Maybe it was just considered an insignificant detail. In any case, Abel’s blood “cried out from the ground”, which means something that causes bleeding wounds.
  9. Curious
    Curious 24 February 2018 15: 03
    +4
    “But this is a miniature from the famous“ Chronicles of France from Saint-Denis ”and the years are almost the same 1380 - 1400. (British Library). Again, pay attention to details: all warriors have Bundhugel-type helmets, aventail mail mantles , caftans, jupons (or zhupons), under which the armor is hidden on the hands, but the armor on the legs, including the loops of the greaves, is clearly visible. It is unclear why, but the kneecaps of all the figures in the figure are for some reason shown gilded. and some don’t. The figure clearly depicts a knighting on the battlefield ... "
    The miniature depicts the capture of the English knight, Seneschal JOHN de Saint-John by the French in Aquitaine, near Bellegarde on January 28, 1297.
    1. kalibr
      24 February 2018 19: 28
      +3
      I can not say anything. I did not read the original. I took information from the site "military miniature." If it was written there, I would write ...
      1. Curious
        Curious 24 February 2018 22: 43
        +1
        You can rest assured, the information is from the original.
        1. kalibr
          25 February 2018 07: 32
          +4
          Once again I am convinced that everything needs to be checked! The sociopath Sorg was right - "if you want to do something well, do it yourself!"
          1. Curious
            Curious 25 February 2018 11: 07
            +1
            I myself have long come to this conclusion. As soon as you start to "believe in the word", you’ll definitely get involved.
  10. Curious
    Curious 24 February 2018 15: 32
    +5
    "A miniature from the manuscript of 1380-1400 from the British Library. Here is depicted how the winners finish the vanquished. They finish them with swords, axes, daggers and war hammers. It is interesting that the dagger of the warrior in the center hangs on the belt for some reason on the left, instead of a sword "and he himself" works "with an ax! That is, this" comrade "has not yet earned a sword?"
    This miniature is also from the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis.
    It depicts the Battle of Curtre or the Battle of Spurs between the Flemings and the French. The Flemings came out victorious, did not take prisoners and collected 700 pairs of golden spurs from the corpses of the knights, which, for the edification of future generations, were hung out in one of the city churches, so the Battle of Curtre went down in history as well as the Battle of Golden Spurs. The Flemish army mainly consisted of well-trained and equipped city militia organized in guilds. The armament was made of steel helmets, chain mail, spears, bows, crossbows and godendagi. So the lack of swords is understandable.
  11. Sverdlov
    Sverdlov 24 February 2018 19: 27
    0
    [Quote] [/ quote]
  12. Sverdlov
    Sverdlov 24 February 2018 19: 35
    +1
    Quote: Sverdlov
    another thing is more interesting - rondel daggers, drawn as a costume accessory of two knights. Both of them hang with the handle down, and this is as it should be, since the handle of this dagger was heavier than the blade. But he did not fall out of the scabbard, which means there was some kind of “latch” there. In addition, neither one nor the other warrior has a bandage on which the scabbard would hang. So they were sewn directly to the jupon!


    I have three terrible assumptions about this. Daggers, "handles down," in miniature look like they were painted on later, purely in style. Handles down - why so much trouble? And the third - “scabbard sewn to zupan” is, in general, a masterpiece! Were they washed from the blood in place jumping bare heels in a tub?
    1. kalibr
      24 February 2018 22: 38
      +1
      Why add them later? Meaning? "Why so much trouble?" And, of course, no one washed them with a sheath. People are not fools. The scabbard was somehow attached. But the fact itself is interesting, not in the dressing and not on the belt they were worn! People acted rationally, that’s what’s important.
  13. Huumi
    Huumi 25 February 2018 08: 37
    +1
    Cool! - Useful, especially with miniature examples, it is clearly shown what ruble then there was a poleaxes, axes and war hammers!
  14. M. Michelson
    M. Michelson 26 February 2018 06: 21
    +1
    Actually, merchants also wore swords. Although, of course: for the merchant, the sword was only a help, while for the knight it was a matter of life.
    1. kalibr
      26 February 2018 07: 18
      +1
      Yes, they did. And the female samurai, too, could travel with a fire when traveling. But it is unlikely that a woman could cope with a male samurai. The average, of course.
  15. Raccoon
    Raccoon 1 March 2018 19: 14
    0
    And ... actually, why finish off the knight? You can get a ransom for it. And not small. Probably, these daggers and other medieval sharpeners were used either to finish off knights, whom the healer will not be able to help with anything, or ... to kill an opponent with the least damage to his armor, with the aim of subsequent capture and resale thereof)