Military Review

Just burginot

46
Here, on the VO pages, we have more than once turned to the topic of knightly armor, and, first of all, we were talking about helmets, since head protection is extremely important for a warrior. And in fact, you can be mortally wounded, for example, in the stomach, but at the same time you can still fight for a while and even lay down a couple of enemies. But a blow to the head, even without any special consequences for his health, can easily be “turned off”, after which he will be absolutely helpless. That is why helmets in the Middle Ages received so much attention. A warrior could only fight in the highway and in the quilt like our little jacket, but he also had a helmet on his head. The simplest bowler hat, the “iron hat” (chapel de fer) with brim, barbute, servilera, salad, bascinet, arme (or armet) - which notable seniors did not put on their heads, and “infantry from the people” . And, like the rest of the helmets, over the years they have also improved to match the trends of the times. It was necessary to protect the face from arrows and blows of a spear - tophelm appeared - “helmet-bucket”. They used it - an, something was “not right”, it was hard to breathe and the review was nasty - they invented a “Bundhugel”, and so on. But when the riders acquired pistols and heavy swords, they also needed a new helmet. And now we will tell you about this helmet called burginot or burgonet ...


Just burginot

One of the simplest burgonets of the XVI century. Made in Saxony. It is decorated with overlaid chased gilded details and painted black. Weighs 1454,3 (Metropolitan Museum, New York)

When we talk about the European Renaissance (XIV-XVII cc.), We know that it was a "grandiose cultural leap after the dark medieval". But studying the ancient Greek and Roman statues and examining the excavated mosaics, bas-reliefs from the columns of Traian and Marcus Aurelius, the cultural revolutionaries of the Renaissance could not help but turn their attention to the military culture of ancient Greece and Rome. And not only on the culture itself, but also on its individual details and, in particular, the specific and often tastelessly lush helmets of that era. And so, as a result of the symbiosis of old culture and fashion, as well as new metal processing technologies, a characteristic type of neoclassical helmet emerged, which quickly supplanted the previous salads and bascinetts characteristic of the 15th century.


A characteristic feature of the new helmet was the comb, similar to the comb of the armet helmet, but in a slightly different shape. Moreover, there could be several such combs on the “Burgundy helmet” (that's how it is on this one). This helmet is made in 1540 – 1550. in Augsburg. Its weight is 2251 (Metropolitan Museum, New York)


Very simple burgonet, but with a nose plate. Second quarter of the 17th century Northern Europe. Weight - 2101 (Metropolitan Museum, New York)

The new helmet appeared at the beginning of the XVI century, and had many characteristic signs borrowed from the past: first, a simple hemispherical shape; the lack of a complete cover for the face without restriction of vision and breathing; secondly, some helmets had a “collar” to protect the neck; and thirdly, it was characterized by plates to protect the face and head on hinges, modeled on Roman legion helmets and visor. Sometimes it was called the Burgundy Salad, but it was very little like the streamlined classic Salad of the XV century.


Bourguignot on the left, Armet on the right. The differences in design and construction of both helmets are clearly visible. (Dresden armory Ward).


Richly decorated 1610 burginot. Typical “helmet with a collar”. France. Material - steel, gilding finish, copper. Weight –2237 (Metropolitan Museum, New York)

English-speaking specialists have given this helmet the name of burgonet, which, apparently, is “tracing paper” from the French term bourguignotte. Whatever it was, linguistically traced the connection of the name of this helmet with the duchy of Burgundy, although the Italian gunsmiths played a very important role in its development.


Since we are talking about the fashion of the Renaissance, it is clear that the new helmet, made for ceremonial armor, immediately received its portion of naked interlacing bodies, vine leaves and antique curls of the "traveling wave". For example, this typical bourgeois with a visor and headphones looks like this, approximately 1550. France. Weight 1905 (Metropolitan Museum, New York)

Of course, the burgonet not only corresponded to the Renaissance fashion. He had his advantages. So, he provided his owner with the best peripheral vision, and he breathed in it quite easily. So it is not surprising that he received the approval of all the soldiers of the Renaissance, ranging from infantrymen to kings, inclusive, but he gained special popularity in cavalry. Originally burginot appeared in Italy in the XVI century. From there he came to Spain, then appeared in France, Germany, and so spread throughout Europe, including Poland. These helmets were used until the 17th century, when new types of helmets, morion and cabinets, gradually replaced the burgonet from the infantry. But only from the infantry! In heavy cavalry, he continued to be used for a long time.


Burgonet, approx. 1560, Italy. Weight 3755 g. Belonged to the so-called "heavy" type, as it is equipped with a pre-counter - a buff. (Metropolitan Museum, New York)

Burgonet is often called the “light” helmet, which in fact means little, since there were many varieties of this helmet and some were really “light”, and there were some that weighed four kilograms or more at the beginning of the 17th century!

A burgonet was usually forged from a single sheet of steel, but some of them were made of two plates interconnected along a central ridge. Since a good visibility was very important for a helmet of this type, but since it was also not desirable to do without a visor, many burgonets received different types of metal grills. Some of them directly copied heraldic images, or, let's say, heraldic images were made on real samples.


Original helmet with a "heraldic" fixed visor. Germany, XVII century. Weight 2892 (Metropolitan Museum, New York)


Burginot with visor "lattice", approx. 1600, Germany. Weight 2750 (Metropolitan Museum, New York)

In cases where nashi or naushi were present on this helmet, they were attached with hinges on both sides of its dome. On the chin, they could be fastened with a belt, like a Roman legionnaires, or crocheted.


Polish burgonet XVII. Weight 1984 (Metropolitan Museum, New York)

In general, despite all the diversity of burgoon-burginot from country to country, from master to master, all these helmets have a rather strongly extended back dome, equipped with either a fixed or movable backstop. There is an upward visor on the front. On both sides, hinges could be attached to the hinges. And just according to them, the burgoinhots turned out to be the easiest to classify into “open-type” helmets, in which scientists connect with chin straps, and “closed-type”, in which they form a chin, which is a kind of visor. There were three crests on the early burgointes, and one on the later ones. On the back of the head, under the ridge, they could fasten a sleeve for the sultan of feathers.


Burguignot by Filippo Negroli. It is decorated with a relief ornament and the image of a mermaid and the Gorgon Medusa. (Metropolitan Museum, New York)

Like all other parts of the armor of that era, the burgonets were decorated with engraving, etching, inlaid, they could be painted in different colors and simply polished. Some of them were covered with cloth - fashion, which had been moved from them by a helmet of salads. Many burgonets are so richly decorated that they were not suitable for any other purposes, except for the parade. To some helmets of this mission forged shields with a plot composition that repeats the main motif of the helmet's decoration. One of the later forms of the closed burgonet, which spread among the heavy cavalry of the XVII century, was the helmet “dead head”, whose visor resembled a human skull. Its less gloomy name is “Savoyard” or “Savoy Helmet”. That is, the place of their initial appearance was Savoy.


German or Italian "Savoy Helmet", 1620 - 1630 (Metropolitan Museum, New York)


"Savoyard" from the Army Museum in Paris, 1629

The famous master who produced many remarkable “Burgundy helmets” was the Italian gunsmith Filippo Negroli (1510 — 1579), who lived and worked in Milan in the 16th century. He was so widely known for his remarkable skill that he could be considered as one of the most famous gunsmiths of all times and peoples. Filippo did not work alone, but together with his two younger brothers, Giovanni Battista (1511 — 1591) and Francesco (1522 — 1600), in the Negrole workshop, which belonged to their father, Jan Giacomo Negrole. Filippo himself was fond of chasing, while Francesco specialized in gold and silver armor inlay. Filippo's works are different from others in that they were made of steel, and not of iron, which is more convenient in processing. He made ceremonial armor for Charles V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and Guidobaldo II, duke of Urbino.


Burgonet by master Filippo Negroli (ca. 1532 - 1551). Weight 1800 (Wallace Collection, London)
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  1. Streletskos
    Streletskos 20 February 2018 06: 48
    +19
    Notable by the shell)
    1. Cat
      Cat 20 February 2018 18: 38
      +2
      Beauty!
      Vyacheslav Olegovich sincere thanks, just a class!
  2. major071
    major071 20 February 2018 07: 02
    +12
    Many thanks to the author for the informative article. Loved it!
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 20 February 2018 10: 32
      +3
      Many thanks to the author for the informative article. Loved it!

      to "thank you" I join. drinks mmm ... repeat Vladimir, what about the verse? crying hastily? wink drinks
      1. major071
        major071 20 February 2018 12: 21
        +14
        A beautiful Guinevere
        It spoils Lancelot's nerves
        And the unfortunate Lancelot
        Wearing a bourguignot at home!
        wink drinks
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 20 February 2018 13: 05
          +5
          class! drinks this is talent! good I heard that a foil cap also helps when Reptiloids (hello Dmitry!) from space are trying to mentally affect unstable personalities. laughing So here it is, the invention, where it came from, from Lancelot .... what drinks
          1. Reptiloid
            Reptiloid 20 February 2018 14: 42
            +3
            But you would be Nikolai, than hiding in a foil cap, and fear of REPTILOIDS, you could remember in advance that March 10 is DAY OF ARCHIVES !!! This holiday in Russia is already 15 years old! On this day, Peter I signed the "General Rules or Articles of Association." Archives and the ACTUARIUS post appeared in all government bodies. The duty of the archivist "---" "is to diligently collect letters, repair the registers thereof, and rewrite the sheets" ". Why am I writing about it now? Our Petersburg will be free. Site. You need to find out how, what in other cities. We must prepare in advance! Dear comrades! Take an interest !!!!!!!!!!!!!! WHAT is important to anyone.
            1. kalibr
              20 February 2018 16: 15
              +2
              Yes, anyone who is free can look in, see ... how many greasy, yellowed papers have accumulated over time.
              1. Reptiloid
                Reptiloid 20 February 2018 16: 27
                +3
                Good afternoon, Vyacheslav! You have to start somewhere! How many times have you reminded us of archives, but I put it off. I hope that it’s important for me and my relatives to find out.
            2. Mikado
              Mikado 20 February 2018 16: 34
              +2
              March 10 DAY OF ARCHIVES !!! This holiday in Russia is already 15 years old! On this day, Peter I signed the "" General Regulations or Charter ""

              It's really cool. I think those who are interested will really be happy.
              yes reptiloid fear, could remember in advance

              why beware of them? wink The Annunaki are our brothers! drinks so, just said hello drinks No joke, how could I not mention you! Here the Good Doctor can sometimes be mentioned ten times in kind words, and he ... pretends not to see! wink
              1. Cat
                Cat 20 February 2018 18: 40
                +2
                Dear Nikolai missed the "life-giving enema"?
                Hello everyone!
                1. Reptiloid
                  Reptiloid 20 February 2018 18: 55
                  +2
                  And to you, Vlad-Kotishcha good health! The photo is wonderful!
                  1. Cat
                    Cat 20 February 2018 19: 37
                    +3
                    Dima good evening! I remember my due, as soon as the time appears I will definitely execute.
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 20 February 2018 20: 27
                      +2
                      Are you sticking out a bottle for him, Vladislav? wink drinks and yes I missed the enema! It is necessary to lose weight laughing and this can only be provided by the Good Doctor at the time of debate - I am sweating and sweating, and other processes are faster in the body fellow drinks in general, you need to take care of yourself .. launched, so to speak .. what
                      1. Cat
                        Cat 20 February 2018 21: 00
                        +2
                        Yeah - an enema with to and p and d and r, solves two problems! Both are purely personal !!!
  3. Grigorievich
    Grigorievich 20 February 2018 08: 00
    +5
    Beauty, what masters were, what fantasy. Thanks to the author.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 20 February 2018 08: 33
    +8
    Filippo Negroli, elevated his work to the level of high art. Looking at the armor of his production, you understand that only an artist worthy of this great and marvelous Renaissance, who deserves to occupy a place among the famous creators of his era, such as Rafael, Titian, Michelangelo, could do this. Palladio, Brunelleschi.
  5. marline
    marline 20 February 2018 09: 23
    +3
    Thank you for the article. Great helmets. A head really worth taking care of.
  6. sivuch
    sivuch 20 February 2018 09: 26
    +3
    the bourguignots in the second from above and from the third (left) photographs are practically indistinguishable from shishakov
    1. Lexus
      Lexus 20 February 2018 18: 05
      +3
      The one in the third photo, the Swedish cuirassiers wore. because it is very similar to the one in the tenth photo (if you remove the “wings”) worn by Polish cuirassiers. They (helmets) have a common ancestor - chaplain.
  7. Luga
    Luga 20 February 2018 10: 29
    +14
    As a child, I remember that in the summer we constantly made swords for ourselves and for a week or two they only chopped. I decided somehow to show off and found in the attic of a house some tin, such as a bucket, cut it into a T-shaped hole, filled it with some kind of batting so that my head would not rest against the bottom and went “to war”. The first thing the guys did when they saw me in such outfit was each to move me on the head. Then everyone took turns trying on my new thing and also got it on the head. Then the battle itself began. So, not only is it hard to see and hear in it, so every bastard strove for me to tinkle his little piece of wood with his helmet. Specially aiming. After a couple of fights, I took it off and threw it into the bushes.
    The moral of my commentary does not quite correspond to the topic of the article, but looking at some examples of helmets presented in it, I just want to tell their owners: "Don't show off, be simpler. The more your head stands out from the rest, the more it will fly into it." Something like this. smile
    1. kalibr
      20 February 2018 10: 53
      +5
      The best comment of all!
      1. Cat
        Cat 20 February 2018 18: 52
        +3
        Yes, dear friends, I would also hit something like that. Reflex or the influence of cinema!


  8. Curious
    Curious 20 February 2018 10: 42
    +6
    "English-speaking experts gave this helmet the name burgonet, which seems to be a tracing-paper from the French term bourguignotte. Anyway, the name of this helmet is linguistically traced to the duchy of Burgundy, although Italian gunsmiths played a very important role in its development ".
    If you turn to classics like Beheim or Kelly, then the bourguignot appeared in Italy, and then through Spain and France spread throughout Europe. Moreover, even the dates of the appearance of this helmet are called, for Kelly 1505, for Beheim - 1510. So, Burgundy, apparently, participated only linguistically.

    Bourguignot in antique style. 1532 year. Vienna Museum of Art History.
    The bottom plate carries an engraved image of an unfolded scroll with the inscription: PHILIPPO NIGROLI IAC MEDIOLANIENSIS OPUS. This helmet is the earliest bourguignot of the work of Filippo Negroli from the now known and, possibly, his first work in general, in a similar style.
  9. polpot
    polpot 20 February 2018 11: 05
    +4
    Thank you for the article, wonderful illustrations, gunsmiths had golden hands.
    1. kalibr
      20 February 2018 16: 12
      +3
      But doesn’t it seem to you that all this is a craft created on 300 later, to A - make money on it, B - distort the history and slander Russian sovereignty, and C - promote the debauchery of Western values? Have you seen a woman on a helmet? Not covered!
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 20 February 2018 16: 46
        +3
        Have you seen a woman on a helmet? Not covered!

        Vyacheslav Olegovich, what is it with you? belay Now, reverend! laughing
        EMNIP, the era of the Renaissance and aroused again interest in the image of a naked body. So to speak, Europeans were tired of avoiding sinful thoughts for a thousand years, they even broke through, and no Catholic church or inquisition personally helped! lol

        Although .. I remembered a miniature depicting two knights from your article "about a singer who forgot a lot". But the act of joint bowel movements, apparently, was to portray not sinful! fellow drinks those three who stand applaud while standing! laughing
        1. Curious
          Curious 20 February 2018 18: 21
          +5
          This is not an act of joint bowel movement. This miniature from the Chronicle of France of the fourteenth century shows how the Saracens desecrated the Church of St. James, defecating at the altar.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 20 February 2018 20: 30
            +3
            but they painted obscene places! fellow it means that politics was selective. request You can draw someone naked, and someone cannot look at a naked body, because they will burn him to hell. crying Double standards again, always in Western culture! am
      2. Curious
        Curious 20 February 2018 18: 08
        +3
        So they didn’t stop there! The falsification process continues. Books are published. Metro - a museum for example.
      3. Dimmih
        Dimmih 21 February 2018 13: 44
        0
        Truly so, shame and reproach! These helmets are corrupted and filled with Roman heresies! And from the inside, the inscription "Made in China" in Latin.
  10. Rotmistr
    Rotmistr 20 February 2018 15: 39
    +18
    Strange of course - the helmet appeared in Italy, the name is Burgundy.
    There were bourguignots open and closed
    But as they say, you can’t confuse with anything
  11. Lexus
    Lexus 20 February 2018 17: 54
    +3
    Good review: in the case, not stretched, with a "humor". And pictures good
    Thank you! hi
  12. Cat
    Cat 20 February 2018 18: 49
    +2
    Yes, dear friends, I would also hit something like that. Reflex or the influence of cinema!


    1. kalibr
      20 February 2018 19: 13
      +2
      A Vedic shamrock on a helmet is visible! Slav, however !!!
      1. Cat
        Cat 20 February 2018 19: 48
        +2
        Yes, Vyacheslav Olegovich, did you miss the representatives of the "falk history"! Even for the Mongol-Tatars there is no one to cross spears with. By the way, Oparyshev has not been seen for a long time? Boredom ....!
        Although to be honest, I always thought that such a friendly format is that priceless frame that paints any article. And if you take into account that the article was a success, then all this together multiplies the achieved result of the Author - a hundredfold !!! hi
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 20 February 2018 20: 32
          +3
          Even for the Mongol-Tatars there is no one to cross spears with. By the way, Oparyshev has not been seen for a long time? Boredom ....!

          let's decide in a businesslike way. yes so shall I call the reverend or not? request and to balance the cup, also Marat! drinks
        2. kalibr
          20 February 2018 20: 42
          +2
          I am very glad that you liked it. A kind word is also pleasant for a cat, and even more so for a person.
      2. Mikado
        Mikado 20 February 2018 20: 33
        +4
        A Vedic shamrock on a helmet is visible! Slav, however !!!

        Duc, maybe he is Irish! laughing a fan of whiskey and St. Patrick personally! fellow
        1. Cat
          Cat 20 February 2018 21: 04
          +3
          Everything is clear with whiskey! And this is like St. Patrick personally?
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 20 February 2018 21: 06
            +1
            I mean, they honor St. Patrick personally and especially! laughing so to speak, exclusively! The word "personally" in this phrase is used to enhance the meaning. drinks
  13. Mikado
    Mikado 20 February 2018 21: 02
    +4
    Cat,
    Yeah - an enema with to and p and d and r, solves two problems! Both are purely personal !!!

    I have always considered Viktor Nikolaevich to be an entertainer ... belay he has more than a worthy competitor .. laughing drinks True, he somehow suggested something else ... laughing
    1. Cat
      Cat 20 February 2018 21: 15
      +3
      No, Nikolai skipdar is an old folk remedy, with the help of which they not only lubricated rubbing wooden mechanisms, for example, the hub of a cart wheel or axle of the base of a factory hammer, but also used to treat dirty diseases! In the parables of the old people it was a panacea, but the proverb “what was said to have been spread” was apparently taken not in vain.
      By the way, you need to move "over the hill" Russian doping and all that. If a hotb one “asmatik” spreads a place for itself, then the idea can be considered burnt out!
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 20 February 2018 21: 21
        +3
        dirty diseases

        I hope I do not have them, except sluggish schizophrenia what joke! drinks
        By the way, you need to move "over the hill" Russian doping and all that.

        Pea soup! good And our runner will run the fastest! fellow
        If a hotb one “asmatik” spreads a place for itself, then the idea can be considered burnt out!

        I admit, Vladislav, I do not watch the Olympics. And I don’t presume to judge whether it’s right that the athletes went ... I don’t know. To each his own. A "asthmatics" of foreign .. would not hurt! And even better than those who protect them and promote them! There would even be a Good Doctor, with all his philanthropy, he would not just smear, but would put an enema on the very whiskers! fellow stop
        1. Cat
          Cat 20 February 2018 21: 55
          +3
          With emotions I fully support your position!
          Although the reason is whispering if one of ours has agreed to go to the "cesspool" it’s his choice and take his "chance" we have no right, but if we take it, we will become like Euro-citizens.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 20 February 2018 22: 02
            +4
            yes, common sense is one thing, emotions are another, you're right. I can’t appreciate it. And God be with him. One hell, there will be changes, and for the better. soldier Yes, I am preparing to be a Preacher, so I’m sure of it, although VN condemns me as a Preacher. No. Well, I wouldn’t blame .. I wouldn’t get the script in return! wink drinks
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