Before World War I, the newspapers of the three empires — Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary — avidly wrote about it, calling it a “rose in milk”. In 1920 – 1930-s she was applauded in Western and Eastern Europe, in the United States.
She paid fabulous fees, live at her feet flew flowers and jewels, her face wrote Konstantin Korovin and sculptor Sergei Konenkov created her lifetime a bust of white marble.
Her friends were Nicholas II with the tsarina and the grand dukes, Konstantin Stanislavsky and Leonid Sobinov, Fyodor Chaliapin and Sergey Yesenin.
She was capable of madly love: behind one of her lovers, she rushed off to the front, for the sake of another she took up espionage and died.
Her path - the plot for an adventure novel or a Hollywood blockbuster, and her life - история Cinderella, whose fairy godmother was a Russian folk song.
Escape from Domostroi
Nadezhda Plevitskaya (nee Vinnikova) was born on January 17 1884 of the year in the village of Vinnikovo in the Kursk province in a god-fearing peasant family.
In the autobiographical book "Dozhkin Karagod" ( "Nadezhdin dance"), published in Berlin in the year 1925, Plevitskaya recalls his childhood:
“Seven were us: father, mother, brother and four sisters. All the parents had twelve children, I was born the twelfth and the last, but there were five of us left, the rest of God died.
We lived in harmony, and the word of parents was law for us. If, God forbid, someone "law" dare to get around, it was a punishment: from the wood pile was chosen the father-mother thicker stick with the words: "for Otvalyayu than any horrible!"
I started singing from early childhood, imitating my elder sister Tatiana, and the villagers heard me singing. ”
With the death of the father, the family experienced poverty. To earn a living, Dozhka leaned in charwoman: villagers do all the washing, but it is not saved from hunger, and the mother gave it to the nunnery. For a long time she did not stay there - he fled to Kiev, and was in the shed. After the test, Dyozhka was accepted as a student by the choir conducted by Alexandra Lipkina with a salary of eighteen rubles per month for everything ready.
From the memories of Hope Plevitskaya:
“I now see that sly life has pleased me to jump in an unusual way: from village to monastery, from monastery to farce. When I went to the monastery, I wanted the truth to be clean, but I sensed there that there is no perfect purity of truth! Soul rebelled and ran away.
Balagan flashed sudden brilliance, and other scented soul truth, the highest truth - beauty, albeit small, unprepossessing, shabby, but for me a new and unprecedented.
Here is shantan. I saw there is good and bad, but "jump-something" was nowhere to go. After all, I barely knew how to read and write, to learn nothing. And then they learned to sing. We were trained for a chapel and held in a pair of riches: during the tour we were not allowed anywhere by ourselves around the city where we came. ”
FIRST LOVE, MALE
During his tour in Astrakhan, Lipkin was kidnapped by a rich Persian and taken to Baku on a yacht. He washed down his husband Lipkina with grief, the choir broke up, but Nadezhda was lucky to get into the roving troupe of artists of the Warsaw Theater under the direction of Stein. Handsome troupe dancer Pole Edmond Plevitsky made her an offer to marry him.
Hope, brought up in the harsh tradition of patriarchal despotism, even being head over heels in love with a Pole, still a year to keep a distance and not allowing him a single kiss, not to mention the "physiological bonds" - concubinage, which are widespread in the environment of troubadours.
In the 1903 year, having received a maternal blessing, Dyozhka Vinnikova, after her wedding in the Orthodox Church, continued the life of Plevitsa Nadezhda Vasilyevna.
GOD DOESN'T HAPPEN
Nadezhda and her husband toured the Russian cities in the Stein troupe, but after he had stolen the ticket office, he ran away, she began to sing Mankiewicz lapotnikov in the choir, and later in the famous Yar restaurant in Moscow.
In the autumn of 1909 of the year, when Plevitskaya, practicing an engagement, appeared in the Nizhny Novgorod restaurant Naumova, Leonid Sobinov went there to have dinner. After listening to her singing and evaluating the response of the hall, he invited Nadezhda to perform together with recognized authorities of the Russian stage Matilda Kshesinskaya and Vasily Kachalov in a charity concert, which he arranged at the local opera house.
So a chance meeting with the great tenor and participation in his concert helped Nadezhda to enter the big stage life and realize the power of his talent. But the fate of accidents does not tolerate: soon cultural Russia recognized Plevitskaya as one of the most prominent performers of Russian folk songs and romances, and she decided: no restaurants, no chewing merchants!
To get her to speak all major cities of Russia are eager. She sings at the Moscow Conservatory and at receptions in Tsarskoye Selo, where Empress Alexandra Feodorovna for inspirational singing gives her a gold brooch with a beetle sprinkled with diamonds.
The emperor, in order to hear the simple songs of Dyozhka Vinnikova, again and again calls her to Tsarskoye Selo. Touched to tears, he once said: “They told me that you never learned to sing. And do not learn. Stay the way you are. I have heard a lot of learned nightingales, but they sang for the ear, and you sing for the heart. Thank you, Nadezhda Vasilyevna! ”And he presented her with a diamond brooch in the form of a double-headed eagle. Since then, Nadezhda hasn’t come out to the stage without a brooch - she has become her talisman.
1911 year. Nadezhda Plevitskaya at the peak of glory. She climbed to the top, which did not reach any Russian peasant woman - she sang to the king himself, and he called her the favorite singer! Yes, then she was almost happy. “Almost” - because she lacked love ...
It is impossible to call beauty Hope: the face is round, arched, with an upturned nose, a bright, mellow mouth and small slanted, very cunning eyes and coals - the usual peasant type. The pitch spit and the fresh atlas of her body were magnificent - a “rose in milk,” as the newspapers called it. And there was in it some kind of internal fire that fascinated, because of which all the women next to her faded. And there were always a lot of men beside her. They loved her, threw flowers at concert halls or turned around after her, walking with her heels and playfully snaking with her inviting body, was walking down the street. However, as a Russian peasant woman and a real husband, she didn’t allow Plevitsky to betray her betrayal. Yes, and once she was at work.
Plevitsky now, not being in any troupe and living in a two-storey mansion built for her wives in the village of Vinnikovo or in St. Petersburg in her royally furnished apartment, revel in the rest, in his opinion, rest, incited innumerable love stories.
Hope knew about her husband's betrayal, but was not jealous, but envied his ability to fall in love and enjoy life. After all, she had nothing but hard work. But I wanted something more important than fame and prosperity. Something that would fill the soul with warmth and light - love!
For some time distracted from dark thoughts of shooting in the films "The Power of Darkness" and "Creek of Life", where Nadezhda took the lead role. But worthless to those films: in them she was “dumb”, and they loved her for her voice!
And again came the blues, overgrown in depression. Hope began to lose weight, but so quickly that seamstresses could not keep up with her concert wardrobe. All the doctors at once asserted about a severe illness that had struck her: now she was leukemia, now consumption, or stomach cancer ...
But in 1912, her dream came true: love came to her - and the sickness disappeared like a hand.
LOVE SECOND, KILLED
Vasily Shanginu, a lieutenant of the Cuirassier of His Majesty the Life Guards Regiment, was about thirty, he studied at the Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff, wore the Cross of St. George for the Japanese war, where he volunteered, leaving the university.
Hope he just blinded, and she completely captivated him. Now she had everything: the sovereign's patronage, success, wealth, and she sang the melody of love in two voices.
... The First World War caught lovers in Switzerland, where they stopped in, making a “pre-wedding” journey. Shangin turned to GHQ, so that Nadezhda was enrolled to the infirmary of his division as a sister of mercy, but the report was rejected: women have no place on the front line. And then she appeared on the line of fire in the male uniform of a medic. And let there be no scene - to spit, just to be near your loved one! Her feat in the name of love for a fighting officer at the front of the officer became a talk of the town, but a talk of the legend of Russia!
For the wounded, Plevitskaya performs in hospitals. When she sings near the trenches, the Germans, to interrupt her singing, are firing from guns. Occasionally, lovers manage to spend an hour alone, and so - for half a year, until the platoon of lieutenant Shangin covered the enemy shells.
Upon learning of the death of the groom, Dyozhka literally turned black from grief and felt like a walking dead. She was overwhelmed with utter hopelessness, and it took the capital's luminaries of medicine a year to bring her back to life.
In the year 1917 and the next two years - oh, you are crafty, life, the afternoon demon! What was that? Love again? No - fleeting flashes of passion, which Dezhka lost in a desperate outburst: since life has failed, at least I will take a walk! In Odessa, she had a stormy romance with "Comrade Shulga" - the famous "revolutionary sailor" of the Black Sea fleet. Nadezhda replaced Shulga with the captain Levitsky, who had transferred to the Reds, hastily arranging a marriage with him.
When the newlyweds were captured by the white, the head of the counterintelligence of the Kornilov division, Colonel Pashkevich, personally undertook to interrogate the Krasnopuzikov. But he was stopped by shouting: “Do you even know who you were captivated ?! I am Plevitskaya Nadezhda Vasilyevna! ”And Pashkevich, himself captivated by the charms of Nadezhda, offered her to become his wife.
Their fleeting connection with love joys between battles ended with the death of Pashkevich, and Nadezhda Skoblin, who fell in love with her at first sight, began to protect Hope from the eager to female Kornilovites. He reminded Plevitskaya of the deceased Shangin, and no longer the devastating noon, crafty, not carnal passion, but the quiet angel let down and bless the union of these two ...
LOVE LAST, ROCKY
Nikolai Vladimirovich Skoblin was born on June 9 of the year 1893. In 1914, he graduated from a military school and went through World War I with the rank of ensign. For military merit and courage was awarded the Order of St. George.
In the 1917 year, with the rank of captain Skoblin commanded the 2-m Kornilov regiment - one of the four regiments of the Volunteer Army, staffed only by officers. Without a higher military education at the age of 26 years (!), He was appointed commander of the Kornilov division and was given the rank of major general.
In the 1920 year, after the defeat of the White Guard in the Crimea, tens of thousands of Russian soldiers and officers, and with them General Skoblin and Plevitskaya, found themselves in a camp for displaced people near Istanbul, on the Gallipoli peninsula.
In June 1921, God's servants Nikolai and Nadezhda were married in the Gallipoli Orthodox Church. The planted father at the wedding was General Kutepov, who became the real leader (instead of Wrangel) of the entire Russian army in exile. He uttered the prophetic words: "We took you, Nadezhda Vasilyevna, into our regimental environment." Since then, the Kornilovs have called her “mother commander”, and Skoblin, hinting at his henpecked position, is “General Plevitsky.”
... The couple settled in Paris, and Plevitskaya began to sing at the Big Moscow Hermitage restaurant. Often she went on tour to Prague, Warsaw, Riga, Sofia, Brussels, Bucharest - everywhere where post-war refugees from Russia settled. And in 1926, she made a tour of America with a concert program.
However, due to the exorbitant demands of the spouses, Plevitskaya, who was accustomed to not refuse her, did not have enough money for the spouses. To improve the financial situation, Skoblin leased a plot of land with a vineyard, but a crop failure happened and they went bankrupt. I had to move from Paris to the town of Ozuar-le-Ferrier, where they bought a tiny house in installments, paying 9 thousand francs for it every year - three-quarters of the family income.
At the end of 1920, Stalin was convinced that in the event of a war in Europe, the largest organization of White Guard emigrants, the Russian All-Military Union (EMRO), numbering 20 thousand militants, would certainly come out against the USSR. In this regard, the Foreign Department (INO) of the OGPU - Soviet foreign intelligence - has steadily increased its efforts to create agent positions in the EMRO. The main object of agent penetration was the directive link of the union, which included General Skoblin. Heading the department for liaison with peripheral bodies, he was aware of all the EMRO plans, including joint operations with the intelligence services of Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Finland, France, in a word, not the general — a living safe with secrets.
2 September 1930 of the year to Paris to meet with Skoblin to determine the possibility of attracting him to cooperate with the OGPU as an agent arrived Peter Kovalsky, a former fellow soldier of the general, and now a recruiter of ITE Silverstov. Skoblin was extremely happy to meet with a colleague, dragged him to his home and introduced him to Plevitskaya.
After several visits to Ozuar-le-Ferrier, Silverstov realized that Skoblin was completely dependent on his wife, coordinated his every step with her, so he decided to deliver a “doublet hit” - to recruit both spouses.
At the beginning of the recruiting conversation, the Moscow “bounty hunter”, to immediately take possession of the situation, went with the “trump ace”: read the “Resolution of the USSR Central Executive Committee on granting personal amnesty and restoration of civil rights of former subjects of the Russian Empire Nikolai Vladimirovich Skoblin and Plevitskaya ( nee Vinnikova) Nadezhda Vasilyevna ".
Watching the reaction of spouses, Silverstov himself noted that his “ace of the sleeve” had the desired effect. Developing success, he assured Plevitskaya that she was remembered at home as an outstanding singer and would be met with honors if returned. Addressing Skoblin, he said that for Soviet Russia he was not an enemy and could return to his native land at any time. And if the general agrees to serve his homeland, being in a foreign land, then on his return a worthy position in the General Staff of the Red Army is guaranteed to him ...
Concluding the brainstorming, the tempter from Lubyanka announced the last, but not least important argument: if Nikolai Vladimirovich agrees, each spouse will receive 200 dollars monthly (while Renault in France was worth 70 – 90 dollars). ).
“We agree,” said Plevitskaya quickly, under the table, pushing with her knee her husband who was sitting next to her. And Silverstov invited the spouses to sign the following document:
I hereby undertake to the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to comply with all the orders of the Red Army intelligence officers associated with me, regardless of the territory. For my failure to comply with this obligation, I am responsible under the military laws of the USSR.
Major General Nikolai Vladimirovich Skoblin
Nadezhda V. Plevitskaya-Skoblina
Paris, September 10 1930.
He completed his mission by completing Skoblin’s first assignment: installing a listening device in the office of General Miller, the head of the EMRO. Information from him will "remove" the secret agent of the OGPU Tretyakov, who lived on the second floor, directly above the headquarters of the union.
... Thus, almost the first in the history of Soviet foreign intelligence, an agent tandem was created, which for seven years provided the Center with valuable information. Only in the first four years of Farmer and Farmersha’s work — the pseudonyms of Skoblin and Plevitskaya — on the basis of the information received from them, 17 militants sent by the EMRO in the USSR were neutralized to commit terrorist acts; crushed 11 conspiratorial apartments in Moscow, Leningrad and Transcaucasia; the assassination attempt against USSR Commissar for Foreign Affairs Maxim Litvinov was prevented; an agent provocateur was exposed, which was substituted by French intelligence and 11 for months supplied the OGPU with a “dezoy”.
The main role in the tandem belonged to Skoblin, information getter. Plevitskaya copied secret documents, which her husband brought home for an hour, wrote intelligence reports, compiled codes for the Center, acted as a liaison person and processed caches during tours.
MAVR, WHICH HAS SUPPLIED GENERAL
In February, 1930, after the disappearance of General Kutepov, Lieutenant-General Yevgeny Karlovich Miller was appointed head of the EMRO, and Skoblin became his closest assistant.
Under Miller, the preparation of sabotage and mass terror on the territory of the USSR continued to be the main focus of white emigration activity. At the non-commissioned officer courses he created in Belgrade, in the spirit of hatred for everything Soviet, children of immigrants were brought up. In Poland, on his instructions, groups of young militants were prepared to conduct a partisan war in the rear of the Red Army in case of war with the USSR.
By 1937, General Miller focused entirely on Hitler: "The EMRO must turn all its attention to Germany," he said, "this is the only country that has declared the fight against communism not for life, but for death."
The center decided to kidnap Miller and judge him in Moscow. But the goal-maximum was still not a court. At Lubyanka, they knew that in the event Miller disappeared, only Skoblin would have a real chance to become the head of the EMRO. This would allow to take control of the Union’s activities and prevent the “crusade against the Soviets” called for by Miller.
Alas, the strategic operations of foreign intelligence were no longer developed by Artur Hristianovich Artuzov, but by Yezhov's appointee Abram Slutsky, who did not have sufficient operational experience. It was he who in the abduction of Miller appointed Skoblin a key role, which eventually compromised the general, and killed Plevitskaya.
HOW TO HAVE A BLACK TURN
September 22 General Miller 1937 did not appear at the EMRO headquarters either in the afternoon or in the evening. His deputy, Admiral Kedrov, opened the package left by Miller and read the note:
“I have a date with 12.30 today in gene. Skoblin on the corner of st. Jasmen and Raffa. He must take me on a date with the German officer, the military attaché in the Balkan countries Shtroman, and with Werner, the official of the local German embassy.
Both speak good Russian. A date is arranged on the initiative of Skoblin. It is possible that this is a trap, and therefore just in case I leave this note.
22 September 1937 years
Sent a messenger for Skoblin. At first, he denied the fact of his meeting with Miller. Then Kedrov presented him with a note and offered to go to the police to testify.
Skoblin, who had gone through so many battles that would be enough for three officers, didn’t lose his temper and calmly said: “Mr. Admiral, I have evidence in my office of my innocence to Yevgeny Karlovich’s loss, I’ll bring them now!”
Kedrov nodded in agreement. In a measured step, Skoblin, ringing a bunch of keys, moved along the corridor, but opened the door not to his office, but to the one that led to the back door ...
Tretyakov reacted instantly to the conditional knock, and five minutes later he wrote an emergency call for the resident officer on the lamppost…
Admiral Kedrov went to the police - two generals disappeared in 24 hours! And the French have one thing in mind: Shersho la femme, and the Mata Hari case is still fresh in my memory.
Interrogated Miller's wife - dummy. They took on Plevitskaya - they hit the bull's eye: during a search in her home Bible, they found a code-table. But the singer denied everything. Then the French counterintelligence with the help of a microphone secretly recorded her confession from a priest - and nothing more! Nevertheless, the court appointed her 20 years of hard labor for complicity in the abduction of General Miller.
INSTEAD OF EPILOGUE
... The Flying Group from the department of special assignments of the NKVD (search and hunt for defectors) “treated” Miller with a portion of chloroform, rolled into a wooden box and transported to the Soviet Union on board the Maria Ulyanova motor ship.
For two years he was held in the “interior” - the inner prison of Lubyanka, where investigators from the NKVD “worked” with him. After his refusal to make a speech at the court denouncing the EMRO in crimes against the Soviet Union, on May 11 on the order of the Chairman of the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court Ulrich, he was shot.
... A farmer on a plane bought by a resident especially for him was taken to Barcelona, where he died at the end of 1937 during the bombardment of the city by the Hitler air condor Condor.
... At the end of 1940, when Farmersch was detained in the Central Prison of the city of Rennes, France was occupied by German troops. “The master’s back-up affairs” from the Gestapo, having learned that she was suspected of having links with the Soviet secret services, began to interrogate her. Not without their help, she passed away on October 5 1940 of the year.
... On the eve of World War II, the EMRO was completely disorganized by the efforts of Soviet foreign intelligence, which deprived Hitler of the possibility of using more than 20 thousand militants in the war against the USSR.