Military Review

"Rifles for South America" ​​(Rifles by countries and continents - 9)

56
Just look at the world map to see what a huge continent - South America. And not just huge, but very rich. The Amazon lowlands are the lungs of the planet, but they are also a mass of valuable wood. Plantations of sugarcane, coffee, bananas, pineapples, coca, pampas of Argentina, where huge herds of cattle graze, Chilean saltpeter deposits, and this, not to mention the traditional gold and other "pleasant things." It is not surprising that slave labor was used here for a long time (in the same Brazil it was canceled only in 1888 year), which we were told in detail in the television series “Slave Izaura” that having mainly agricultural orientation of their economy, South American states exported mainly agricultural products and raw materials, and imported machine-made products. Therefore its own weapons these states practically did not produce, but bought it, and, in particular, the same rifles made in Germany or Belgium, as well as in the USA. These samples were not much different from country to country, except that beautiful stamps, not at all similar to the simple stamps of producing countries. For example, in Brazil, the Mauser 1894 rifles and carbines, the 1907 / 1908 rifle and carbine, the short rifle and 1922 carbine of the year and the 1935 rifle were used either in the Factory National, Mauser or Oberndorf. Only the “short rifles” M1908 / 34 and M1954 were already released at their own weapons factory in Itajuba using wood from their native forests and under the American .30-06 ammunition.


Therefore, in order not to get bogged down in the “Mauser trifles”, we will begin our journey through the South American “rifle jungle” not with the Mauser, but with the Mannisher M1886 rifle, which played a key role in the Chilean revolution, which represented a very unusual event in stories. It all started with the fact that in 1891, the country's Congress spoke out against President Balmaceda. The Navy joined the Congress, but the army remained on the side of the president. This created a strange situation in which neither side could effectively attack the other. In February, the rebels captured 4500 eight-millimeter Manlicher rifles of the 1888 model, but could not use them because they did not have ammunition for them. But on the other hand, they were able to purchase 10000 M1886 rifles chambered for 11-mm caliber and this partially solved the problem. Then the steamer “Landana” delivered seven million 8-millimeter cartridges to the rebels, and the ship “Wandl” arrived from Antwerp with another two million rounds of mannisher and 5000 rifles Gra. Now the rebels were able to use all this and soon won. According to one of the British observers, “the mannicher rifle was deadly and very helpful to the rebels”. There are reports of cases of mass retreats of the President’s troops falling under the fire of these rifles. So, the first modern rifle in South America was still not the Mauser, but the Manlicher rifle.


Mannicher Rifle МХNUMX (Army Museum, Stockholm)


Chapel Mauser Chambers 1895

However, the Mauser was "right there" already in 1895. It was the “Chilean model” of the M1895 of the year, on the slide frame of which it was written: “MAUSER CHILENO MODELO 1895”, and the place of production is Berlin. Here are just a cartridge she did not have a German caliber 7,92-mm, and his - seven-millimeter, although also bezrany. However, this cartridge was also developed by the firm "Mauser", had a sleeve from the cartridge caliber 7,92-mm, but only here a little smaller bullet caliber. It is interesting that, although this cartridge was not adopted in Germany itself, it was nevertheless necessary to make war, but it was used very widely, and not only in the states of South America. So, the Spaniards took it as a standard rifle cartridge and used it during the Spanish-American war of the 1898 of the year, as well as in the war against reefs in Morocco in the 1920-s. After fighting with the Spanish troops in Cuba, this patron became interested in the United States, and in England they came to the conclusion that such cartridges with smokeless powder and sharp-pointed bullet bullets were highly effective immediately after the Boers armed with rifles chambered for 7 × 57 mm, during the Anglo-Boer War, the British were able to inflict serious losses. Moreover, the cartridge 7 × 57 mm in its main characteristics (accuracy and firing range) proved to be much better than the British .303, wearing cordite and not giving a long firing range. Well, during the First World War, this cartridge was used in Europe by the Serbian army. Experts have noted that the cartridge 7 × 57 mm, among other things, also proved to be a very reliable ammunition, which did not misfire, even in extreme conditions of the tropical jungle and African savannas.


Chamber of the Chilean Mauser M1895

All Chilean rifle models, including the M1912 rifle (made in Austria by Steyr), had straight bolt handles, and the first handle, bent down, was received only by the 1935 carabiner, the so-called “carabineer carabiner”, which the police used in Chile. He has no recess in the bed under the bolt handle. The chamber depicts two crossed rifles and two inscriptions “Orden Y Patria”, which means “Order for the nation” and MODELO 1935. On the receiver inscription: "MAUSER-WERKE AG OBERNDORF a / N".

"Rifles for South America" ​​(Rifles by countries and continents - 9)

The chamber of the rifle M1912


Chamber of the M1935 carbine. In the photo, this stamp is almost negligible, but it is indicated that this sample is intended for Chile.

In total, between 1912 and 1914 for years, Chile received around 20.000 rifles and carbines. This version practically did not differ from the German 1898 model of the year and was identical to the Mouzers made for Mexico and Colombia, ordered by them the following year.


Madsen M1947 rifle.

Some South American rifles are so amazing that it is hard to believe that they exist. This is the case with Madsen’s M1947 Colombian rifle chambered for 7,62x63 mm. This Danish rifle was perhaps the most recent rifle of this type in the world. Moreover, the Danes did not accept it, but they tried to sell it to developing countries with limited military budgets. For some reason, Colombia bought it: rather, in 1948, a batch of these rifles in the number of 5000 copies was sold there for the Chilean Navy. But these rifles did not get into the fleet, and were subsequently sold out.


Muzzle brake on the barrel of the M1947 rifle.

From a technical point of view, this rifle was nothing particularly outstanding. The usual magazine rifle with manual reloading, longitudinally sliding bolt. Locking is done by turning the shutter. The lugs are in its rear end. 5 magazine capacity of cartridges, loading from clips or one cartridge each. Butt neck semi-pistol. Aim devices are a bit more up-to-date - this is a diopter pillar and a front sight with a ring headset. Rear sight adjustable in range from 100 to 900 meters.

For a long time, Paraguay has managed “what God sent,” buying “various things,” where it was cheaper. But in 1927, he was finally honored to make a large order for rifles in Spain at a factory in Ovideo. The order was executed from 1927 to 1932 year. For the production was chosen again the Mauser rifle model 1898, but with a straight shutter handle. Another was the caliber - 7,65x53 mm. And it turned out that this is very good, since in the 50-s, many of them were re-drilled trunks under the German 7,92-mm cartridges without any problems. Another difference from the German Mauser is not immediately apparent. This is a magazine cover latch on the trigger bracket. You shift it and the cover with a spring and feeder leans back. The rifle played an important role in the military history of Paraguay - it participated in the famous Gran Chaco War.

The Argentine 1891 infantry rifle of the year is one of the most attractive and best Mauser rifles in South America. It was made on the basis of the “commission rifle” of the 1889 model of the year, up to the copying of ammunition. All Argentine 1891 rifles were made by Ludwig Löwe and DVM. Even today, most of these rifles are in fairly good condition (many of them are close to perfection), since they were used relatively little and were well preserved. For some reason, they had a brass ramrod.


The coat of arms of Argentina in the chamber of the rifle M1909 g.

In total, Ludwig Loewt set up 230400 rifles and 35500 carbines for Argentina. The latter, of course, differed in their shorter length and the design of the muzzle tip with the “ears” of the front sight characteristic of carbines of the time. Caliber - 7,65x53 mm.

The original model was the M1891 / 31 engineering carbine, produced in 5043 copies. They put two fastening parts for the Remington 1879 rifle of the year, with an integral brass handle and a guard shackle! There were also the M1909 rifle of the year and the carbine of the same year, but they practically did not differ from the previous models.

24 April 1901 Peru ordered 16000 rifles and 4000 carbines from Argentina. And for this they had to be led to Germany, where the coat of arms of Argentina was slaughtered by them to the arms of Peru. These are the adventures of rifles that travel across the ocean for ... a new coat of arms on the "receiver". Peru then received Modelo 1909 rifles based on the M1898 rifle, which were produced at the Mauser plant in Oberdorf. Again, the straight handle of the bolt, but ... amazingly long bayonet with a dol from the handle to the tip.


Peruvian Mauser M1909

Finally, in 1935, Peru ordered Mauser rifles in Belgium according to FN standards. It was called the "short rifle" and had a different sight than the German one, and 7,65x53 mm ammunition. Her handle was finally bent, but the recess under it was not made.


Here is a coat of arms and an inscription appeared on the Peruvian M1935 rifle.

Venezuela, its rifles model 1930, under the same cartridge also ordered in Belgium. And if the Peruvian models of the barrel and bolt carrier were blued, and the “white” only shutter, then this sample had all its details. But the bayonet was Czech, from a rifle VZ.24.


Coat of arms of Venezuela in the chamber of the M1930 rifle

It so happens that Brazil under the Treaty of Tordesillas 1494, turned out to be a colony of Portugal, not Spain, and Portuguese became their native language. However, the M1908 rifles and hers were Mouser, made by DVM in 1913 in the number of 77000 copies. They had a shortened bayonet with a guard with a hook and a brass cap on the barrel, shut it off from the water. Shutter handle - straight. The cartridge - 7x57 mm.


The chamber of the Brazilian rifle M1908

Then came the “era of change” - the M1909 / 34 rifle was no different from the German Mauser, but the American 7,62 × 63 mm (.30-06 Springfield) cartridge was adopted for it, so that the source of supply was always at hand. But this seemingly sensible solution was immediately canceled the following year by exporting M1935 “long rifles” with the Mauser brand stamp, and with 7 × 57 mm cartridges. Why it was necessary, it is impossible to explain.

But with Uruguay it was like this: the story says that during the last decade of the 19th century, the Uruguayan army was looking for a modern rifle. But she had a problem: there was no money. Therefore, from 1892, the Uruguayan army was equipped with both Mauser 1871 model rifles and Remington rifles. But none of these systems could no longer be considered modern at that time.

Sources differ in their details, but in general they say one thing: there seems to be a certain immigrant named De Dovitis (sometimes written simply “Dovitis”), who undertook to “solve” the problem. He proposed to send the Uruguay Mauser to France, where to change the barrels for new cartridges. The old rifles had a caliber of 10,95-mm, and this, just like the fact that they fired black powder cartridges, did not like the Uruguayan.


German rifle Mauser M1871 of the Uruguayan army. (Army Museum, Stockholm)

In general, the Uruguayan M1871 found themselves in Europe, in France, in Saint-Denis, where they were reorganized as patronized by 6,5x54R. This guaranteed the French profits from future orders for ammunition for these rifles. According to reports, this was how the 10000 rifles were modified. And in the 1894, this “new” rifle was still single-shot.

And then it turned out that the new cartridge cases are cracked. Shooting them was simply impossible. Therefore, Uruguay almost immediately abandoned this unfortunate weapon. And not just refused, but in a very radical way: many Dovitis rifles were literally thrown into the river along with a large number of cartridges.

It was now about getting out of such a stupid situation. And the Uruguayans found a way out: they purchased Mauser M1893 rifles, which they bought in Belgium at the FN factory. They were identified not by a coat of arms, but by a monogram consisting of the letters “ROU”, which meant “Republic Oriental de Uruguay”. The neck of the box is straight, the bolt handle is straight. Chuck - 7x57 mm. The 1908 model was identical to the Brazilian model 1908, and was produced in Germany. It has the Uruguayan coat of arms on the chamber, as well as the date of manufacture.


Czechoslovakian carbine VZ.24.

Shortly before World War II, Uruguay acquired short rifles VZ.24 in Czechoslovakia (6000 in total) and renamed them the 1937 model of the year. They have the same coat of arms on the chamber and the words: “ROU Ejercito Nacional”. A carbine similar to VZ.33 was also purchased. As at the beginning of the century, the 1937 model of the year corresponds to the general scheme of Mauser rifles and carbines used in other countries, so there is no need to describe their characteristics in detail. However, it can be said that almost all the countries of South America, from the Isthmus of Panama to Patagonia, were armed with a Mauser rifle, although their calibers differed from the rifles adopted in Germany. Of the noticeable differences - usually straight, not bent shutter and different sights than the Germans.

To be continued ...
Author:
56 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. polpot
    polpot 15 February 2018 15: 28
    +5
    Banana republics, for which there is a denyuzhka they took, now times are changing Brazil is a very serious producer of small arms
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 15 February 2018 17: 01
      +4
      banana banana discord wink drinks Mexico, for example, was the first to adopt a self-loading rifle of its own design! request even in something surprising what
      1. Grid
        Grid 17 February 2018 06: 04
        +3
        / Mexico, for example, was the first to adopt a self-loading rifle of its own design! /
        I accepted it, I just could not produce it. Could only in Switzerland.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 17 February 2018 10: 40
          +1
          I accepted it, I just could not produce it. Could only in Switzerland.

          Yes, at something I missed something, I bow hi but, as I understand it, the rifle spread across many countries, and took part in a number of wars of the turbulent 30s. It seems to be lit up in China. The Chinese army seems to have been generally the most diverse armed. what
          1. Grid
            Grid 17 February 2018 13: 13
            0
            / but, as I understand it, the rifle spread across many countries, and took part in a number of wars of the turbulent 30s. /
            She didn’t really go anywhere. Although after the WWII could come across specimens around the world.
    2. Lexus
      Lexus 15 February 2018 19: 21
      +1
      Brazil is a serious producer of small arms

      They only have Taurus pistols and revolvers doing pretty good. The rest is so-so.
  2. Curious
    Curious 15 February 2018 17: 04
    +1
    The Mauser Model 1871 had a caliber of 11,15 mm. Where did you manage to find 10,95? And the story of Dovitis. Maybe it was Louis Marie Daudeteau?
    1. kalibr
      15 February 2018 17: 41
      +1
      Somewhere I took ... And here about your Louis Marie Daudeteau "1895 DAUDETEAU INDOCHINA TRIALS CARBINE"
      Forgotten Weapons
      1. Curious
        Curious 15 February 2018 18: 22
        +1
        Joke. I already know enough about my Louis Marie Daudeteau. And here is your source, not only does the caliber incorrectly indicate, but also about the Greek Dovitis, who was tailors and made a fortune on the supply of uniforms for the army of Uruguay, does not say anything. So Dovitis had well-established connections among the Uruguayan military.
        1. kalibr
          15 February 2018 20: 02
          +1
          Happy for you! Information is an illusion!
          1. Curious
            Curious 15 February 2018 22: 00
            +2
            Prepare to write verses?
            1. kalibr
              16 February 2018 07: 33
              +1
              God forbid! Enough here with us is one self-taught poet-pensioner.
              1. Cat
                Cat 16 February 2018 14: 10
                +2
                Quote: kalibr
                God forbid! Enough here with us is one self-taught poet-pensioner.

                Vyacheslav Olegovich, if you are talking about “Eugenics” Eugene Funke, then your injection, right, is not appropriate. hi
                1. kalibr
                  16 February 2018 16: 04
                  +2
                  No, that you mean a completely different person. From the "local".
                  1. Cat
                    Cat 16 February 2018 18: 12
                    +2
                    Then Vyacheslav Olegovich hang up, I apologize for unfounded suspicions.
                2. Mikado
                  Mikado 17 February 2018 13: 20
                  +2
                  about Eugenics Eugene Funke

                  I respect his poems. If not all, then there are often strong ones. Used in the article and comments. To each his own. Is able to write - let him write. This is creativity! good And creativity interests me. hi As if, no offense to everyone. soldier
  3. Catfish
    Catfish 16 February 2018 01: 22
    +3
    I wonder how our “kvas patriots” feel there, fans and apologists of a three-linear rifle?
    Take it, spin the globe and, wherever you spit, you get into the Mauser. But, elephant, you understand ... wink
    1. Cat
      Cat 16 February 2018 05: 34
      +5
      I’m twisting and turning the globe, it’s already a finger to poke! Where I do not poke all the Kalashnikov assault rifle! What is it for?
      1. egeny patykov
        egeny patykov 16 February 2018 11: 41
        0
        to tam that the cha has less money. since these aptamats were added free. what for ? but as a Khazyaev. Imagine how pleasant it is for the boss to sell someone else's. Svovo that Nevo does not. and here it goes and bastards
        1. Cat
          Cat 16 February 2018 14: 19
          +3
          This is a "thought", even a "thought" !!!
          If you are poor as a church mouse, then to raise your "him" you must give "not yours" - "to whom later!" And then you’ll have a “happiness” !!!
          In how, otherwise I naively believed that everything must be achieved with my work and head.
          I’m going to give the boss’s left shoe! And judging by your guesses, happiness should fall upon me instantly !!!
      2. Mikado
        Mikado 16 February 2018 14: 09
        +4
        I did not understand about the "three-ruler" ... okay. hi GlavKot, do not dizzy, and be careful with your finger, safety is above all! wink drinks and in the "three-line" a little less than a year ago, V.O. had a good cycle Shpakovsky.
        1. Curious
          Curious 16 February 2018 18: 38
          +6
          "... I did not understand about the" three-ruler "...
          What is there to understand? Well this is one of the eternal themes for the shitbags between the couch gunsmiths, which is better - "Mauser 98" or "three-ruler." It comes to the bayonet. There was simply no one to support, otherwise they would have been slaughtered no worse than the “Bulkhrusts” with the “Bolsheviks”.
          1. Cat
            Cat 16 February 2018 19: 02
            +2
            Oops! Dear Victor .. the fallout is not addressed to you, about the "srach" is 100% right.
          2. Mikado
            Mikado 16 February 2018 23: 26
            +2
            It comes to the bayonet.

            the Wehrmacht preferred not to accept the bayonet performed by the Red Army .... the gut was thin. SS - not always, but accepted. There the preparation was better.
            1. Kibb
              Kibb 17 February 2018 14: 21
              +3
              A dubious plus for the Red Army, although as usual the medal has two sides - a similar badge could hardly have appeared in the Red Army
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 17 February 2018 14: 39
                +1
                it was a matter for ours, an honor for them. In the 44th year, everything changed. Wehrmacht divisions were milled by artillery.
        2. Cat
          Cat 16 February 2018 18: 46
          +2
          I completely agree with you, but I’m not accustomed to spitting, so we turn the globe and everything with a claw, but with a claw ... Oops, I’ll go to look for an owl ....... Open the cat, the owl came, ....

          Judging by the comments made by the commentators above, Nikolai, as I understand it, was just an attempt to convey to us the wretched perniciousness of patriotism! Moreover, at the level of the national peak - “KVAS” and the Russian rifle “THREE LINES”.
          Wow, how does it infuriate me, "hat with earflaps", "balalaika", "matryoshka" !!! What else can you reproach us with and where to spit? The presence of stereotypes and their unscrewing just touches me.
          Nikolay with respect!
          By the way, articles by Vyacheslav Olegovich were in the subject, but ...
          It is possible to love the Fatherland only completely and without any conventions. It can be criticized, scolded, but you can not turn your back and mock him. I am sincerely convinced that the glory of the glorious Mosin rifle is enough for my homeland. And enough of the one that she deserved, without embellishment, snot and saliva. At least just the fact that for half a century it has been the main weapon of my Fatherland. By the way, Kotor occupies 1/6 of the land? Under the USSR - 1/5, and under the Russian Empire, and more in total. So the “camel” is lying at least every fifth of its “little harches” didn’t fall far from the Mauser’s habitat, but you have to hit the knot for that!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 16 February 2018 20: 13
            +5
            "May my government not be right, but this is my country!"?
            1. Cat
              Cat 16 February 2018 21: 27
              +3
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              "May my government not be right, but this is my country!"?

              Taking off my hat! Brevity is not my thing!
              Sincerely, Kitty!
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 16 February 2018 22: 00
                +2
                I am sincerely convinced that the glory of the glorious Mosin rifle is enough for my homeland.

                completely share. It seems that all the neighbors understood this. hi
                1. Michael HORNET
                  Michael HORNET 19 February 2018 16: 27
                  +2
                  Now, by the way, the Venezuelan militia in many were assigned Mosin Rifles))) I'm not sure that the Russian Federation received money for this, most likely a small payment went into the pockets of “friends”, but nonetheless
                2. Mixa 2106
                  Mixa 2106 20 August 2018 13: 02
                  0
                  Not all
                3. Mixa 2106
                  Mixa 2106 20 August 2018 13: 06
                  0
                  not all many want to repeat
        3. Grid
          Grid 17 February 2018 06: 10
          +1
          / and in the "three-line" a little less than a year ago, V.O. had a good cycle Shpakovsky. /
          It is better to read the primary sources of this essay. Very mediocre and pretentious.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 17 February 2018 10: 42
            +4
            It is better to read the primary sources of this essay.

            The primary source was largely the archive of the Artillery Museum. hi
            1. Grid
              Grid 17 February 2018 13: 15
              0
              Do not. In the comments on this "cycle" I cited references to the source. Shpakovsky did not discover a new nichrome, but doused all who he could with slops.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 17 February 2018 13: 16
                +3
                what is not necessary? museum archives? You are the only one decided? wink
                So. Let's engage in a constructive dialogue. drinks
                1. Grid
                  Grid 17 February 2018 16: 42
                  0
                  No links to Shpakovsky. The fact that this subject was not tinkering in any archives is a fact.
                  Dialogue lead? If you want to rummage in my comments on the "cycle", otherwise I will be forced to rank you among the sect of fans of Shpakovsky.
                  Fuck with him, just read Fedorov.
    2. Grid
      Grid 17 February 2018 06: 09
      +1
      / I wonder how there our "fermented patriots" feel, fans and apologists of a three-linear rifle? /
      Hospodia, well, where do you get so smart from?
    3. hohol95
      hohol95 17 February 2018 19: 39
      +2
      Do you have data on the refusal to supply "three-rulers" from the factories of the Russian Empire?
      State-owned and private arms factories EXPORT did not live at that time! Somehow there was no desire to promote and trade the weapons of the Russian Empire around the world!
      If you have other information - bring it!
      1. Grid
        Grid 18 February 2018 14: 52
        0
        Somehow there was no desire to promote and trade the weapons of the Russian Empire around the world!

        Desire, maybe it was, there was no possibility ...
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 18 February 2018 18: 05
          +1
          It would be DESIRE - would create opportunities! And so they sold army stocks to Bulgaria and possibly to someone else!
  4. Streletskos
    Streletskos 16 February 2018 10: 09
    +17
    Cool article!
    And oh, how vividly wink
  5. XII Legion
    XII Legion 16 February 2018 10: 18
    +18
    Interesting cycle
    I try not to miss hi
    1. kalibr
      16 February 2018 13: 21
      +3
      Further will be even more interesting!
      1. Grid
        Grid 18 February 2018 14: 53
        0
        Further will be even more interesting!

        Will you taste the next mushrooms and spill the stream of consciousness on the public?
        1. kalibr
          19 February 2018 11: 13
          +1
          XII Legion 16 February 2018 10: 18
          Interesting cycle
          Trying not to miss - 14 +
          Grille Yesterday, 14: 53 ↑
          Further will be even more interesting!
          Will you taste the next mushrooms and spill the stream of consciousness on the public? - 0
          1. Grid
            Grid 19 February 2018 12: 17
            0
            Shpakovsky, as far as I can tell, you already TASTED MUSHROOMS.
            1. kalibr
              19 February 2018 19: 24
              +1
              My destiny is to eat mushrooms and write, yours is to read, provide me with clicks and go on malice further. But a smart man was nevertheless drew attention to the fact that his comments did not use success, no matter how hard he tried. In any case, thanks for the new clicks!
  6. egeny patykov
    egeny patykov 16 February 2018 11: 43
    0
    Chilean and Brazilian rifles have a pentagram. five-pointed star. strange to us. . we also have this.
    1. Michael_Zverev
      Michael_Zverev 16 February 2018 20: 22
      +3
      What is so strange here? Five-pointed stars are very common in heraldry and are present on the arms and flags of many countries and, accordingly, on the marks on their weapons.
      1. Cat
        Cat 16 February 2018 21: 36
        +4
        Dear Mikhail, shhhh ..... you can injure a person with your revelations about the stars!
        By the way, for 25 years now there are no stars on the coat of arms and flag of Russia. Although this does not prevent them from attending official flags and rowing in more than a hundred countries!
    2. Kibb
      Kibb 17 February 2018 14: 06
      +3
      Here's an example, an ignorant person will not immediately understand that the cruiser is not Soviet (if there is no signature)
  7. Michael_Zverev
    Michael_Zverev 16 February 2018 18: 37
    +2
    The chamber shows two crossed guns and two inscriptions “Orden Y Patria”, which means “Order for the nation” and MODELO 1935.
    "Orden Y Patria" is translated as "Order and Fatherland"
  8. Michael_Zverev
    Michael_Zverev 17 February 2018 19: 30
    +2
    Listen, is the article "Rifles by Countries and Continents - 6" here? I see the fifth and seventh in the list, the sixth is not.
    1. kalibr
      18 February 2018 08: 29
      +3
      Will be! The error crept into the count.