Military Review

Sergeant Pavlov: a hero without myths

30



The unprecedented battle of the Volga, which became a turning point in World War II, ended 2 in February 1943 of the year victoriously. Up to the end of the battle of Stalingrad, street battles continued. They adopted a fierce character in September 1942, in the central and northern parts of the city were uninterrupted.

The battle in the city is special, the commander of the legendary 62 Army Vasiliy Chuikov later noted: “It’s not the strength that decides the issue, but skill, skill, resourcefulness and surprise. Urban buildings, like breakwaters, cut the battle formations of the advancing enemy and directed its forces along the streets. Therefore, we firmly held on to very strong buildings, created in them a few garrisons, capable in the case of the environment to conduct a circular defense. Especially strong buildings helped us to create strong points, of which the defenders of the city mowed down the advancing fascists with machine-guns and machine guns. ”

One of the strongholds, about the importance of which spoke commander-62, was a dilapidated building in the central part of the city. AT history Stalingrad battle and the whole of the Great Patriotic War, this object later entered as the house of Pavlov. Its end wall appeared on January 9 square (later Lenin). The 42-th regiment of the 13-th Guards Rifle Division, which joined the 62-th Army in September of the 1942-th (division commander Alexander Rodimtsev), acted on this line. The four-story brick building occupied an important place in the defense system of Rodimtsev's guards on the approaches to the Volga, because from there the entire surrounding area was controlled. It was possible to observe and bombard the part of the city occupied by that time by the enemy: to the west up to one kilometer, to the north and south - and even more. But the main thing was that the ways of the possible breakthrough of the Germans to the Volga were looked through; Intense fighting here lasted more than two months.

The tactical value of the house was estimated by the commander of the 42 Guards Rifle Regiment Colonel Ivan Yelin. He ordered the commander of the 3 Infantry Battalion, Captain Zhukov, to seize the house and turn it into a stronghold. 20 September 1942 of the year, fighters of the squadron headed by Sergeant Pavlov made their way there. And on the third day, reinforcements arrived: machine-gun platoon of Lieutenant Afanasyev (seven people with one heavy machine gun), a group of armor rifles of senior sergeant Sobgaydy (six people with three anti-tank guns), four mortar men with two mortars commanded by Lieutenant Chernyshenko and three machine gunners. The commander of the stronghold was appointed Lieutenant Afanasyev.

The Nazis almost all the time were carrying out massive artillery and mortar fire on the house, they attacked it from the air, they continuously attacked. But the garrison of the “fortress” - this was how Pavlov’s house was marked on the staff map of Colonel-General Paulus, the commander of 6 of the German army, prepared him skillfully for all-round defense. The fighters fired from different places through the embrasures in the bricked-up windows and holes in the walls. When the Nazis tried to get closer to the building, they were met by heavy machine-gun fire. The garrison steadfastly repelled enemy attacks and inflicted heavy losses on the Nazis. And most importantly - in the operational-tactical plan, the defenders of the house did not allow the enemy to break through to the Volga in this sector. It was not by chance that on the map of Paulus it appeared that a Russian battalion was allegedly in the house.

Sergeant Pavlov: a hero without mythsLieutenants Afanasyev, Chernyshenko and Sergeant Pavlov established fire interaction with the strongholds in the neighboring buildings - in the house that was defended by Lieutenant Zabolotny, and in the mill building where the command post of the 42 Infantry Regiment was located. On the third floor of the Pavlov's house, an observation post was equipped, which the Nazis could not suppress. In one of the basements held a telephone line and installed a field device. This point had a symbolic call sign "Lighthouse". “A small group, defending one house, destroyed the enemy soldiers more than the Nazis lost when they took Paris,” said Vasily Chuikov.

Pavlov’s home was defended by 11 nationalities - Russians, Ukrainians, Jews, Belorussians, Georgians, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kalmyks, Abkhazs, Tajik, Tatar ... According to official figures, the 24 fighter. Really - from 26 to 30. There were dead, wounded, but a replacement came. Sergeant Pavlov (born 17 on October 1917 of the year in Valdai, in the Novgorod region) celebrated the 25 anniversary within the walls of his “home”. True, nothing has been written about this anywhere, and Yakov Fedotovich and his battle friends preferred to keep silent about this.

As a result of continuous shelling, the building was seriously damaged, one end wall was almost completely destroyed. In order to avoid losses from blockages, on the orders of the regiment commander, part of the fire weapons was moved outside the building. Despite fierce enemy attacks, the defenders of Pavlov’s house, Zabolotny’s house and the mills, which the Guards turned into strongholds, continued to hold on to defenses.

How did you manage not only to survive in the fiery hell, but also to defend effectively? Firstly, Afanasyev and Pavlov were experienced fighters. A sergeant from 1938 in the Red Army, before Stalingrad, was the commander of the machine-gun department, the gunner of the gun. Secondly, the reserve positions equipped by them were very helpful to the fighters. In front of the house was a cemented fuel depot. An underground passage was dug to it. Thirty meters from the house was the hatch of the water tunnel, to which the soldiers also dug an underground passage. On it to the defenders of the house received ammunition and scarce prodpayk. During shelling, everything except the observers and military escort went down to the shelters. Including the remaining civilians in the house (when Pavlov and his fighters occupied the house, there were about three dozen of them - women, old people, children), who for various reasons could not immediately evacuate. The shelling stopped, and the entire small garrison was again in its positions in the building, firing again at the enemy. 58 days and nights kept the defense. The fighters left the 24 stronghold of November, when the regiment, along with other units, launched a counter-offensive.

The country highly appreciated the feat of the defenders of the house. All were awarded government awards. And Sergeant Pavlov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. However, after the war - by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from 27 June 1945 of the year, after Jacob Fedotovich joined the party.

For the sake of historical truth, we note that the defense of the outpost was really led by Lieutenant I. F. Afanasyev (1916 – 1975). After all, he was a senior in rank. But Afanasyev was not awarded the title Hero. Upstairs they decided to submit to the high rank of junior commander, who, together with his fighters, first broke through to the house and took up defense there. Already after the fighting, someone made the appropriate inscription on the wall of the building. She was seen by warlords, war correspondents. Under the name "Pavlov's House", the object was originally listed in the combat reports. Thus, the building on the square 9 January entered history as the house of Pavlov.

But what about Lieutenant Afanasyev? Ivan Filippovich was a very modest man and never put out his merit. In fact, he remained in the shadow of the subsequent glory of his subordinate. Although the merit of combat Yakov Fedotovich indisputable. Pavlov, despite the injury, and after Stalingrad remained in the army, already as an artilleryman. And in the other part. The war ended on the Oder by the foreman. Later he was given an officer rank.

Today, about 1200 direct participants in the Battle of Stalingrad have remained in the hero city (approximately, because they are getting smaller). Jacob Pavlov could rightfully be on this list - after all, he was invited to settle in the restored city. The hero was very sociable, many times he met with residents who survived the war and raised it from the ruins, with young people. Yakov Fedotovich lived by the concerns and interests of the city on the Volga, and participated in patriotic education events.

Pavlov's legendary house in the city became the first restored building. And the first was telephonized. And some of the apartments there were received by those who came to rebuild Stalingrad from all over the country. The memorial inscription on the wall reads: “At the end of September 1942, this house was occupied by Sergeant Ya. F. Pavlov and his comrades A. Aleksandrov, P. Glushchenko, N. Ya. Chernogolov. During September-November 1942 the house was heroically defended by the soldiers of the 3 Battalion of the 42 Guards Rifle Regiment of the 13 Guards Order of Lenin Rifle Division: Aleksandrov A. P., Afanasyev I. F., Bondarenko M. S., Voronov I. V., Glushchenko V. S., Gridin T. I., Dovzhenko P. I., Ivashchenko A. I., Kiselev V. M., Mosiashvili N. G., Murzaev T., Pavlov Ya. F., Ramazanov F. 3., Sara ev V. K., Svirin I. T., Sobgayda A. A., Turgunov K., Turdyev M., Khait I. Ya., Chernogolov N. Ya., Chernyshenko A. N., Shapovalov A. E., Yakimenko G.I. ” But three names are not named ...

All the surviving defenders of the house that went down in history were always the most dear guests of the townspeople. In 1980, Yakov Fedotovich was awarded the title "Honorary Citizen of the Hero-City of Volgograd." But ... right after the demobilization in August of 1946, the hero returned to his native Novgorodchin. He worked in party organs in the city of Valdai. Received a higher education. Three times elected deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR from the Novgorod region. Peaceful awards were added to the military awards: the Order of Lenin and the October Revolution, medals ...

Yakov Fedotovich died in 1981 year - the consequences of front-line injuries affected. But it so happened that around the house of Sergeant Pavlov and himself there were legends and myths. Their echoes can be heard now. So, for many years, rumor said that Yakov Pavlov did not die at all, but took monastic tonsure and became Archimandrite Cyril. This, in particular, was reported by one of the central newspapers.

Is it so, the employees of the Volgograd State Museum-Panorama of the Battle of Stalingrad found out. And what? Father Cyril in the world really was Pavlov. But - Ivan. He participated in the Battle of Stalingrad. And then both Jacob and Ivan were sergeants, and both finished the war as junior lieutenants. In the initial period of the war, Ivan Pavlov served in the Far East, and in October 1941, as part of his unit, arrived on the Volkhov front. Then - Stalingrad. In 1942, he was wounded twice. But survived. When the fighting in Stalingrad subsided, Ivan accidentally found a scorched gospel among the rubble. He considered this to be a sign from above, and his heart-burned by the war prompted: keep the volume in your possession.

In the ranks of the tank corps Ivan Pavlov fought with Romania, Hungary and Austria. And everywhere with him in the knapsack was a burnt church little book from Stalingrad. Demobilized in 1946-m, he went to Moscow. In Yelokhovsky Cathedral I asked how to become a priest. As was, in uniform, went to enroll in a theological seminary. After many years, the staff of the military registration and enlistment office of Sergiyev Posad near Moscow asked Archimandrite Cyril: what should I report upstairs about Sergeant Pavlov, the defender of Stalingrad? Cyril replied: he is not alive.

But this is not the end of our story. During the search, the museum staff (I was there as a student in Pavlov’s house, many times as a student, because before the army I studied at a nearby university) we managed to establish the following. Among the participants in the Battle of Stalingrad were the three Pavlovs, who became Heroes of the Soviet Union. In addition to Yakov Fedotovich, this is tanker captain Sergey Mikhailovich Pavlov and infantry guard senior sergeant Dmitry Ivanovich Pavlov. On the Pavlovs, as on the Ivanovs, Petrovs, Russia is holding on.

As for the defenders of the legendary house, only one of them survived to this day. This is Uzbek Kamoljon Turgunov. After the victory on the Volga, he made a vow: he will have as many sons and grandchildren as his comrades died in the Battle of Stalingrad. And indeed, his 78 grandchildren and more than thirty great-grandchildren came to pay homage to the aksakal. The last defender of Pavlov’s house, who defended him with the PTR, survived Ivan Afanasyev, Yakov Pavlov and other fellow soldiers much more. Turgunov died 16 March 2015 year. He was 93 ...
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https://vpk-news.ru/articles/41139
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  1. Cat
    Cat 11 February 2018 07: 33
    +13
    Many thanks to the author! Rarely do the words of the Author find in the soul a complete and unconditional response. The above article from the first to the last word "how to remove the language!"
    A deep bow to all our veterans!
    With deepest respect, Kitty!
  2. kipage
    kipage 11 February 2018 07: 47
    +19
    Hero Garrison
    Glorious pages of our history
    1. verner1967
      verner1967 11 February 2018 11: 06
      +4
      Quote: squeeze
      Hero Garrison

      and multinational
      Uzbek Kamoljon Turgunov. After the victory on the Volga, he vowed: he will have as many sons and grandchildren as his comrades died in the battle of Stalingrad.
      reading these lines, you think about when you’ll cover, and so that you won’t breathe, people of different nationalities become brothers and carry this feeling through the years, but you just have to start living well, immediately spread apart in their corners and begin to hate each other.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 11 February 2018 07: 54
    +7
    Myths around the name of Pavlov began to be created in the late 80s and 90s, and dirty, just like they didn’t write nasty things ... It was disgusting to read ...
    1. groks
      groks 11 February 2018 13: 45
      +3
      There is such a writer Arseny Mironov. In an excellent book, The Dead End of Humanism, he mocked these magnificent "exposers." It is curious that he worked then in the government.
  4. moskowit
    moskowit 11 February 2018 08: 05
    +4
    Thank you so much Vladimir Roshchupkin! Although the Feat of Pavlov and his fellow soldiers have been known since childhood, the article nevertheless provided new information!
    Eternal Glory and Eternal Memory!
    One Pavlov’s House defended longer than France !!!
    1. moskowit
      moskowit 11 February 2018 09: 26
      +5
      On the site "Feat of the People" you can easily find award sheets on Y.F. Pavlova.
      For his feat in defense of the famous Pavlov’s House, Yakov Fedotovich was presented with the Order of the Red Star, but by order of the 62 Army received the medal “For Courage” ...
      Back side of the document
      For the title of Hero, Yakov Fedotovich for the same feat was presented at the end of November 1944 of the year. .In April 1945, General Rodimtsev, already a corps commander, signs the Award List, which is confirmed by the Army Commander Zhadov ...
      Reverse side of the document ...
      A very interesting situation ... Is not it ???
      The Lord saved Jacob Fedotovich in the flame of war, but did the opposite happen? Whose name was the legendary house ???
      1. chenia
        chenia 11 February 2018 10: 30
        +5
        Quote: moskowit
        The Lord saved Jacob Fedotovich in the flame of war, but did the opposite happen? Whose name was the legendary house ???


        You understand. that it is a symbol of resilience, and absolutely deserved. There were dozens, if not hundreds, of such houses in Stalingrad. Pavlov’s reward is a reward for those who survived and those who died Pavlov went through the whole war !!! He was wounded several times. became an officer, and was already an order bearer (2 KZ) and a bunch of medals.
        In the army since 1938, he was more experienced than Afanasyev. And he defended the house from the beginning was the first (with separation) to the end. And this is the best candidate, it is wonderful that he was noted.

        Real Russian soldier !!!
      2. bubalik
        bubalik 11 February 2018 12: 03
        +2
        moskowit Today, 10: 26 For his feat in defense of the famous Pavlov’s House, Yakov Fedotovich was presented with the Order of the Red Star, but by order of the 62 Army received the medal “For Courage” ...

        ,, I assume that the medal "For Courage" was awarded for previous events because:

        Guardsmen of the 3th battalion of the 42th SHG from the group of junior lieutenant N.E. Zabolotnogo, digging a trench through Sunny Street, managed to occupy the ruins of the four-story building, which in the future will be referred to as the “Zabolotniy House”. это было on September 25.

        The next night (26 September), Junior Sergeant J.F. Pavlov received an order from the commander of the 7 company of senior lieutenant I.I. Naumov reconnoitre a four-story building on January 9 Square, which stood next to the ruins of the “Zabolotny’s house”. Pavlov has already established himself as an excellent fighter - a week earlier, together with Zabolotny and a group of fighters, he cleared the house of the Ventorg from the Germans.
        / Voyentorg house, as indicated in the award on September 18/
        1. bubalik
          bubalik 11 February 2018 12: 23
          +1
          And it turns out that there were no awards for the defense of the house. And the award on the GSS from November 30 1944 ! forced to write.
          1. bubalik
            bubalik 11 February 2018 12: 52
            +2
            “This house at the end of September 1942 was occupied by Sergeant Pavlov Y. F. and his comrades Aleksandrov A. P., Glushchenko V. S., Chernogolov N. Y. During September-November 1942, the soldiers heroically defended the house 3- of the X battalion of the 42 Guards Rifle Regiment of the 13 Guards Order of Lenin of the Rifle Division: Alexandrov A.P., Afanasyev I.F., Bondarenko M.S., Voronov I.V., Glushchenko V.S., Gridin T. I., Dovzhenko P. I., Ivashchenko A. I., Kiselev V. M., Mosiashvili N. G., Murzaev T., Pavlov Y. F., Ramazanov F. 3., Saraev V. K., Svirin I.T., Sobgaida A.A., Turg Unov K., Turdyev M., Khayt I. Ya., Chernogolov N. Ya., Chernyshenko A.N., Shapovalov A.E., Yakimenko G.I. ”


            Nobody received awards for the heroic defense request
            1. groks
              groks 11 February 2018 13: 28
              +1
              Should everyone be awarded in Stalingrad? It is clear that this is unrealistic. And where does this conclusion come from?
              1. bubalik
                bubalik 11 February 2018 13: 41
                +1
                And where does this conclusion come from?

                I looked at the Feat of the People, there are a couple of awards shared for the battles in Stalingrad (defenders of the house), but specifically for the episode with the defense of the house for this period recourse maybe I looked bad what
                1. groks
                  groks 11 February 2018 14: 03
                  +3
                  Yes, everyone just fought there no less valiantly. To give the defenders of this house is to give the defenders of neighboring houses. Did the guys eat gingerbread in the trenches?
                  There is a story about two young Armenians who, with their guns, covered up the refugee withdrawal near Stalingrad. Both survived, but no one asked what their names were.
        2. moskowit
          moskowit 11 February 2018 12: 37
          +3
          Well, you see, what a wonderful result the joint analysis gives ...
    2. bubalik
      bubalik 11 February 2018 11: 11
      +5
      One Pavlov’s House defended longer than France !!!


      “A small group, defending one house, destroyed more enemy soldiers than the Nazis lost during the capture of Paris,” noted Vasily Chuykov, commander of the 62.
  5. bionik
    bionik 11 February 2018 08: 08
    +3
    J.F. Pavlov (hero of the famous defense of the Pavlov’s House) and A.M. Cherkasov - the leader of the 1st Volunteer Brigade for the restoration of Stalingrad talk against the background of the building, damaged by fighting.
    So now this famous house looks like.
    The photo was taken after June 1945 - on the chest of Pavlov’s Star Hero of the Soviet Union, this title was awarded to him on June 17, 1945.
  6. bubalik
    bubalik 11 February 2018 11: 18
    +14
    Kamolzhon Turgunov
  7. KVU-NSVD
    KVU-NSVD 11 February 2018 13: 56
    +6
    “This house at the end of September 1942 was occupied by Sergeant Pavlov Y. F. and his comrades Aleksandrov A. P., Glushchenko V. S., Chernogolov N. Ya. During September-November 1942, the soldiers heroically defended the house 3- of the 42st battalion of the 13nd Guards Rifle Regiment of the 3th Guards Order of Lenin of the Rifle Division: Alexandrov A.P., Afanasyev I.F., Bondarenko M.S., Voronov I.V., Glushchenko V.S., Gridin T. I., Dovzhenko P. I., Ivashchenko A. I., Kiselev V. M., Mosiashvili N. G., Murzaev T., Pavlov Y. F., Ramazanov F. XNUMX., Saraev V. K., Svirin I.T., Sobgaida A.A., Turgunov K., T Urdyev M., Khayt I. Ya., Chernogolov N. Ya., Chernyshenko A.N., Shapovalov A.E., Yakimenko G.I. ” But the three names are not named ...
    Nails would be made of these people; there wouldn’t be any stronger nails in the world! That's what the films are about ... Recently, I was in Panorama with my sister and her husband who arrived. I show him Pavlov’s house and say “but Pavlov’s house” and the answer “Who is this?” .... I didn’t believe the story of how many platoons I put creatures ... Comments are unnecessary ... AUTHOR huge respect !! good
    1. Looking for
      Looking for 11 February 2018 15: 35
      0
      Physically, victory is ours. And morally complete defeat. Our memory is short.
      1. KVU-NSVD
        KVU-NSVD 11 February 2018 15: 44
        +7
        Physically, victory is ours. A morally complete defeat
        Speak for yourself. I do not consider myself defeated. In some ways, the battles are lost, but the war is not lost. Have you personally been morally defeated?
  8. ZIS
    ZIS 11 February 2018 21: 26
    0
    “A small group, defending one house, destroyed more enemy soldiers than the Nazis lost when they captured Paris,” noted Vasily Chuykov.
    As far as I know, Paris was declared an open city and the Germans did not take it, but simply entered. Does anyone know their loss in the capture of Paris? I do not question the courage of the heroes, but how many dubious phrases can be replicated ...
    1. bubalik
      bubalik 11 February 2018 22: 00
      +2
      This expression was launched by Marshal Chuykov. Chuykov V.I. The battle of the century. - M .: Soviet Russia, 1975

      Pavlov’s house was defended for 58 days, almost all of France was captured in 32 days. About 30 people were able to defend one house longer against the same soldiers who took the whole country in a shorter time.
      1. Town Hall
        Town Hall 11 February 2018 22: 08
        0
        Quote: bubalik
        Pavlov’s house was defended for 58 days, almost all of France was captured in 32 days. About 30 people were able to defend one house longer against the same soldiers who took the whole country in a shorter time.




        In the summer of the 41st in 32 days the USSR merged territories from 3 France and with losses 3 times more than the French army. So what?
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. ZIS
          ZIS 11 February 2018 23: 04
          +1
          laughing The French did not have enough territory!
        3. chenia
          chenia 12 February 2018 10: 50
          +2
          Quote: Town Hall
          In the summer of the 41st in 32 days the USSR merged territories from 3 France


          Eccentric, Germany was three times stronger in 1941 than in 1939 (we must count from this time), and most importantly, the Wehrmacht was absolutely ahead in the deployment of the Red Army.

          And if a war had been declared, and hostilities began 2 months later (at least), then by the fall of 1942 we could be, if not on the Oder, then on the Vistula for sure. The battle of Moscow was won first of all by divisions (Siberian) with 3-4 months of combat coordination. We have gained time in space.

          This is to say that the Franco-British warriors had 8 months (and they leaked France in 2-3 weeks - the Germans still chased for a month those who would sign the surrender). And a direct comparison can only be done by a very stupid person.
  9. Catfish
    Catfish 11 February 2018 23: 14
    +3
    Quote: Town Hall
    Quote: bubalik
    Pavlov’s house was defended for 58 days, almost all of France was captured in 32 days. About 30 people were able to defend one house longer against the same soldiers who took the whole country in a shorter time.




    In the summer of the 41st in 32 days the USSR merged territories from 3 France and with losses 3 times more than the French army. So what?

    Merged, then poured, and then poured back. And who signed the surrender? That's right: France with Germany, and then Germany with Russia. Who capitulated to whom do not remember? But what about the liberation of France? The British with the Americans did not release our country. No, I understand - De Gaulle, poppies, some fleet in Casablanca ... Only France did not meet among the victorious countries.
    Therefore, it would be better if you did not compare the fighting in Russia and in France. As the French themselves say; "France capitulates first on the battlefield, then in bed." We didn’t have that.
    And as for the author of the previous comment ... As the brother said in "Brother2": "But what to take from him, one word - Romanian." tongue
    1. Town Hall
      Town Hall 11 February 2018 23: 19
      0
      Quote: Sea Cat
      As brother said in "Brother2"




      Brother-2 is one of the cheapest and stupid films you can think of. Created for the intellects of the level of a yard punks
      1. avva2012
        avva2012 12 February 2018 02: 46
        +1
        Perhaps for especially gifted and free personalities. Although, what’s there, you don’t like, “will you answer for Sevastopol?” I understand that splashing a well-known substance in the direction of the ancestors is the result of excellent education and the highest IQ? belay
  10. Yura Yakovlev
    Yura Yakovlev 12 February 2018 12: 27
    0
    "Sergeant Pavlov (born October 17, 1917 in Valdai, in the Novgorod region"
    They are not born soldiers, they become soldiers. Yakov Fedotovich Pavlov was born in the village of Krestovaya in the Valdai district of the Novgorod province. To make it clear, this is not far from the Palace railway station on the Moscow-Pskov road. Chunky, broad-shouldered, smiling and kind by nature. I learned about my award from a newspaper clipping that was kept by my mother. For a long time he denied himself from his house Pavlov, said that there are many Pavlovs.
  11. cradle
    cradle 17 May 2018 07: 54
    0
    Quote: Town Hall
    Quote: Sea Cat
    As brother said in "Brother2"




    Brother-2 is one of the cheapest and dumbest films you can think of. Created for the intellects
    yard level punks

    "Romanians" do not understand, and not removed for them.