Military Review

Father of high-explosive shells

28
Vladimir Iosifovich Rdultovsky - one of the outstanding designers of the Russian Empire and the USSR, the creator of fuses, ammunition and explosive devices. Without exaggeration - it is a star of the first magnitude, and the world level.




Vladimir Iosifovich was born in 1876 in Vladikavkaz - in the family of the captain of the Caucasian army who had served out of ordinary soldiers. His father died early (in 1888), and the son, out of respect for his father’s military merit, was accepted to the Voronezh Cadet Corps for public support, after which (in 1893) he entered the Mikhailovsky Artillery School. The Mikhailovsky Artillery School is a military educational institution that gave very serious special training. Graduates of the school noted that the contingent and the whole atmosphere of the school made an impression of a temple of science based on well-organized management and discipline, and widespread scientific (primarily mathematical) education led to the fact that its pets resembled scientists rather than frivolous junkers. V.I. Rdultovsky graduated from college in the first category (1896) and became an officer.

After production, he served for some time in the 2 of the East-Siberian artillery brigade, and then was accepted to the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy. The Academy Lieutenant V.I. Rdultovsky graduated from 1902 in the city - also in the first category. And for the "excellent success in the sciences" was made in the captains.

After graduating from the Academy, V.I. Rdultovsky occupies a number of responsible positions related to the work of the Main Artillery Directorate, develops new types of artillery weapons, participates in the construction of military factories, organizes mass production of ammunition, which Russian artillery needed in World War I, and works in the artillery armament front supply bodies. By October 1917, Vladimir Iosifovich was in the position of the chief of supply of heavy artillery, and, without interrupting his work, he joined the Red Army and was confirmed in the same position.

Vladimir Iosifovich is actively involved in the work of rearming artillery of the Red Army, investing in this business all his knowledge and experience gained in the previous period. At the same time with the great design and research work, he teaches in a number of higher educational institutions. So, from 1926 to 1929. he read the Ammunition Course at the Artillery Academy, was a lecturer and permanent chairman of the State Examination Commission at the Military Mechanical Institute, and from 1932 until the end of his life read the Course of pipes and fuses at the Naval Academy. Divingener V.I. Rdultovsky worked in experimental and design bureaus, was the first director of the Trinity Equipment Factory.

For his fruitful activities aimed at improving weapons, the Imperial and Red armies Vladimir Iosifovich repeatedly awarded. In 1915, Colonel V.I. Rdultovsky was a knight of the Order of St. Vladimir of the 3 degree. In 1924, he was thanked the Revolutionary Military Council and was awarded a cash award for the excellent performance of the special task of the Government. In 1928, for his work he was awarded the title of Honored Worker of Science and Technology. In 1933, he was awarded the Order of the Red Star for developing weapons models, and in 1935, he was awarded a gold watch from the People's Commissar of Defense. In 1938, the government awarded him the XX Years of the Red Army medal for his many years of service in the Red Army.

The role of Vladimir Iosifovich in the development of artillery equipment in our country was very large.

The Russian field artillery entered the Russian-Japanese war 1904 - 1905, having only shrapnel in service - to which, due to a profound error, the universal properties of the "single projectile" were attributed. The very first months of the war revealed the unsatisfactory nature of such a primitive ammunition, and insistent demands on high-explosive grenades began to come from the front. Vladimir Iosifovich immediately responded to the needs of the army, designed the first 76-mm high-explosive grenade and organized its production in such a way - that already in 1905, it began to flow to the Far East. This circumstance is all the more remarkable that the issues of high-explosive grenade equipment with powerful explosives were not studied in Russia at that time, and the gross production of such projectiles was in its infancy during this period.

In 1906, Vladimir Iosifovich is sent abroad for five months, where he studies methods of loading high-explosive shells, the technology of making pyroxylin, nitroglycerin and cordite, extracts information about trinitrotoluene and tetryl that have just been adopted in Germany and brings explosives to Russia. From that time on, the first works on the equipment of high-explosive shells with TNT and the use of tetryl as a detonator in fuses began in Russia. In 1906 - 1908 Vladimir Iosifovich designed the 76-mm high-explosive grenade with TNT equipment, developed the technology of its equipment and personally organized the equipment of the first gross batches - this grenade was the basis of the ammunition for batteries armed with 76-mm cannons during the First World War and remained in service with the Red Army under the name of “old” high-explosive grenades.

In 1908 - 1914 Vladimir Iosifovich designs heavy explosive shells for 107-mm guns arr. 1877 and 1910's., 122-mm howitzers arr. 1910 g., As well as a hand grenade, which received the name "grenades sample 1914 g.".

During the First World War, Vladimir Iosifovich prepared a draft equipment plant for hand grenades and the production of explosive mercury and surrogate explosives - he supervised the construction of the plant and the equipment of the first gross batches of hand grenades arr. 1914, bringing the volume of production to 4 per day in 20000 months. In total, during the First World War, about 40 million hand grenades were manufactured. Arr. 1914


1. Hand grenade arr. 1914

During the First World War, he also developed a number of remote fuses for anti-aircraft grenades, known under the brands of RD, RTZ, RTZ (UG), etc.

Vladimir Iosifovich played a great role in rearming artillery of the Red Army. Among the major works in this area, his projects of fragmentation projectile for small-caliber artillery, fuses WG-6 and their modifications should be particularly noted.

Along with the development of individual weapons, Vladimir Iosifovich paid much attention to the experimental selection of such important elements of the shot as pipe caps - creating samples that are widely used in various fuses. Rdultovsky - the founder of the theory of design of fuses. Vladimir Iosifovich personally carried out dangerous work with caps and fuses, risking his health more than once and often his life.

V.I. Rdultovsky developed a large number of samples and 80 draft designs, although not adopted, but served as markers for him and other designers on the way to choosing the most rational and perfect options.

He developed the first high-explosive aerial bomb - FAB-250.

A characteristic professional trait of Vladimir Iosifovich was to bring almost every project to gross parties and surrender them to the troops - which was of extremely important national importance for such an object as ammunition. In this respect, his work on the first high-explosive shells with TNT equipment, hand grenades and fuse samples is most indicative.

In addition to performing purely design and production tasks, Vladimir Iosifovich conducted a number of research projects. The works on determining the durability of explosives when fired and the factors affecting the sensitivity and speed of action of instantaneous fuses, on radial and axial detonation, on the selection of decelerations and a number of others have brought the greatest notoriety. Under the leadership of the famous artilleryman V.M. Trofimov, he took part in the development and testing of fusiform projectiles.

While teaching, Vladimir Iosifovich wrote a short course of tubes and fuses for the Artillery Academy and a detailed historical Essay on the development of tubes and fuses.

Father of high-explosive shells

2. Cover of the work of V. I. Rdultovsky.

Throughout his life, Vladimir Iosifovich did not confine himself to the circle of issues of his specialty, being a widely educated engineer and a person of high culture and erudition. Until the last days of his tragically broken life (13 died on May 1939), he was interested in the history of wars, issues of tactics and strategy, skillfully linking them with issues of the development of military equipment.

After his death, there was a rich material - the fruit of vast experience in the development and production of ammunition.

Vladimir Iosifovich Pdultovsky, an ammunition specialist, designer and teacher, Honored Worker of Science and Technology, devoted thirty seven years of his life to developing the artillery combat capability of his Homeland - and inscribed in golden letters in its glorious history.
Author:
28 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Adjutant
    Adjutant 30 January 2018 05: 49
    16
    Pet of the Mikhailovsky School and the Mikhailovsky Academy
    Still, what thorough knowledge was given to the bearers of the “scientific edging”.
    An outstanding personality, a pillar of domestic artillery.
    Thanks to the author!
    1. XII Legion
      XII Legion 30 January 2018 05: 52
      22
      Yes, a versatile person and a true enthusiast. I tried to do everything personally, but I brought to the mind what was done. He did so much that enough for several lives.
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 30 January 2018 17: 04
        +2
        and done - bring to mind.
        - and I say "do not abandon the project all his life from R&D to .." even though about aviation
        And ANOTHER SUCCESS ACHIEVEMENT OPTION IS NOT TESTED BY THE PILLS OF SCIENCE.
  2. Theodore
    Theodore 30 January 2018 06: 06
    +1
    How did you die?
    1. XII Legion
      XII Legion 30 January 2018 06: 12
      19
      Blown up while working with one of his devices
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 30 January 2018 07: 09
    10
    One of the first Knights of the Order of the Red Star for the development of unique fuses.
    He died while disassembling his own fuse ...
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 30 January 2018 07: 56
    12
    С1930 the organizer and scientific consultant of the first Soviet design bureau for fuses design - TsKB-23, now RNII "Search". Created an experimental workshop at the factory number 8 named. Kalinina. He was blown up while disassembling one of his products. He was buried in the cemetery of Detsky Selo; the funeral of the “Academician of Soviet Ammunition” was solemn: in Leningrad, to the Vitebsk station, he was taken on a white hearse harnessed by six white horses, and on a gun carriage to the cemetery. On Liteiny Prospect, traffic was suspended, all military academies took part in the wires, as well as military units and plant delegates, among whom were Kalinin workers. The Leningrad Pravda on May 16, 1939 published an obituary, which said: "The Red Army and the defense industry suffered a heavy loss ..."
    1. seti
      seti 30 January 2018 12: 51
      +8
      Outstanding was a man. Thanks for the information.
  5. soldier
    soldier 30 January 2018 08: 51
    23
    Hand grenades of Rdultovsky and Novitsky (the last heavy one) are vivid examples of domestic weapons of the PMV era and appear in many instructions - primarily devoted to grenade combat and the actions of shock units.
    Well, the introduction of TNT HE shells cannot be overestimated.
    Rdultovsky’s career and life is an example of what a nugget who has received an excellent technical education can achieve.
    1. Ryazan87
      Ryazan87 30 January 2018 11: 25
      12
      They were also used in 1945. In the Far East, in some places preserved. Here is the "cop" from the Kuril Islands:
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 30 January 2018 21: 01
        +3
        Yes, in the lower right corner of the Rdutlovsky grenade. Apparently, they remained in warehouses with Civil. However, there is nothing surprising here - from the end of the Civil War to 1945, 25 years have passed, and now, for example, the number of Soviet weapons is quite large, although the USSR has not been 26 years old.
        1. Ryazan87
          Ryazan87 31 January 2018 10: 35
          +2
          "... However, there is nothing surprising" - especially given the fact that the grenade of the 1914 model was produced in the USSR until 1934 wink True, taking into account the modernization of 1930.
          By the way, the name of the designer is Rdultovsky
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 31 January 2018 14: 29
            0
            Yes, of course, Rdultovsky. In the Western military districts of the USSR, all arms stocks were spent, but in the Far East, these rarities remained
  6. Blue fox
    Blue fox 30 January 2018 09: 28
    +4
    There is a version among historians of subversive affairs that Rdutlovsky put his hand to the design of the legendary fuse of the MUV, it seems to me quite viable.
  7. kipage
    kipage 30 January 2018 09: 48
    21
    Also from the category of soldier children.
    A little more - and would become a general
    A man did not serve for titles and not for orders
    Patriot and specialist with a capital letter
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 30 January 2018 16: 15
      +5
      Without a doubt: "specialist with a capital letter."
  8. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 30 January 2018 11: 58
    20
    In the service of two Empires good
    Wonderful person and
    in golden letters inscribed in her glorious history.

    Fine
  9. Amurets
    Amurets 30 January 2018 14: 15
    +5
    Warmly spoke about Rdultovsky V.G. Grabin, whose Vladimir Iosifovich was a teacher at the Artillery Academy. “But at the very last moment, graduates were gathered in the assembly hall of the academy. The commissioner spoke.
    “Your appointments,” he said, “are changing.” Temporarily, of course. Soon all of you in the government commissions will disperse into the districts. Get specific tasks later. And now try to issue travel orders faster and prepare for departure.
    “Some sort of bad luck,” Grabin lamented. - Three options for the graduation project. Two mortar schemes. And now the cancellation of the appointment. Rdultovsky, with his superstition, could not stand such inconstancy.
    But, to the surprise of Vasily Gavrilovich, Vladimir Iosifovich, having heard from him a story with a business trip, was not upset, did not gasp, but unexpectedly approved:
    - The authorities decided correctly. Visit the troops, see what they need, then you'll better know which guns are needed and which do not need to be created.
    A far-sighted person was this seemingly eccentric teacher Rdultovsky "From the book of Dynin. IM" Earth thunders. "
  10. Monarchist
    Monarchist 30 January 2018 16: 25
    +5
    "this grenade consisted of the basis of the ammunition of batteries armed with 76 mm cannons," and Mr. Shirokorad claimed that in RI ALL artillery fired shrapnel. So, dear author, you urgently need to correct the spelling, otherwise Shirokorad will scold
    1. OAV09081974
      30 January 2018 16: 41
      19
      No dear Monarchist
      Everything in the article is true.
      This is not taken from the ceiling, and the article is not in vain so named.
      Just look Materials Art. Academy of the Red Army. Dzerzhinsky. T. 31., M., 1941 g. It clearly describes everything.
      So let them scold and correct - at home.
    2. OAV09081974
      30 January 2018 16: 51
      18
      Here's more about the use of high-explosive grenades in WWI
      https://topwar.ru/102798-kosa-pobedy.html
      And a number of other articles
      From there: “In addition to shrapnel, a high-explosive grenade was included in the 76 field gun ammunition. People who had been hit by a grenade turned into a sieve, and most of the buildings (including stone ones) were pierced. "
      You can take a look at the works of Barsukov and Kirey. There everything is laid out in detail.
    3. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 30 January 2018 21: 06
      +1
      Shirokorad, of course, wrote a lot of things, but a similar statement
      [/ quote] in RI ALL artillery shot shrapnel [quote]
      I do not remember. Is it possible to link?
      1. Blue cop
        Blue cop 31 January 2018 06: 10
        15
        And in general it’s interesting - if all the artillery fired shrapnel, how can howitzers hit dugouts and other closures without bombs in the ammunition?
  11. Curious
    Curious 30 January 2018 16: 41
    +5
    "Until the last days of his tragically broken life (died May 13, 1939), he was interested in the history of wars, issues of tactics and strategy, skillfully linking them with issues of the development of military equipment."
    Possessing great courage and courage, Rdultovsky was cautious towards his superiors and tried to avoid going to high offices. Once at a training ground after a successful disassembly of a projectile fuse, one of the students asked:



    - Vladimir Iozefovich, why are you not afraid of a fuse that threatens your life every second, but you are shy in front of your bosses?
    “When I take apart the fuse that did not work during the firing,” Rdultovsky answered, “I know what he can do with me, and I know how to deal with him so that trouble does not happen.” Here I control everything myself, and only my oversight can destroy me, I myself will be guilty if I make a mistake. And the bosses ... it rules me, and what it wants to do with me, I don't know.
    Unfortunately, ironically, the experienced designer Rdultovsky blew up when disassembling one of his products.
  12. Moscow landing
    Moscow landing 30 January 2018 19: 32
    +1
    For some reason, the author of the article omitted the topic of "interaction" between Rdultovsky and the OGPU, they "sorted it out" and did not even shoot him.
    1. BRONEVIK
      BRONEVIK 30 January 2018 19: 54
      17
      For some reason, the author of the article omitted the topic of "interaction" between Rdultovsky and the OGPU

      Perhaps because he was interested in the military-technical aspect of the activities of Rdultovsky? The fate of each person is multifaceted - you can narrate on topics from family life to “interaction” with the OGPU (although what kind of guilt could be “recognized” in the case “On the counter-revolutionary organization in the military industry.” He talked about himself, and so on. was a valuable specialist - which is probably why they released him).
      By the way, I read his Short Course of Tubes and Fuses and the Historical Overview of the Development of Tubes and Fuses.
      Awesome stuff