Military Review

"Coyotes have thrown needles"

78
I don’t know how my peers from 50-60s, but in my opinion, we were all paranoid then — we were afraid of the atomic war that the evil US imperialists were preparing for us. You open a newspaper - a caricature - an imperialist with a fat belly and a rocket under his arm. You go to the park - on the fence the same imperialist with a bomb, and on it the letters A or N. Turn on the TV - the program: “The behavior of the population in the case of weapons mass assault "and so on and so forth. Friends "on the quiet" warned: "Do not wash your head with rain water." Each “bastard”, as indeed today, was then inserted into the line by the Americans. No events in Novocherkassk were reported. It was reported about the descent of the missile carrier "George Washington" and other similar aggressive events. But some messages were especially scary, so terrible that ... one of them even got into the book of Lev Kassil “Be ready, Your Highness”! It is about how the Americans launched into space a huge number of metal needles, trying to prevent the USSR from exploring outer space. Well, and about how it all happened today will be our story.
V.Shpakovsky





It will be necessary to begin with the fact that the relations of the USA and the Soviet Union in the distant sixties of the last century were very, very difficult. Then here you are the Caribbean crisis, which put the whole world on the brink of a nuclear catastrophe, then some other surprise. For example, once the "bad" Americans decided to intimidate the Union ... with copper needles. Yes, the usual tiny copper needles. "Chip" was in their number and location. No joke - 500 thousand. And all this shuffling mass was, according to the Yankees, to fill the whole near-earth orbit. But why?

The popular humorists Rudakov and Nechaev, who were popular at that time, even performed the following verse: “Pentagon wolves threw needles into the sky! After all, we can fly into needles and thread! ”. The viewers had fun. But as you know, in every joke there is some truth. But the truth was this ...

Leafing through the yellowed pages of Pravda ...

In the sixties of the last century there was not a single newspaper in the Soviet Union that would have overlooked one curious fact. For example, Pravda, citing US news agencies, said that on October 21 1961, the United States launched the Midas artificial satellite with a reservoir containing three hundred and fifty million tiny copper needles into space. The newspaper reported that "the needles were released into space with the help of a special device." In accordance with the spirit of the time, the publication emphasized that the entire advanced scientific society was extremely indignant at such actions of the United States and protesting against them.

It was assumed that, after reading the message, the entire population of the country of the Soviets should really be worried. Then it was the time of the endless arms race between the Soviet Union and America. By the way, both in the production of space technology and in the production of nuclear weapons, we were ahead of the “shtatovtsev”, not to mention the fact that space rockets carried a greater weight. A completely logical question arises: why did the United States suddenly need to disperse needles in the space orbit of the Earth? Coincidentally, the epochal 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which announced the course for building communism in the USSR, was then taking place in Moscow. Was it possible that a new weapon was conceived solely as a means of threatening the Union, or in opposition to the communist policy declared by the country? And did the capitalists really find a way to destroy the people not with banal atomic bombs, but with such small metal things straight from space? After all, three and a half million needles are, according to a pair of needles, per Soviet soul (or some other part of the body).

So back to the Tass statement. The telegraph agency then had a very serious weight in the political arena, and if the heading “TASS Statement” was placed on the first page of Pravda, it was really a very important statement. So, the statement said that the US Air Force launched a satellite into space with a huge number of copper needles on board. The needles were to be dispersed at an altitude of more than three thousand kilometers, in order to create an artificial ring around the Earth, which should reflect the signals of terrestrial radio stations. “In this regard, TASS is authorized to declare the following.” Next came an angry protest about the actions of the United States. TASS noted that in the heat of the arms race, America is going to use outer space for military purposes. Formerly, these were tests of nuclear weapons, and now experiments with millions of needles. For all this, the Pentagon does not take into account the danger of consequences for the entire population of the planet due to the total clogging of the near-earth orbit with this copper debris.

"Coyotes have thrown needles"

Needles and brand - size.

Scientists argue that the cosmic belt of needles will create serious obstacles for cosmic communication with ships entering the moon's orbit, for example, or some other planet in the solar system. In addition, these experiments are a serious obstacle to the research of astronomers, for whose scientific research radio telescopes are necessary.

TASS and the entire Soviet people expressed their deep indignation at the actions of the United States and demanded that the withdrawal of satellites with needles into space orbit be stopped.

Plan "Westford" in practice

It is probably worth starting with the fact that there were several needles for satellites with containers, and there was still information that there were actually more needles. All needles in length were equal to 1,78 cm, diameter was equal to 18 microns. The finely chopped copper wire didn’t really correlate with the scientific instrument, however, they became a serious attempt by the radio physicists at NASA to ensure uninterrupted communication at very considerable distances. And, of course, the Yankees didn’t prick anyone with needles from space. Elementary “fathers” of the project, which was given the name “Westford”, were planning to build a kind of needle “ring” in Earth orbit, so that it would serve the Pentagon as a space radio communications system. And the arguments were as follows. If the ionosphere has flaws that prevent it from establishing stable radio communications, then ... why not make a “non-natural” object that does not have natural flaws. In fact, there is a “mirror” that will reflect radio waves, and which should not be an absolutely opaque screen at all. After all, it has long been known that the most huge radio antennas construct mesh, otherwise they would be very heavy. Needles thrown into orbit, according to the idea of ​​the authors of "Westford", having scattered, were to create a gigantic network there. It would have to mirror the radio signals and return them to the ground, moreover, hundreds and hundreds of kilometers from the initial launch point.

The experimenters decided to test in practice the action of their "offspring". Two 18,5-meter antennas were taken to organize a communication session between California and Massachusetts. All together noted that, "the voice could be heard." Unfortunately, the needles were increasingly scattered in space, the density of the “not natural” ionosphere was rapidly decreasing. The “copper” cloud was constantly transformed, and soon the quality of communication, however, like herself, disappeared. Needles, as reflectors, became irrelevant, however, like space debris, remained in orbit, creating interference for satellites and simply polluting near-earth space.

Trash or not trash?

Needles, the brainchild of Pentagon military thought, remained a stumbling block for those who actively fought with the clogging of space. On the first (and unsuccessful) launch day of the satellite with needles on board, Pravda broke out in an angry article titled "The United States litter the cosmos." And it was understandable: after all, on a cosmic scale, any very tiny speck of dust, when confronted with a porthole of a spacecraft, is capable of piercing a hole of impressive size. Nevertheless, it is easy to understand that half a million needles is an impressive figure only for earthlings. The main part of the needles, even despite the initially huge distance of 3600 km (and this is 10 times higher than the orbit of our space station Mir), has already burned down in dense layers of the atmosphere. Therefore, today the number of needles hovering in orbit is only a few pieces over hundreds of meters. By the way, in the seventies it was quite seriously suggested to look for needles in the snows of the Arctic (with copper, were there any problems in the Union?). In time, scientists believed that for every square kilometer of the purest Arctic snow, there are only ... five needles. And thank God they decided that there is no point in searching. And how much garbage is left behind by modern shuttles - and do not count! Debris floats throughout space orbit, it is fitting to talk about the second ring, after the first real asteroid. Only this would be a pure garbage ring! For example, a communications satellite launched by China, having scattered in orbit, "presented" thirteen thousand fragments to outer space, most of which were metal parts, which are much more dangerous than any needles! And how many lost space hammers, keys and other space tools during the whole space age, during the repair in the open space!

It would be a fact, and we will be able to interpret it!

Another thing is important, namely, that the Americans, without knowing it, gave an excellent reason, or as they would say now, the “theme” of our writing fraternity. Popular in Soviet times, children's writer Leo Kassil immediately included a case of needles in his story “Be prepared, Your Highness!” After that, a child’s film was also shot, where one of the characters mentions these very damned needles of “Merihyang” , around which there was a whole scene with a dialogue of two characters. But time passed and what has changed? Nothing actually, but instead of needles there is always something else. The information war between the two superpowers continues, though - yes, today the paranoids have nevertheless diminished!
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  1. martin-159
    martin-159 31 January 2018 06: 26
    +9
    Something I do not remember any paranoia.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 31 January 2018 07: 33
      +7
      Quote: martin-159
      Something I do not remember any paranoia.

      There was no paranoia, but there was a real feeling of atomic war. And the lessons at the school were appropriate classes and posters.
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 31 January 2018 10: 31
        +2
        Quote: Olgovich
        Quote: martin-159
        Something I do not remember any paranoia.

        There was no paranoia, but there was a real feeling of atomic war. And the lessons at the school were appropriate classes and posters.

        Sorry, do you distinguish red from cold?
        feeling of REAL danger, school lessons, and finally - posters !!! (what horror)
        IRREAL reality, "but this is not about you?" (cartoon)
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 31 January 2018 10: 40
          +4
          Quote: Mavrikiy
          Sorry, you red distinguish from cold?

          You are from yellow colors have long since weaned?
          Quote: Mavrikiy
          a feeling of REAL danger, lessons at school, and finally - posters !!! (horror which one)
          IRREAL reality, "but this is not about you?" (cartoon)

          "Horror" has appeared in you. Why's that ? request
      2. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 31 January 2018 18: 14
        +6
        Quote: Olgovich
        Quote: martin-159
        Something I do not remember any paranoia.

        There was no paranoia, but there was a real feeling of atomic war. And the lessons at the school were appropriate classes and posters.

        Dear, I'm sorry. On your post 5+, in my 1 +. (Enviously). So the whole country was sitting on a chair? Well no. It's just that your finger is longer. Tentacles?
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 1 February 2018 09: 17
          0
          Quote: Mavrikiy
          So the whole country was sitting on a chair? Well no. Just you finger longer. Tentacles?

          What is the matter, dear? belay request
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 31 January 2018 10: 34
      +7
      Quote: martin-159
      Something I do not remember any paranoia.

      You were just lucky, you were young. But Shpakovsky took a sip in full. The result is on the face. Paranoia seems untreated. Is it only castors to try to give?
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 31 January 2018 20: 40
        +1
        Stirlitz goes down the hall
        what corridor?
        in our corridor.
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 31 January 2018 06: 49
    +8
    It so happened that in Moscow there was an epoch-making XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which declared a course towards building communism in the USSR.
    The author, to be more precise, at the Twentieth Congress of the CPSU, the cult of personality of Stalin was debunked. "The 80st Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is an extraordinary congress of the CPSU, convened to consider and approve the seven-year plan for the development of the national economy. The main result of the XNUMXst Congress was the proclamation of the slogan on the USSR’s transition to communism. to start "creating a communist society in the country," which on the horizon of the XNUMXs will ensure the complete abundance and happiness of every Soviet citizen. "
    But at that time you write about: “The XXII Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held from October 17 to October 31, 1961 in Moscow and for the first time took place in the Kremlin Palace of Congresses. There were 4394 delegates with a decisive and 405 delegates with an advisory vote, as well as delegations of 80 foreign parties. " The rest is correct. Well, about the rest of space debris, it is necessary to collect all the “Greens” and collect space debris under a vacuum cleaner, and let them darn “ozone holes” with copper needles. Then, in order to intimidate the imperialists, a bomb was tested at 50mg PolIvana on October 30, 1961 at the Soviet nuclear test site on Novaya Zemlya the most powerful explosion in human history. The nuclear mushroom rose to a height of 67 kilometers, and the diameter of the “cap” of this mushroom was 95 kilometers. The shock wave circled the globe three times (and the blast wave demolished wooden buildings at a distance of several hundred kilometers from the landfill). The flash of the explosion was visible from a distance of a thousand kilometers, despite the fact that thick clouds hung over Novaya Zemlya. For almost an hour, radio communications did not work in the entire Arctic. According to various sources, the explosion power ranged from 50 to 57 megatons (million tons of TNT).

    Source: http://statehistory.ru/1654/Ispytanie-vodorodnoy-
    bomby - ona-zhe-Kuzkina-mat /
  3. Basil50
    Basil50 31 January 2018 06: 53
    +7
    Avtorsha as something casual and about * needles * and about much more, but plenty about vain fears. Just today, much is becoming known. Well, the desire * to conquer the whole world * and its surroundings is not kept secret. Honor does not allow.
    Thus, plans for the nuclear bombardment of the SOVIET UNION and for refinement of these plans become known. Or about managing weather and seismic processes. Even about plans for bacteriological warfare and something is known. As well as how the spread of pathogenic microbes was tested in the New York subway.
    There’s even a joke among those who work today in the USA. * Everything that the TRUTH wrote turned out to be true *.
    And I don’t remember about paranoia, but the readiness of the SOVIET UNION to respond so that the US disappeared I remember.
  4. inkass_98
    inkass_98 31 January 2018 07: 14
    12
    The author has garbage floating in his head, and not just in outer space.
    What was the Soviet press wrong about? Starting with the fact that any interference in space at sufficiently high speeds is a potential threat to spacecraft, whatever their mission, ending with the fact that on Earth there is no extra debris falling on your head. By the way, obviously in the Arctic, they didn’t look for needles with the aim of passing in their color meter, this is obvious.
    And it would be nice to explain about the "modern shuttles": what kind of villain quietly launches them, without the knowledge of the owners?
  5. XII Legion
    XII Legion 31 January 2018 07: 43
    22
    An amazing case.
    Space is an open zone, do what you want.
    But obviously, who was the aggressor - even in space
  6. parusnik
    parusnik 31 January 2018 07: 59
    +9
    but in my opinion we were all paranoid then
    ... Favorite trick, to speak for all and to convict everyone ...
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 31 January 2018 16: 28
      +6
      By the way, we were not alone against these needles. The British, French and Belgians also protested, at least according to the magazine "Twinkle". I did not know about this launch! hi
  7. Freeman
    Freeman 31 January 2018 08: 27
    +9
    The article, from a historical point of view, is of course interesting. But the manner in which the material is presented is clearly tendentious.
    It turns out that "Soviet propaganda" passed off the "innocent experiment" of American scientists as an act of sabotage against the Soviet space program.
    Yes, and with numbers, something the author is at odds with.
    After all, three and a half million needles is, count, a pair of needles for the Soviet soul (well, or for some other part of the body).

    The population of the USSR in 1961 was more than 216 million people. The population of Moscow in 1959 was more than 5 million people. The number of members of the CPSU in 1960 was more than 8 million.
    And the author turns out that in 1961, for the entire huge Soviet Union, there were 1.75 million “Soviet souls”. And what about the rest, "anti-Soviet" were ?! what

    Threat. Although the text shows the numbers of both 500 thousand and 3.5 million and 350 million of these notorious needles.
    "Careful need."
  8. BRONEVIK
    BRONEVIK 31 January 2018 08: 32
    19
    Interestingly, did the SOI sink into oblivion or did the elements still remain?
    Thank you for the article!
  9. Curious
    Curious 31 January 2018 08: 43
    10
    Good day. So, first about paranoia. Our Soviet paranoia (there was no paranoia, but for convenience we will operate with this term) is a pale likeness of the American. For example, a few posters of those years from the American press.

    The inscription on the placard "America under communism"
    1. Curious
      Curious 31 January 2018 08: 48
      +9
      And here is another option.

      "If Russia wins."
      1. Curious
        Curious 31 January 2018 08: 57
        11
        But personally, I liked this poster, which depicts how hard it will be for Americans - with ... ex-slaves "in occupation" when they get the master of torture Fidel Castro. "

        "Slaves Of Sin For Castro's Traveling Torture Master"
        So the paranoid component of American propaganda far surpassed Soviet propaganda. And the Soviet posters of the Cold War to the formation of hatred of the Americans have never been sent.
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 31 January 2018 10: 40
          +4
          That's for sure. Only the bourgeois capitalist and general are the enemies of mankind.
          And the artist-pervert and pleasure received while painting, and earned money. Nicrofil?
        2. igordok
          igordok 31 January 2018 10: 56
          +8
          Regarding nuclear paranoia in the USA. On fear, they usually make money, and a lot of money.
          Children's Geiger counter.

          And other "nuclear" toys
          https://nyka.livejournal.com/18913455.html
        3. avva2012
          avva2012 31 January 2018 14: 25
          +4
          But not bad, the ladies prepared for slavery))
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 31 January 2018 15: 54
            +4
            But not bad, the ladies prepared for slavery))

            then the ladies even with communism, and bearded Fidel personallyscared. fellow The present, on the contrary, is taught tolerance, especially towards migrants. Which are not going to ask about "tolerance" negative
            Viktor Nikolaevich: pin-up - offset! wink
            1. avva2012
              avva2012 31 January 2018 16: 11
              +6

              Here, this is a poster, and they have almost XXX
        4. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 31 January 2018 19: 54
          +4
          Viktor Nikolaevich, and remember this film: "The Next Day"?
          1. Curious
            Curious 31 January 2018 20: 42
            +2
            No, I do not remember.
          2. igordok
            igordok 31 January 2018 20: 51
            +4
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Viktor Nikolaevich, and remember this film: "The Next Day"?

            Thank you for reminding me. At that time, this film was held as anti-war, showing the horrors of war. He was even shown on TV later.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 31 January 2018 22: 05
              +2
              Yes, it's not even a war, just a nuclear disaster. I was born and raised near a nuclear power plant. And I can assure you that until April 86. in the USSR, 99% of the population knew about radiological protection as much as about the Gospel of Matthew.
              1. igordok
                igordok 31 January 2018 22: 16
                +4
                From childhood memories. In the fifth grade, we were taken to a bomb shelter and told what to do in the event of a nuclear attack. It was remembered that classmates were very worried that pets could not be taken to the bomb shelter.
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 31 January 2018 22: 53
                  +3
                  They didn’t take us to bomb shelters, but from the second grade there were already classes to save from a nuclear explosion! Then there were school exercises. Dropping into the school basement!
            2. hohol95
              hohol95 31 January 2018 22: 51
              +3
              They showed this film on one of 2 (we had no more) central channels! But they didn’t let me see him until the end - they said a little isho and sent him to sleep!
  10. hohol95
    hohol95 31 January 2018 09: 02
    +9

    Parents watch their children, in colleges there may be teachers promoting communism!
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 31 January 2018 10: 44
      +5
      I think even a heron would not be comfortable so braiding his legs. Americans are a new species in the animal kingdom.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 31 January 2018 12: 45
        +6
        And this poster shows the true definition of DEMOCRACY in American -
        “Stop Communism! Is everyone’s duty. ”
        "Democracy" in the form of a large cleaver - to the crisis in Southeast Asia.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 31 January 2018 15: 38
          +5
          Alexei, do you see the Philippines on the map? One soldier from the group of Hiro Onoda was killed there by the military, who raided the “red partisans,” if I am not mistaken .. what
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 31 January 2018 12: 47
        +5
        He brought a slightly different translation - here is a more accurate “Do you have red professors in your college?”
      3. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 31 January 2018 19: 51
        +4
        Look at the Rodin Thinker! In this position, you can only think of a laxative.
    2. Mikado
      Mikado 31 January 2018 15: 35
      +4
      Parents watch their children, in colleges there may be teachers promoting communism!

      they are now making sure that primary school students, or even kindergarten students, take into account the gender-role orientation of each other ... No.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 31 January 2018 19: 24
        +4
        "Ma'am, don’t worry about hiring your boy with dolls. With them, he lifts the girls' skirts." (film "Police officer from kindergarten")
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 31 January 2018 20: 06
          +4
          "Ma'am, don’t worry about hiring your boy with dolls. With them, he lifts the girls' skirts." (film "Police officer from kindergarten")

          damn, did not look! drinks but appreciated the work of the thoughts of the little scrubber! good
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 31 January 2018 21: 48
            +2
            Yes, in general, and not worth it, except for this phrase. And so: Schwarzenegger, busty aunts (in quantity); Atas! Banzai! Get out! Abral! CIA in the shops! And the total score !!!
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 31 January 2018 21: 56
              +3
              And so: Schwarzenegger, busty aunts (in quantity); Atas! Banzai! Get out! Abral! CIA in the shops! And the total score !!!

              "Ciseido"! fellow already set off, as a man - to a man! wink Anton, didn’t you notice that as soon as a discussion turns to intimate preferences (especially homosexuals), does the discussion come to life? laughing why? I already believe in the Pareto Law - 80% of people like to discuss it! good
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 31 January 2018 22: 07
                +4
                Kindergarten is like an ocean: you should always be on your guard.

                Keep quiet! Keep quiet! Keep silent !!! No, just do not cry.

                Which man will become a teacher? Naturally blue.

                - Sylvester feels bad without a father, do not you think?
                No. It’s bad for Sylvester that his father went to another man.


                A small selection of phrases from the Kindergarten cop (Kindergarten Cop).
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 31 January 2018 22: 34
                  +3
                  aahhh! know how, Alex! good bow down drinks
                  1. hohol95
                    hohol95 31 January 2018 22: 56
                    +3
                    hi Good evening! So I remembered ... for a general relaxation of the situation! drinks
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 31 January 2018 23: 03
                      +3
                      I remembered in time! good drinks
                      1. hohol95
                        hohol95 31 January 2018 23: 08
                        +3
                        One day, during a simple "corporate party", one of the participants thrice on time (the situation grew tense and threatened to go into "hostilities") fell under the table! The people pulled him out and calmed down for a while! After the third time - there was nothing to fight! And quietly everyone parted drinks
  11. Curious
    Curious 31 January 2018 09: 25
    18
    Now let's move from paranoia to "needles".
    First, the technical aspect.
    The Westford project is one of the first attempts to organize a space radio communication system. Before communication satellites, not only dipoles ("needles") were launched into space. On August 12, 1960, US specialists launched an inflatable balloon into an orbit with a height of 1500 km. This spacecraft was called Echo-1. Its metallized shell with a diameter of 30 m served as a passive repeater.
    However, communications satellites were already approaching, so projects like Westford were phased out.
    Now about the protests. At the head of the protests was not the Pravda newspaper at all. The protests were led by scientists. Against such respected organizations as the International Astronomical Union, the Committee on Space Research, the International Council of Scientific Unions. Among the scientists who opposed were Sir Alfred Charles Bernard Lovell, the largest British astronomer, creator of the famous Jodrell Bank radio observatory.
    It was he who raised the question that space exploration should be conducted in the framework of international legal norms. The protests of scientists were the first step towards the signing in 1967 of the Treaty on the Principles of the Activities of States for the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, which is today the basis of international space law.
    So the newspaper Pravda only supported the international peace initiative. And there was no paranoia in this. The article is frankly weak, sorry for the frankness.
    1. Luga
      Luga 31 January 2018 12: 04
      10
      Quote: Curious
      The article is frankly weak, sorry for the frankness.

      I agree. The article seemed very superficial to me - a lot of general reasoning "about nothing", unfortunate little concrete information.
      If the author wanted to highlight unknown aspects of space exploration, then from the text of the article it is not clear how the program was conceived, how it was implemented, how, when, and why it was minimized.
      If the author intended to describe one of the episodes of the Cold War or to give an example of the work of the Soviet propaganda machine, it would be nice to quote from the TASS message, from an article in Pravda ...
      And about universal paranoia ... "Even if you have paranoia, this does not mean that you are not being watched."
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 31 January 2018 16: 08
      +6
      No, no, no, excuse me for being frank, you didn’t understand. Articles are written for the purpose. You attribute the appearance of this article to the goals of enlightenment, and there is one goal, to prove that in the terrible USSR, well, only cockroaches did not tremble from the Bolshevik Communists. (Ears of V. Shpakovsky)
      By the way. V. Shpakovsky, did you become embarrassed by the names of your ancestors? Material on resources:
      http://back-in-ussr.com/2013/10/pentagonovskie-vo
      lki-v-kosmos-brosili-igolki.html
      http://x-files.org.ua/articles.php?article_id=298
      8
      came out under your .... Well, played names, playful, so with whom it does not happen.
      1. avva2012
        avva2012 31 January 2018 17: 36
        +2
        Site, "Back to the USSR"! Here it is humor good
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 31 January 2018 18: 01
          +4
          Quote: avva2012
          Site, "Back to the USSR"! Here it is humor good

          Humor is when for haha. And when for the dough, it's just blllvo. But now it is still welcome. Sadness. There was a simple candidate of historical sciences, and "his name was millions," "it was no use to him as from fine grass milk, but there was no harm, either." But the dough desired and the monster hatched "and the woman is with him." As a result, we read the history of the Motherland from the shy Shpakovsky chewing PARMEZAN, which he does not forget to remind periodically.
          1. avva2012
            avva2012 31 January 2018 18: 56
            +3
            Have you read Shpakovsky on the VO website? How much sincere indignation on that (USSR) side, but it turns out, the same article, of the same person, is possible both here and here. And, you say, this is not humor. I think it's funny.
      2. kalibr
        31 January 2018 22: 09
        +2
        Do you need to teach people to write on something? Well, yes, once upon a time there was material on this topic, but the task was given to rewrite it with the novelty level of 92% according to the Advego system. The author dealt with it, so what kind of constraint on my part is it? How many and who works with what and how who teaches whom? The man completed the work and ... became the author of this particular material. Mine was on the same topic, but ... different! These subtleties are sometimes invisible to a layman, but they are and they matter. By the way, the reaction to it turned out to be exactly what was supposed to be, so this is another good example of the informational “impact on the mass audience”.
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 31 January 2018 22: 59
          +4
          Little rascal, bunny ears sticking out. And sweats and turns pale, so sweet.
          Hi, valiant member of the CPSU. Did you deeply bury the party card? Go check it out. You will answer for the loss.
          1. kalibr
            1 February 2018 07: 39
            0
            And the desire for you to write all sorts of nonsense? If this is considered wit, then I am sorry for you. You are just jealous. Good specialists who know how to correctly convey information to the masses and in the past have been honored, and now do not live in poverty, and will be in demand in the future. And whether they have a ticket or not, nobody cares if they need to write a new one.
        2. avva2012
          avva2012 1 February 2018 12: 31
          0
          with a novelty level of 92%

          If you put two articles side by side, then there "and ten differences" will be difficult to find. Well, what about, "long ago": back-in-ussr.com 2017 TOPIC NEWS
  12. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 31 January 2018 10: 27
    +7
    I don’t know how my peers are from the 50-60s, but in my opinion, we were all paranoid then - we were afraid of nuclear war

    What did you want to say, paranoid disease? (big doubts that he was cured)
    Everyone and everything knew about the atomic bomb, and school classes were held and civil defense classes were held. They just reminded of the once-a-year bomb on TV. And the Americans, yes, they had horror movies driven to the cinema, experts (already then 24 hours a day) .... So it’s understandable: buy a bomb shelter for the whole family, canned supplies, raincoats, chemical protection and radiation protection, etc. There was a real psychosis, up to suicides.
  13. Streletskos
    Streletskos 31 January 2018 11: 01
    18
    Truly
    Needle wolves
    And in space there is no salvation from them)
    Interestingly
  14. alatanas
    alatanas 31 January 2018 11: 35
    +4
    The main idea of ​​the needles is to intercept radio broadcasts in the VHF range. A cloud of needles was a reflector.
  15. avva2012
    avva2012 31 January 2018 12: 29
    +6
    I especially liked the "bad" Americans. " And they were good, yes, damn it? The second point, about the fact that we were ahead at the beginning of the 60's, “good Americans” in nuclear weapons belay I don’t know, but the article a la Shpakovsky outdid Shpakovsky himself in his cleverness, anti-Soviet. Well done, Svetlana, rarely succeeds to surpass Himself!
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 31 January 2018 13: 31
      +6
      The article is written on the principle: Press the keys, sell the talent! .. Under my dictation ...
      1. avva2012
        avva2012 31 January 2018 14: 26
        +3
        Well, yes, if there is something to sell.
  16. Fitter65
    Fitter65 31 January 2018 14: 04
    +4
    Author: Svetlana Denisova writes for example
    ".. For example, the newspaper Pravda, referring to American news agencies, stated that on October 21, 1961, the United States of America launched an artificial satellite into space orbit ........ It coincided that in Moscow there was a landmark XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union "
    but according to the same Wikipedia you can find out that: "The XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union took place in Moscow on February 14–25, 1956," but from October 17 to October 31, 1961 the XXII Congress of the CPSU was held ...
  17. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 31 January 2018 15: 42
    +5
    Another thing is important, namely, that the Americans themselves, without suspecting it, gave an excellent occasion, or, as they would say now, the “theme”, of our writing brethren.


    The writing brother does not want to mention that in high orbits, the mass of radioactive power sources from spent satellites "hangs"? Including the military of the USSR and the USA?

    The USSR used atomic batteries in space-type satellites. In September 1965, the Orion-84 radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) with an electric power of 90 W were launched as part of the Cosmos-1 and Cosmos-20 devices. The weight of the RTG was 14,8 kg, the estimated life is 4 months. RTG ampoules containing polonium-210 were designed in accordance with the principle of guaranteed integrity and integrity in all accidents.

    The use of atomic-thermal energy can be divided into machine and machineless. The required power is provided by compact nuclear power plants (NPPs)


    In outer space in 2000 there were 55 nuclear reactors! https://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/29489/

    In order to avoid a fast fall of the nuclear power plant to the Earth, satellites, upon completion of their active existence, are transferred to a burial orbit about 1000 km high, where the spent reactor should last from 300 to 600 years. Emergency satellites are also being transferred to a similar orbit. However, it was not always possible to do this.
    In almost 20 years of launch, there have been four cases of a satellite falling to Earth: two to the ocean and one to land.

    The historical primacy in space nuclear accidents belongs to the United States - in 1964, the American navigation satellite with an atomic reactor on board could not enter orbit, and this reactor collapsed into the atmosphere together with the satellite to pieces.

    In the USSR, the first accident was related to the 18-kilogram satellite of the US-A series launched on September 1977, 4300 (pseudonym Cosmos-954, orbital parameters: perigee 259 km, apogee 277 km, inclination 65 degrees). The satellite was part of the satellite system of marine space reconnaissance and target designation of the ICRC "Legend", designed to detect ships of a potential enemy and provide data for the use of cruise missiles by our fleet on them. At the end of October 1977, Cosmos-954 stopped regular orbit corrections, but failed to transfer it to the orbit of the burial. According to subsequent TASS reports, on January 6, 1978, the satellite suddenly depressurized, which caused the on-board systems to fail. The uncontrolled descent of the apparatus under the action of the upper atmosphere ended on January 24, 1978 with the descent from the orbit and the fall of radioactive debris in northern Canada in the vicinity of the Great Slave Lake. The uranium elements of the satellite burned out completely in the atmosphere. On the earth found only the remains of a beryllium reflector and semiconductor batteries. Nevertheless, radioactive space debris was scattered in northwestern Canada over an area of ​​several thousand square kilometers. The USSR agreed to pay Canada $ 3 million, which amounted to 50% of the cost of the Morning Light operation to clean up the fall area of ​​Cosmos-954.


    On December 28, 1982, Cosmos-30, which had been operating since August 1402, could not be transferred to the orbit of the graves and he began an uncontrolled decline. Constructive improvements after the previous accident allowed to separate the core from the heat-resistant reactor vessel and prevent compact debris falling. The core entered the atmosphere on February 7, 1983, and the radioactive fission products scattered over the South Atlantic.


    In April 1988, the connection with Cosmos-1900, which was launched into orbit in December 1987, was lost. For five months the satellite was uncontrollably decreasing, and ground services could not command either to withdraw the reactor to high orbit or to separate the core for more safe its descent from orbit. Fortunately, five days before the expected entry into the atmosphere, on September 30, 1988, the automatic reactor withdrawal system was activated, which was activated due to the exhaustion of fuel in the satellite’s orientation system.



    SNAPshot satellite assembly on which space tests of the SNAP-10A reactor were conducted
    1. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer 31 January 2018 15: 58
      +4
      For all the years of launches in our country, the spacecraft with the BES-5 nuclear power plant were put into orbit 32 installations. One of them has not reached space, two have returned back, and the rest to this day continue to remain at an altitude of 700-800 km from the Earth. Staffed out their 20 devices,

      http://mediapuls.ru/itnews/17871-kosmicheskie-yad
      ernye-reaktory-propusk-v-bolshoy-kosmos.html
      UN requirements for nuclear-safe orbits prohibit the launch of nuclear reactors below the orbit 800 km above the surface of the Earth.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 31 January 2018 22: 35
        +3
        how many read your comments, so understood that "you are in the subject." Please come back often! With respect, Nicholaihi
        1. DimerVladimer
          DimerVladimer 1 February 2018 09: 27
          +1
          Quote: Mikado
          how many read your comments, so understood that "you are in the subject." Please come back often! With respect, Nicholaihi


          This is completely open information.
          I can comment on certain technical points that I know from my former specialty.
  18. Adjutant
    Adjutant 31 January 2018 18: 06
    +3
    The main part of the needles, even despite the initially enormous distance of 3600 km (and this is 10 times higher than the orbit of our space station Mir), has already burned up in dense layers of the atmosphere.

    Yes, the exhaust was generally wasted
    However, we drowned Mir ourselves, without saboteurs and sabotage.
    It was enough for the Americans to place saboteurs (or at least agents of influence) on key posts in our state
  19. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 31 January 2018 19: 42
    +5
    Impression of the article: the Rose War was better.
    Impression from the discussion: “And again the trouble went about insidious foreign countries” (Victor Nikolaevich, Nikolai, excuse me, for God's sake, this is not about you).
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 31 January 2018 20: 09
      +3
      Anton, you from Nikolaev meant? wink I live in the same city with you, and I have been abroad only in Belarus and the Dominican Republic! (the last - the only time, and then, by drunken stupidity, was in foreign countries! but .. I liked nature and rum! good ) drinks
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 31 January 2018 21: 24
        +3
        It is you and VikNika. It’s to blame, for Viktor Nikolayevich in my brain the eternal references to the “Republic of Skid”
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 31 January 2018 22: 45
          +3
          It’s to blame, for Viktor Nikolayevich in my brain the eternal references to the “Republic of Skid”

          he has a different surname, he doesn’t draw on VikNikSora, although according to his knowledge he’s clearly able to wash the “Shkid” character wink Yes, their building on Lermontovskiy pr. Is located when I go with someone, I show, in response - round eyes, no one knows!
          For you

          Anton! My native Leningrad region gives me more miracles than the whole abroad! (True, I was not there, and in the Dominican Republic only a Negro contemplated .... Afrodominicans, rum and nature!). Everyone writes about what he is fond of, and there is no fault in it, because any information increases our educational level! Here someone will write about the ancient Slavs whom he had never seen, someone about knightly armor, weapons, tanks, but anyway, EVERYTHING is interesting! Some will write poetry (moreover, not bad!). I chose art and fortification for myself. hi
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 1 February 2018 00: 01
            +3
            We will enlighten! The diversity of nature of our homeland is not limited to the beauties of the BSSR and Dominican autonomy. We need to look at things broader! And be aware of the contribution of Soviet science to network information systems, and the introduction of domestic aircraft industry in international air travel!
    2. Cat
      Cat 31 January 2018 20: 34
      +4
      Sad!
      The value of the article is not in the article, but in the comments to the article!
      So that Svetlana "+" unfortunately only for the topic, forum users thank you so much for the comments on the article !!!
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 31 January 2018 22: 37
        +4
        Well, by the way, I didn’t know about needles before the article. But so mustache and bulo, checked! drinks
  20. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 31 January 2018 21: 22
    +5
    It seems that the author does not own the topic at all. Firstly, the Twentieth Congress of the CPSU, which is mentioned in the note, was in the 1956 year, even before the first satellite (1957 year, the satellite launched the USSR - this is the author for reference), and Khrushchev Kukuruzny was declared about communism in 1980 at XXII Congress in the 1961 year. Yes, there was a cold war. Yes, the hysteria was in the USA with training atomic alarms all the 50 years. It even annoyed me in childhood: a continuous "struggle for peace", and what to do during an atomic attack is unclear. We did not have this psychosis at all - the only thing that was was caricatures in newspapers. Including malicious ones - after the deployment of American atomic weapons in Great Britain, there was a caricature when markings were put on the map of England, which is applied to the target - a reminder that England is in the retaliatory strike zone. Regarding space debris: in the 1961-62 years, before the conclusion of the treaty banning nuclear explosions in the atmosphere, under water and in space, the USSR and the USA conducted several space nuclear explosions. at the same time, due to the electric pulse, electronics were cut down on satellite groups, both ours and Americanos, regardless of whose explosion. The article is a fat minus.
  21. Mikado
    Mikado 31 January 2018 23: 10
    +4
    hohol95,
    however, a subtle psychologist! good if you intentionally did it. If by itself - then this is called "fate" laughing drinks