Military Review

"Deep Danube". One hundred years Ceausescu

37
“I do not deserve ...” - the elderly man managed to say before he fell, struck down by the bullets of the brave paratroopers, the very ones whom he had only recently considered to be the defenders and support of his power. Behind was 71 the year of his life, 24 of which he was in power in his own and so beloved country.


"Deep Danube". One hundred years Ceausescu


One hundred years ago, on January 26, 1918, Nicolae Ceausescu was born - a man who had a chance to live an interesting and tragic life, playing a significant role in stories not only Romania, but the whole world of the second half of the twentieth century. Nicolae Ceausescu was born in the village of Scornichesti in southern Romania. The father of the future Romanian leader Andruce Ceausescu was engaged in tailoring business, he had three hectares of agricultural land and several sheep. Although the family was not rich, there were ten children in it — a common affair for Romanian peasants of the time. Nicolae was the third child of Andruцe. And last, I must pay tribute, managed to arrange a boy in a primary rural school, where Nicholas studied to eleven years. Of course, no one could have imagined that with such an origin, Ceausescu would be headed by Romania in the future. If Nicholas had not become an activist of the communist movement, World War II would not have happened, and Romania would have remained a monarchy, most likely Nicolae would have lived his whole life a simple worker.

At eleven years Nicholas was sent to Bucharest, where he settled with his older sister Nikulina Rusescu and got a job as a student at the shoemaker. Insignificant incomes forced the guy not to starve, to engage in petty theft - a common thing for young people from proletarian suburbs. In 15 years, Nikolay became an apprentice in a shoe shop. The workshop was owned by shoemaker Alexander Sandulescu, who was not an ordinary shoemaker - he participated in the activities of the illegal Romanian Communist Party. Noticing a capable young guy, Sandulescu began to talk with him, talk about the communist movement and soon attracted him to participate in underground activities. Ceausescu joined the Communist Youth Union, and three years later, in 1936, he became a member of the Romanian Communist Party. So, actually from the very beginning of his conscious life, Nicolae Ceausescu became a revolutionary - a communist.



In 1936-1939 and 1940-1944 Nicolae Ceausescu was imprisoned in Romanian prisons - the royal regime mercilessly dealt with the Communists, and the prison was the best thing that could happen to a young activist. In a short space between prison sentences, fate brought 21-year-old Nicolae Ceausescu to 20-year-old Elena Petrescu. The girl, like Nicolae, was also an activist of the communist movement, and with a very similar fate — a peasant daughter from a deaf Wallachian village, then an employee of a textile factory in Bucharest. Fate bound Nikolay and Elena for the rest of their lives - they were killed in the year of the fiftieth anniversary of living together.

23 August 1944 was arrested by Romanian conductor, Prime Minister Marshal Ion Antonescu. The military-fascist regime, the ally of Hitler's Germany, ceased to exist, and the new Romanian government, which concluded peace with the Soviet Union, went to the legalization of the Romanian Communist Party. At the same time, Nicolae Ceausescu escaped from prison. In the changed situation, no one was looking for him. Brave party member took the post of secretary of the Union of Communist Youth (SCM) and quickly gained the trust of the party leadership. In 1945, the Romanian government was headed by Dr. Petru Groza, who was sympathetic to the Communists, an amazing man: a landowner who had abandoned his fortune and who also led the Front of the Farmers in royal Romania. The coming to power of the Government of Thunder was the main turning point in the fate of the young Communist Ceausescu, turning him from a Komsomol leader into a statesman. In 1945, 27-year-old Ceausescu was appointed head of the Supreme Political Directorate of the Armed Forces of Romania. The position was a general and Ceausescu, who never served in the army and did not even have a secondary education, immediately received the military rank of brigadier general. Then he was elected to the Central Committee of the RCP.

From this time on, the career of a young revolutionary who spent years yesterday in the cells of Antonescu’s horrendous prisons went uphill. In 1947-1948 Ceausescu was secretary of the regional party committees in Dobrudja and Oltenia, and in 1948-1950. held a very important for agrarian Romania at that time the post of Minister of Agriculture of the Romanian People's Republic. By this time, the Romanian government headed Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej - the largest leader of the Romanian communist movement, who had been the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party since 1945. Gheorghiu-Dej took up the policy of collectivizing the Romanian village, and Ceausescu, as Minister of Agriculture, was responsible for implementing this policy. Then, in the 1950 year, Ceausescu was again returned to the army - he took the post of Deputy Minister of the Armed Forces of Romania, having received the next military rank of major general, and remained in that post until 1954. In 1954, Nikolay, who was only 36 years old, was included in the Central Committee of the Romanian Workers' Party (this was the name of the RCP,) as secretary, and in 1955, he became a member of the Politburo of the RRP Central Committee and the Romanian state. In this position, Ceausescu dealt with a wide variety of issues, among which the party leadership of the Romanian special services was very important. In the 1956 year, having received the next rank of lieutenant general, Nicolae Ceausescu again headed the Higher Political Directorate of the Armed Forces of Romania. The influence of Ceausescu on the country's political life also grew.

19 March 1965, died Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej. The struggle for the post of first secretary was joined by three political heavyweights of Romania - Prime Minister Ion Gheorghe Maurer, First Deputy Prime Minister Gheorghe Apostol and former Prime Minister Kivu Stoyka. But on March 22 1965 of the year 47-year-old Nicolae Ceausescu was unanimously elected first secretary of the Central Committee of the Romanian Workers' Party. How could this happen? Ion Maurer put it on Ceausescu as a compromise figure, and this decision was supported by other leaders of the Communist Party. Leading the party, Ceausescu in the same 1965 year renamed the Romanian Workers' Party again into the Romanian Communist Party, and the Romanian People’s Republic into the Socialist Republic of Romania.



Compared to other socialist countries of Eastern Europe (with the exception of Albania and Yugoslavia), Romania’s policy was the most independent. Although, unlike Josip Broz Tito or Enver Hoxha, Nicolae Ceausescu never openly spoiled relations with the Soviet Union, he strongly emphasized Romania’s independence in choosing foreign policy and actively cooperated with both China and capitalist countries. For this, he achieved a favorable attitude towards his person from the side of Western politicians, who were impressed by the independence of Ceausescu from Moscow. In 1974, the presidency was introduced in the SRR, which, of course, occupied Nicolae Ceausescu. By the middle of the 1970, Ceausescu significantly tightened domestic policies. The Department of State Security (“Securitate”) has become a powerful structure, with great potential for dealing with dissidents. The party and security agencies sought to control all spheres of public life, including, first of all, creativity, art, the media, and the upbringing of the younger generation.

In Romania, the Ceausescu personality cult began to take shape. It is possible that visits to China and the DPRK, where he had the opportunity to observe the cults of the personality of Mao Zedong and Kim Il Sung, prompted this model of organization of the government of Ceausescu. Returning to Romania, Ceausescu ordered that the main works of the Juche ideology be translated into Romanian. He was clearly impressed by the ideas of the North Korean communists, aimed at achieving maximum self-sufficiency in politics and economics and the creation of a mobilization society.

At the same time, during the reign of Ceausescu, nationalistic components emerged in the ideological policy of the Romanian communists. Romania has always been characterized by a reverent attitude to the national issue, and “Romanianism” was considered one of the main ideological values. The monarchists, the fascists of Antonescu, and the legionaries of the Iron Guard Corneliu Codreanu dreamed of the “Great Romania”. Therefore, Ceausescu, being a Communist, still did not refuse to use nationalist rhetoric. At his direction, historians began to publish numerous articles and monographs, proving the direct origin of Romanians from the ancient Romans. It was argued that Romanian, among other Romance languages, was a direct heir to ancient Latin. However, one should not be ironic about such myths that have been implanted in the public consciousness. They played a very important role in ensuring national identity and consolidating Romanians around the course of the party and the state.

Of course, Daucescu did not dare to make direct territorial claims to the Soviet Union, but it is clear that both Moldavia, Bessarabia and Bukovina were considered by Romanian ideologues as historical Romanian lands. In the Soviet Union, this was perfectly understood, as Ceausescu’s discontent regarding the criticism of Stalinism was understood. Stalin impressed the Romanian leader as a person, and besides, Ceausescu also shared the need for the policy that Joseph Vissarionovich once pursued in the USSR.



Ceausescu's nationalist policies were also designed to stimulate and increase the birth rate. Back in 1966, Ceausescu banned abortions in Romania, the sale of contraceptives to women who had less than five children. Permission to divorce was given in exceptional cases. Nicolae Ceausescu was convinced that if Romania wanted to become a great power, it must have a very high birth rate.

It should be noted that for Romania itself, Nicolae Ceausescu did very, very much. In fact, it was during his reign that Romania from a backward agricultural country, a “European beggar,” began to turn into a modern and truly self-sufficient state. Many countries could envy such successes in domestic policy. In 1974, production was 100 times higher than 1944 of the year. And the main effect was achieved precisely in 1960-e - 1970-e. During this time, our own machine-building industry emerged and began to develop rapidly in Romania, and the chemical and oil-producing industries developed rapidly. Products of the Romanian light industry gained fame outside the country. Romania made its own cars. In 1967, the Uzina Autoturisme Pitesti (UAP) car factory was built in Pitesti. Ceausescu chose the French company Renault as his main partner, managing to acquire a license to produce a model that had not yet been launched into production in France itself. The world saw the Romanian Dacia 1300 at the same time when the French Renault 12 came out.



Interestingly, Ceausescu was an absolute pragmatist in economic policy, expanding Romania’s contacts with capitalist countries and quietly taking loans from Western countries. By the way, borrowed funds were spent exclusively on the needs of the development of national industry. Ceausescu did not forget about strengthening the defenses of Romania, creating a strong and numerous national army. For example, the release of their own tanks. At the same time, Romania was actively buying military equipment and weapon from the Soviet Union.

However, already in the 1980-ies the economic situation in the country began to deteriorate gradually. This was due to Ceausescu’s intent to pay off his foreign debt in full. The president mobilized the Romanian society to solve this problem by introducing unprecedented measures, such as card supplies. Such actions as the abolition of the disability pension and raising the retirement age also did not contribute to improving the social climate in the country. Public discontent began to grow, but if in the first half of 1980's. it was still constrained by the power of the party and state apparatus, then in the second half of the 1980-s, the situation changed.

Since Nicolae Ceausescu did not share Gorbachev's perestroika ideas, he turned against him both the Soviet Union and the West. In the West and in the USSR, Ceausescu's plans to create a new socialist bloc consisting of Romania, Albania, China, Cuba, the DPRK, and Vietnam were feared. Of course, the organization of the "Orange Revolution" in Romania in December 1989, a hand and American and Soviet intelligence services. The Romanian president was betrayed even by his own army. 22 December 1989, Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu were arrested. The trial of the Romanian president was very short. 25 December 1989, Nicolae Ceausescu and Elena Ceausescu were shot in the courtyard of the military garrison barracks in the city of Targovishte.
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  1. Kot_Kuzya
    Kot_Kuzya 26 January 2018 06: 48
    17
    I remember how in 1989 Soviet newspapers and magazines talked about the "horrors" of the "totalitarian" Ceausescu regime, photos were shown of children dying of hunger, poverty of villages, etc. But then I was a kid and sincerely believed all this nonsense. Now I understand that it was a common media lie from the series about “100 million convicts in the Gulag,” about “victory despite the noble criminals from the penal battalions” and “uncle Kim Jong-un shot by mortars and fed to the dogs. Apparently, Ceausescu refused to sell himself to the West, and for this he was brutally murdered without trial as Gaddafi.
    1. Sling cutter
      Sling cutter 26 January 2018 07: 01
      16
      All Judas Gorbachev betrayed and sold.
      First social camp, and then us wholesale and retail.
      How can such filth still live? am
      1. Kot_Kuzya
        Kot_Kuzya 26 January 2018 07: 03
        +5
        Quote: Stroporez
        How can such filth still live?

        No wonder they apparently say that the native land cannot accept such a traitor. So, probably, he will die in a foreign land, and there they will bury him.
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 26 January 2018 07: 37
      13
      Quote: Kot_Kuzya
      I remember how in 1989 Soviet newspapers and magazines talked about the "horrors" of the "totalitarian" Ceausescu regime, photos were shown of children dying of hunger, poverty of villages, etc. But then I was a kid and sincerely believed all this nonsense.

      It’s true, Romanians were poorer than church mice, they had nothing at all, no food, no electrical goods, only textiles. The Moldavians were against them background millionaires.
      The main thing to remember about Ceausescu: he was a terrible Russophobe and a nationalist. And the nationalists brought up the Romanians.
      1. Kot_Kuzya
        Kot_Kuzya 26 January 2018 07: 52
        +6
        Well, yes, yes ... Freshly a tradition. That's the Romanians now with nostalgia remember life under Ceausescu.
        1. verner1967
          verner1967 26 January 2018 08: 28
          +3
          Quote: Kot_Kuzya
          That's the Romanians now with nostalgia remember life under Ceausescu.

          Did they tell you this?
          1. Kot_Kuzya
            Kot_Kuzya 26 January 2018 08: 37
            +8
            Yes, I’m familiar with the Moldovans who used to work as Gaster in Moscow, but they have relatives in Romania. So there is now poverty comparable to Ukraine.
            1. verner1967
              verner1967 26 January 2018 09: 45
              +4
              Quote: Kot_Kuzya
              So there is now poverty comparable to Ukraine.

              Romanians have never been rich, in socialist times and even more so. Tour trip to Romania was considered, to put it mildly, nekomilfo, Poland was a little better
          2. antivirus
            antivirus 26 January 2018 20: 36
            +1
            in the 60-70s there were live soldiers from Stalingrad-Don and Voronezh + Odessa. For centuries, the character of the nation-people has been forged and for 30 years to break it !!!
            Ceausescu saddled these moods and others could not be.
            used a military prisoner, ATTACK RISED TO US !!!! to captivity.
            that youth - "how the Romanian (own) steel was tempered" in the fight against komunyak and Yids (and who else?)
            what do you say?
            1. verner1967
              verner1967 26 January 2018 20: 47
              +7
              Quote: antivirus
              what do you say?

              translate from Albanian into Russian, please
              1. Hantengri
                Hantengri 26 January 2018 22: 45
                +2
                Quote: verner1967
                translate from Albanian into Russian, please

                I will support. Not a damn thing, I didn’t understand.
        2. Olgovich
          Olgovich 26 January 2018 10: 30
          +4
          Quote: Kot_Kuzya
          That's the Romanians now with nostalgia remember life under Ceausescu.

          Not true. You do not own the question.
          1. rumatam
            rumatam 26 January 2018 18: 27
            +3
            Do you own in France?
            1. Hantengri
              Hantengri 26 January 2018 22: 39
              +3
              Quote: rumatam
              Do you own in France?

              This is the famous (in narrow circles) Olgovich! And he is not in France, he is in Moldova. And in his head there are magical voices wassat (therefore, it is useless to ask him about the source of information), which tell him everything that he joyfully shares with us!
            2. Olgovich
              Olgovich 27 January 2018 10: 05
              0
              Quote: rumatam
              Do you own in France?

              In Moldova, I own.
              I was there at the time of Ceausescu among my wife’s relatives, poverty is the wildest of all, HUNGER - and this is in the 80s! They brought food, electrical goods, even a TV.
              1. rumatam
                rumatam 27 January 2018 20: 53
                +1
                Well, poor but not the wildest, one does not need to compose, 82-85 served on the Danube in Izmail and there were contacts.
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 26 January 2018 07: 09
    +4
    It should be noted that Nicolae Ceausescu did a lot for Romania itself. In fact, it was during his reign that Romania began to turn from a backward agricultural country, a “European beggar,” into a modern and truly self-sufficient state.
    A good start, really a man knew what he wanted.
    However, already in the 1980s, the economic situation in the country began to gradually deteriorate. This was due to Ceausescu’s intention to fully pay off external debt. The President mobilized Romanian society to solve this problem by introducing unprecedented measures, for example, card supply.

    Well, here we can say that he was in a hurry, oh, how Mr. Ceausescu was in a hurry and made some mistakes, and lost the political scent and got in touch with the wrong ones. Well, the result was a natural result.
    Since Nicolae Ceausescu did not share Gorbachev's perestroika ideas, he opposed both the Soviet Union and the West. In the West and the USSR they feared Ceausescu’s plans to create a new socialist bloc within Romania, Albania, China, Cuba, North Korea, and Vietnam. Undoubtedly, both the American and Soviet special services had a hand in organizing the Orange Revolution in Romania in December 1989. Romanian president betrayed even by his own army
  3. elenagromova
    elenagromova 26 January 2018 07: 27
    10
    Eternal memory to a worthy leader killed by traitors ... At that time it was still difficult to assume that a whole series of barbaric massacres of the leaders of the countries would follow ...
    1. verner1967
      verner1967 26 January 2018 08: 30
      10
      Quote: elenagromova
      Eternal memory to a worthy leader

      If, God forbid, you were to be disabled in Romania in those years without a pension, would you also proclaim toasts to him?
      1. elenagromova
        elenagromova 26 January 2018 08: 46
        +6
        Well, yes, then came capitalism and provided all the good pensions?
        1. verner1967
          verner1967 26 January 2018 09: 58
          +5
          Quote: elenagromova
          Well, yes, then came capitalism and provided all the good pensions?

          Good are not good, but they cannot sit without pensions. By the way, they live well.
      2. rumatam
        rumatam 26 January 2018 18: 26
        +1
        Are you Romanian disabled?
        1. verner1967
          verner1967 28 January 2018 20: 33
          +1
          Quote: rumatam
          Are you Romanian disabled?

          No, but you must be a Romanian communist?
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 26 January 2018 10: 36
      11
      Quote: elenagromova
      Eternal memory to a worthy leader killed by traitors ... At that time it was still difficult to assume that a whole series of barbaric massacres of the leaders of the countries would follow ...

      There was nothing worthy: it brought people to terrible hunger and terrible poverty. In Moldova, the citizens of the USSR were creases on the background of Romanians.
      And Ceausescu is a wild Russophobe.
      Romania is nearby and everything was in front of my eyes. hi
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 26 January 2018 07: 39
    +2
    At the same time, Nicolae Ceausescu escaped from prison. In the changed situation, no one was particularly looking for him.
    .... This escape is reflected in Ozerov's film "Soldiers of Freedom" ....
  5. iury.vorgul
    iury.vorgul 26 January 2018 08: 30
    14
    In February 1990, I traveled to Romania for a 2-week trip on a Komsomol tourist trip. Route: Bucharest - Petru Neamt - mountain hostel - Iasi. I’ll tell you my personal impressions - the Romanians certainly lived poorer than us, but, for example, the shops had a huge selection of vegetables and fruits (in February). I was also surprised by the huge volume of housing construction in Bucharest, we lived on the 12th floor of a hotel, so the construction cranes decorated the whole panorama of the city. And, in general, Bucharest seemed to me a very beautiful city. I remember that our guide, an elderly Romanian, said that getting (not buying) an apartment by a young family in Bucharest took about six months after registering the marriage. As for Russophobia - I personally have not noticed anything like this, all the Romanians with whom we spoke were quite friendly towards us, many knew the Russian language. Unfortunately, I have not saved the photos.
  6. XII Legion
    XII Legion 26 January 2018 08: 55
    20
    I have an article by Ceausescu for 1987 (Ceausescu I. Romania during the First World War // Romanian Literature. 1987. No. 10), where he wrote: “The Battle of Bucharest, which took place under unfavorable conditions for the Romanian side due to arrivals of large allied Russian units arriving late on the battlefield».
    That is, he shifted from a sick head to a healthy one - he was looking for a switchman, so to speak, forgetting about the real help of Russia.
    I forgot about the help of Russia / the USSR - in the broadest sense, but the switchman was made of him himself. There is nothing to be surprised - after all, as Olgovich rightly wrote
    he was a creepy Russophobe and nationalist
    .
    Another question is that the terrible end, innocent people died and the coup d'etat was very clear and significant for the crumbling social camp. That's when Soviet tanks were needed on the streets of Bucharest.
    And the USSR at that time was headed by a mutant, who himself deserved the fate of Ceausescu. Yes, there was no popular anger at this mutant, but a pity. In Germany, now bastard.
  7. sevtrash
    sevtrash 26 January 2018 09: 51
    +6
    The dictator, apparently, needs to leave in a timely manner. If you failed to create as tough / cruel an internal control system as Stalin or Mao. Probably, he wanted to be an independent dictator, and the country is not enough for an independent life. Flirting with the West on the basis of "detachment" from the Soviet Union ceased to be necessary for the United States under Gorbachev.
    In any case, the dictatorship is unpromising, based on history. It can not be compared with the dynamics of the quality of development of "democratic" countries, even the USSR and China could not. What can we say about small countries.
  8. urman
    urman 26 January 2018 11: 43
    +6
    And I remember that in our media they wrote that the Chinese specialists were preparing to release Ceausescu.
    And we were already in Romania, but we didn’t have time.
    This was the reason, such a quick reprisal against him and Sikuritat, those that remained faithful to him were preparing.
    Here he was fast against the wall and leaned against.
    In general, with a slight stretch, our 93-g,
    Treason, the armies like ours, in the 91st refused to shoot the Moscow hapota,
    and at 93 joyfully quick, they shot the parliament, and the drunken riot police had fun for 30 pieces of silver.
  9. Cartalon
    Cartalon 26 January 2018 12: 21
    +4
    Typical duce
  10. rumatam
    rumatam 26 January 2018 18: 23
    0
    Intersely, what is the name of the system, or what will they call it after 10 years?
    1. IImonolitII
      IImonolitII 26 January 2018 23: 59
      0
      Putin’s principal, has long been called.
      1. rumatam
        rumatam 27 January 2018 20: 51
        +1
        but it seems to me again voluntarism with aligarhat.
  11. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 26 January 2018 21: 58
    +2
    A very ambiguous figure. However, which of the prominent heads of state in the second half of the XNUMXth century was unambiguous.
    Material +
  12. Old26
    Old26 26 January 2018 22: 51
    +3
    Quote: Bersaglieri
    A very ambiguous figure. However, which of the prominent heads of state in the second half of the XNUMXth century was unambiguous.
    Material +

    Material is also a plus. As for the ambiguity or ambiguity - at least it was a figure. Negative or positive is not so important. especially compared to the sometimes faded leaders of other countries
  13. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 27 January 2018 21: 38
    0
    It is our happiness that we did not have this shame - the assassination of our president.
    (Felt US stencil)
  14. Xnumx vis
    Xnumx vis 14 June 2018 13: 11
    0
    Quote: Stroporez
    All Judas Gorbachev betrayed and sold.

    God marks the assault ... Tagged. The people do not give a nickname in vain!