Military Review

Knights and Knights of the Rose War era (part 1)

49
It happened so that the publication of three materials by my university colleague Svetlana Denisova here in VO aroused great interest among the readership of the site and my wishes to write in more detail about the military affairs of this era, tactics, armor and weapons, knights and chivalry of that era, which became the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the New Age. It was not possible to do this within the framework of the three publications, moreover, they had the character of a historical sketch, no more. Today we fulfill the request of a number of active participants in the discussion of this topic and will gradually try to answer all the questions asked as part of its discussion.



James Dole. Battle of Bosworth.

So, as always, let's start with historiography. In the materials of S. Denisova, the names of English-language works devoted to the War of Roses were cited, however, it should be remembered that these are just fairly popular materials. As is the case with history Russia, which should be studied with reference to the “Complete Collection of Russian Chronicles”, the Rose War has its own purely British “chronicle” basis, represented by many so-called chronicles. There are many of them and they are all remarkable and curious in their own way. These are: The Banet Chronicle, The Gregory Chronicle (1189 – 1469), The Short English Chronicle (1465), The Harding Chronicle: The second version for the Duke of York and Edward IV (1460 - 1464), The Harding Chronicle: The second “Yorkist” version, written for Henrikh VI , Capgrave (1464), Kommin (1464 – 1498), Chronicle of the Lincolnshire Uprising (1470), The Story of Edward IV's Arrival in England (1471), Vaurin (1471), The English Chronicle, also known as the Chronicle of Davis (1461), XRUMX, English Chronicle, also known as the Chronicle of Davis (1422) (1471 – 1485), Fabian (1480), Rose (1486 - 1149), The Kroyland Chronicle (1486 — 1500), The Warkworth Chronicle (XNUMX?). So for people nd, who know the English language of the time, the material can be said in abundance. Both from the "whites" and the "red", as well as the Tudor historians. These are the so-called “primary sources”, on the basis of the study of which, strictly speaking, the whole English-speaking historiography of this topic of subsequent centuries is based. Now the main thing - all these sources will never be available to us! Well, who owns the so-called "average English"? Therefore, our historians can work only with secondary sources, and their chronicles and manuscripts are available to them except "pictures", that is, miniatures. However, as it has already been noted here, the British studied in the most scrupulous way all these materials and described the events and facts of interest to us that were quite accessible to us in modern English.

Knights and Knights of the Rose War era (part 1)

King of England Edward V. National Gallery.

To begin with, we emphasize that the War of the Roses was a war for ... resources. The country was defeated in the Hundred Years War and its human and material resources were largely undermined. But the feudal clans associated with the throne, still had everything that was not all those who were removed from it. And it is clear that by any means they wanted to eliminate their rivals and put "their king" on the throne. Hence the bloody nature of this strife.


King of England Richard III. National Gallery.

It is also important to emphasize that, although this was a civil war, the neighbors of England, in particular France and Burgundy, took the most active part in it. France wanted to weaken England even more, and Burgundy sought to weaken France, so the continental states did everything to ensure that the British killed each other as long as possible. In their lands, they gave shelter to the fugitives, helped them with money, and even provided military contingents.


King of France Louis XI, who supported Lancaster.

But ... "new time" - new songs! If the Hundred Years War was still purely feudal war, then already in the middle of the XV century the knights no longer fought for the seigneur in exchange for land, but served those who paid the most, based on a system of contracts. Increasingly, landowners preferred to lead the lives of landowners, while the rich bourgeois received knighthood. And those and others did not want to dress up in steel armor and fight in them in the heat and cold.


The Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, who supported the Yorks.

Therefore, the institution of squires has spread in England (from the English word –square, “field”, “area”), that is, small holders of land who served by contract, and not on the basis of linen oath. Young people were chosen as squires, including the sons of peasants, they took the trouble to feed, water and train them in military affairs. The future “squire” went hunting with the knights, mastered the Welsh bow and crossbow (we emphasize only as a weapon of hunting, but not war!), And becoming an older man, he followed his master into battle and helped him get him out of the battlefield. Now the “squire” had to not only be able to fight, but also to be literate, read and write in Latin and in French.

Usually the squire was knighted in the range from 18 to 21 of the year. It is clear that the king himself initiated knights from young noble families. But more and more often, the squires did not become knights at all, although, fighting on the battlefield, they could get armor for themselves no worse than the armor of their master. That is, the Rose War coincided with the crisis of knighthood, which now increasingly had to fight not with its own kind of noble warriors, but to fight with the men armed with bows and crossbows, and act on the battlefield against cannons!


European mail cap of the XV - XVI centuries. 590 Weight g. (Wallace Collection)

If we look at the miniatures of the era of the Hundred Years War and then the miniatures of the Rose War, we will undoubtedly notice how much the armor of these two wars differ, which followed each other with a small interval. In the Hundred Years War, the knights fought, being dressed in short Jupon jackets, under which were chain mail or stripes armor, a helmet with a bascinet was worn on the head, first with a pointed visor, then with a round, convex one. In miniatures depicting the War of Roses, dressed clothes are present on the warriors only occasionally. In most cases, they wear white armor, in which the chain mail is of secondary importance. Chainmail is used in pieces that are sewn onto a combat doublet — quilted, ready-to-wear clothing. She is sewn under the armpits, on the sides, on the back sides of the elbow joints, using it as a “petticoat” under the skirt of metal strips, or even knit chain mail pants from it, although it was hardly comfortable to ride them.

And now let's turn to “our” favorite effigiyami, because they really will not deceive us and give an accurate idea of ​​what the knights of the Rose War looked like.


This “plaque” (breaststroke) belongs to Giles Dobeny (d. 1446), South Wales, Petherton, Somerset. It has completely “white armor” with a “skirt” of bell-shaped bands. On the head is a large bascinet, behind which, instead of a pillow, a tournament helmet, decorated with flower wreaths, is placed under the head. The armor, as you can see, is very simple. The armpits - which was typical of the early "white armor", were closed with shieldless flaps. The elbow pads and knee pads remind the conch. Approximately to 1440, gauntlets like mittens gave way to real gloves, which could have pyramids that strengthen them, such as gadlings or even thorns for hand-to-hand, on their knuckles. Another feature by which you can easily determine the time of this armor is the oblique sling of the sword. Prior to that, she was worn flat down on her hips horizontally and a dagger was attached to her. With this knight, the dagger Rondel is most likely fixed in a leather loop, simply riveted to the skirt strip. Sword - with the top handle of a characteristic shape, resembling a cork from a decanter.


The plaque of William Wadgem (d. 1451) - that is, just at the turn of the century!). There is a big bascinet on the head, but there is already no spine. They were replaced by half-guns or plate shoulders, descending to the chest and back. Two plates are fastened to the bottom plate on the straps - tassets. The sword has crosshairs, curved forward and disk pommel.

Rich people could afford the pleasure of buying such or similar armor from merchants from Italy and Germany, the knights and squires were content with “serial” armor in large quantities produced in Milan. Knight John Cressi in 1441 bought the exact same set as the two above, for 8 pounds 6 shillings and 8 pence, but the armor for his squire cost him less - 5 pounds, 16 shillings and 8 pence. It is clear that there should have been workshops where each such purchased armor was customized to fit the owner’s dimensions, possibly adding some details to it, since the armor fitting badly on the figure is not at all like a suit not made to measure - how well the armor sat on the body, sometimes life depended!

To be continued ...
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  1. Bouncer
    Bouncer 29 January 2018 07: 35
    18
    The British studied
    Why, their war
    Squires - the basis of the nobility and fertile ground for the subsequent ...
    Profiled Profiles
  2. XII Legion
    XII Legion 29 January 2018 08: 31
    20
    I like well-illustrated, interesting articles.
    Respect for the author
    Wonderful
    Thank you!
    1. seti
      seti 29 January 2018 10: 10
      +3
      Really good article if you don’t find fault with the details. Thanks to the author.
      1. Cat
        Cat 29 January 2018 11: 17
        +7
        And you "find fault"! And we are pleased to read your "nit-picking" and the answers of the author of the article.
        Just an invaluable plus of Vyacheslav Olegovich in that he accompanies his articles on “attacks” - he answers.
        So - Dare!
        If the dialogue is constructive, all of us will win!
        Sincerely, Kitty!
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 29 January 2018 12: 41
          +6
          I will support if the dialogue is constructive. hi Yes, I hope Anton will come today too. drinks
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 29 January 2018 16: 57
            +3
            Already come. I missed a lot, but it was worth it!
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 29 January 2018 17: 22
              +5
              came to us, came to us ....! fellow drinks
              Anton, catch up! drinks glad to see you!
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 29 January 2018 08: 33
    +5
    Rich people could afford the pleasure of buying such or similar armor from merchants from Italy and Germany, knights and squires were content with "serial" armor in bulk, issued in Milan.
    ... Couture armor and mass consumer goods ... In this regard, nothing has changed since then ..
  4. DimanC
    DimanC 29 January 2018 09: 38
    +1
    The author also twitched a little: the Hundred Years War just ended in the middle of the 14th century, so the knights' vestments shown in the paintings are just the era of the Hundred Years War. The Rose War will begin a little later ...
    1. DimanC
      DimanC 29 January 2018 09: 40
      +2
      Sorry, in the middle of the 15th century, not the 14th
  5. marline
    marline 29 January 2018 10: 46
    +4
    Thank you for the article. We look forward to continuing.
    1. Cat
      Cat 29 January 2018 11: 19
      +4
      I support with all paws!
  6. Albatroz
    Albatroz 29 January 2018 11: 55
    +2
    As I understand it, the chain-link headband was on some basis, a hat.
    The weight of the armor was directly dependent on the status of the owner.
    Someone, probably, is also a horseman - above the roof
    1. marline
      marline 29 January 2018 12: 03
      +4
      Quote: Albatroz
      As I understand it, the chain-link headband was on some basis, a hat.

      Cap - this headdress was very fashionable among the chivalry. Indeed, given the "hipar" hairstyles of chivalry, putting chain mail on an uncovered head could very well lead to hair loss.
      Quote: Albatroz
      The weight of the armor was directly dependent on the status of the owner.

      The weight of the armor was about 20-30 kg. For all ages. Those. and full chain mail armor and plate armor weighed about the same. In direct proportion to the status was the amount of gilding on the armor and its quality.
      1. sivuch
        sivuch 29 January 2018 14: 41
        +3
        I do not agree. if you don’t have aunts of money, then together with a full set of white armor from shoes to a salad with a visor you have to confine yourself to a cuirass and an open drop on his head. That's weight saving.
        1. marline
          marline 29 January 2018 15: 26
          +3
          Quote: sivuch
          I do not agree. if you don’t have money, then instead of a full set of white armor from shoes to salad with visor, you will have to confine yourself to a cuirass and an open drop on your head. That's weight saving.

          Breastplate is one of the most expensive elements in plate armor. If there is no aunt, in fact they were usually limited to brigantine and plate, or tire protection of the limbs, which is much cheaper for money, but the same for weight.
          The protection was pulled back to the cuirass later - with the spread of a firearm. The armor confidently holding the bullet weighed too much, and therefore were limited only to the protection of the case. This type of protection successfully existed in cavalry until the 20th century. Then he was forgotten for a long 30 years and returned to him again during the Second World War.
          1. sivuch
            sivuch 29 January 2018 17: 31
            +2
            The Commune, if you remember, wrote about cuirasses, or rather, their absence. However, I do not argue about the brigantine - especially since it was also a fashion.
  7. sivuch
    sivuch 29 January 2018 14: 16
    +3
    Is James Dole the 19th Century? Richard sits in the saddle like a Tatar, not a knight
  8. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 29 January 2018 17: 26
    +5
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, great article! In the second illustration: Richard the Third, putting on the ring. I know that the theme of rings in the Anglo-Saxon mentality is of great importance. If you are in the know, highlight this topic. You are welcome! Very interesting!
    1. kalibr
      29 January 2018 17: 53
      +5
      Wu you grandmother and St. George's Day! And I don’t know ... It's a pity! But ... you told me where to look. I'll see what "they" have about it.
      1. Cat
        Cat 29 January 2018 18: 02
        +3
        Got it? Let's, let's Dear theme we develop, we develop !!! And then there was already one “balabol” higher and lower, all with errors, all “fu fu”!
        Nikolai and I have already moved the saucers, poured the beer ......, and he "futs" and netuti!
        Zhdems! hi
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 29 January 2018 18: 32
          +5
          in an hour or so I’ll drive home, and I’ll drip 150 gin in a deep saucer .. laughing drinks The ice has broken, gentlemen of the jury! fellow
          1. long in stock.
            long in stock. 29 January 2018 21: 58
            +1
            so Monday zhezh ... and you are a gin .. and even solder the animal ..
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 29 January 2018 22: 40
              +1
              No, I don’t pour Mikado cat. stop He is a teetotaler, he only wants to eat forever. He once found a pack of valerian from me (mind you, sealed in cellophane!). I don’t know how he sniffed. But in the morning I found her on the floor, although not opened, but gnawed! request since then I clean the mezzanine drinks
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 29 January 2018 18: 31
        +4
        Come on! Seriously?!?! Even 50 years ago, having appeared anywhere (in the mainstream of the paradigm of understanding the "Europeans"), in the rags of "anfan teribl", you could sparkle with a pair of "nuts" on your fingers and ..... All the doors are open !!! Heinlein was buried with the Annapolis graduate ring in his hand.
        1. Cat
          Cat 29 January 2018 18: 59
          +4
          Is it straight right in the teeth?
          Dear Anton "do not pull the cat by the tail." We are all off topic, no kidding seriously!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 29 January 2018 19: 25
            +5
            Yes, I do not pull, Vladislav! I have no information, except that we have the badge of the General Staff Academy on the chest, and they have a “nut” on the finger. By the way, all of these hand-shaking manners are from there.
            1. Cat
              Cat 29 January 2018 19: 52
              +5
              Then we will buy a ticket to Penza. And screaming good foul language under the windows of Vyacheslav Olegovich. So that he did not sleep at night, but delved into their bourgeois sources and wrote an article for us of their unknowing languages!
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 29 January 2018 20: 06
                +4
                What for? The great populist Alan Pease in his works, under the general name "Body Language", said something, but kept silent about even more, because not a historian or a sociologist, but a psychologist, God forgive me.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 29 January 2018 20: 23
                  +3
                  not a historian, nor a psychologist. EMNIP, at first was a traveling salesman. I watched the reaction of people during sales. Another thing is important - he was one of the first to try to systematize sign language! hi
                  Vladislav:
                  And screaming good foul language under the windows of Vyacheslav Olegovich. So I didn’t sleep at night

                  and don't scare anyone. request He will yell back! drinks not himself, so he will ask a cat! soldier
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 29 January 2018 20: 42
                    +3
                    Here - here, and did not trade in Harlem, otherwise the books would be different. So, for example, the “foot to foot” pose and “hands woven on the chest” interpreted by Pease as “unpreparedness for communication, in“ more mundane ”cultures are perceived as the“ submission ”pose inherent in the weaker (female) side.
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 29 January 2018 20: 50
                      +4
                      it’s all clear that he interpreted from his bell tower. yes but, once again, he was at least one of the first to think about it, and tried to describe!
                      Freud is also often considered a pervert, but his merit is that he generally the first to reach the level of the unconscious in psychology! Because before him they studied either consciousness (like Wundt), or behavior (like my favorite behaviorists), or medicine and psychophysiology (like Pavlov). By the way, Pavlov’s merit is that he was able to prove the forgotten hippocratic temperament (by the way, where is the hobbling Good Doctor, there is such a topic outlined!) From the point of view of science. hi
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 29 January 2018 20: 59
                        +4
                        Mmm yes! I got it! Maybe we’ll talk about drywall and tongue-and-groove plates? laughing
                  2. Cat
                    Cat 29 January 2018 21: 46
                    +2
                    Quote: Mikado

                    Vladislav:
                    And screaming good foul language under the windows of Vyacheslav Olegovich. So I didn’t sleep at night

                    and don't scare anyone. request He will yell back! drinks not himself, so he will ask a cat! soldier

                    Nikolay! So the enemy camp already has its own people, tfu you already have cats !!!
                    Earplugs at least have someone to hide!
              2. kalibr
                29 January 2018 20: 10
                +4
                When I was in graduate school in Kuibyshev, I went home by a late train and ended up in Penza under the windows around 5 in the morning. To call or rattle with keys meant to wake mom and grandmother. So I barked under the window. The wife looked out and opened the door from the inside quietly. Once I didn’t come, and the street dog began to bark ... Very similar to me. The wife in full confidence went to open, and waited a long time ... until she realized that she was deceived! So you need to try!
                1. Cat
                  Cat 29 January 2018 22: 17
                  +3
                  In my youth I had a boss - we will call him “Lyagushin”. He was a man of increased harmfulness, easier "bore". After the next "educational process" above us. We kindled to answer him with a fair "disgusting". At that time, we had a fat cat in the dining room, and on watch there were keys to the “bore” office. In the pharmacy, half a liter of valerian was bought in a fold. You should see the apothecary’s eyes at the time of purchase. Freelance lobarant Mishka Kalashnikov delivered a cat from the dining room. A gram of 200 valerian was poured onto Lyagushin’s chair and a cat was erected. The day at the authorities began happily. Lyagushin opens the door, and there is a cat sitting on his armchair, at his table. A cat frog at the door, a cat back at the door and on a chair. The cat’s “bore” is out the door again, but the cat is scratching at the door, needs to be scrubbed to the valerian. Lyagushin holds the door (it opened inside), the cat does not give up. Here we come to the rescue - look at the tuk-tu GPPD, write a report, etc. As soon as the door opens the cat right there in the chair. Lyagushin from the office, we key the door once, the cat - two, valerian cap-cap three. Lyagushin returns, and the cat is in place. Once in a while, Mishka was called, who took the cat to the trash to a neighboring audience. The circus lasted until four in the afternoon. At the end of the working day, Lyagushin was sitting on a stool, and the cat at the table in an armchair.
                  The next day, everyone knew about the circus in the educational department, except Lyagushin.
                  He finished all the deputy for academic work, who confiscated new half a liter of valerian from us, and from the cabinet of the cat’s “bore” and put them a couple in the dining room.
                  By the way, he did not turn us over to Lyagushin.
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 29 January 2018 22: 48
                    +2
                    ahhh, class! laughing good damn, you can tell so many stories from cadet practice! And not even from my cadet youth, but already when I worked as a term student! drinks And nobody likes boring, by the way. yes
                    I look at your profile picture, and introduced the same important cat in the chair laughing drinks You then realized that without cats anywhere?
              3. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 29 January 2018 20: 18
                +4
                Very similar to late autumn on about. Rhodes laughing
    2. Curious
      Curious 29 January 2018 20: 33
      +5
      The theme of rings (and a ring is a kind of ring) goes through the whole history of human civilization. There is no particular Anglo-Saxon branch in this regard. So you have to start from the Stone Age, they killed a mammoth, they ate meat, they insulated themselves with hide, and the remaining “horns and hooves” were put into jewelry. In a word, an article, if not a few. But the Angles with the Saxons will be in the common garden.
  9. Mikado
    Mikado 29 January 2018 21: 04
    +3
    3x3zsave,
    I got it! Maybe we’ll talk about drywall and tongue-and-groove plates?

    No, you are giving me this. good I am a psychologist by first education. And even though I don’t remember most of it, there’s something left, observation for sure. And in the sphere in which I am working now, it was accidentally brought in, like Alain Delon in the cinema. Yes, Anton, I recommend: in the Lensovet "Macbeth. Cinema". There it begins with the phrase about Delon and chance, I took this phrase from there. hi
    Although, I suspect, Viktor Nikolayevich is definitely paying everyone in the philosophical debate! good drinks
    1. Cat
      Cat 29 January 2018 21: 42
      +3
      As far as I remember, this section of legal psychology was called visual diagnostics.
      On the other hand, why I love you Friends, so that in search of a “ring”, I went through mountains and lobes of psychology “so I began to hang a little”, got a “kindly dog ​​story from Vyacheslav Olegovich” and finished with building materials. So there isn’t enough for you: “Dear Victor returned us to the ringlet and mammoths”, they slipped up the topic of films and finished with philosophy !!!
      Can someone else do that?
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 29 January 2018 22: 50
        +2
        Can someone else do that?

        "Nobody except us!" soldier I mean, good people have gathered, the interlocutors are wonderful, and the company is gradually expanding! drinks
        1. Cat
          Cat 30 January 2018 04: 32
          +2
          And I'm talking about it, that only good and competent people can!
          hi
  10. Curious
    Curious 29 January 2018 21: 51
    +4
    3x3zsave,
    “Maybe we’ll talk about drywall and tongue-and-groove plates?”
    Or glass-magnesite panels. What is not the topic "The use of a plane for the installation of LSU."
    1. long in stock.
      long in stock. 29 January 2018 22: 02
      +3
      Is the installation external or internal?
      1. Curious
        Curious 29 January 2018 22: 03
        +3
        Without a difference.
        1. long in stock.
          long in stock. 29 January 2018 22: 08
          +2
          something they didn’t look at me .. I only use the countertops under the stone and mosaic ..
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 30 January 2018 06: 00
            +2
            Yes, wow stuff. It is only necessary to understand that this is not a gyrocake and the caps of the self-tapping screws in it themselves are not heated, a countersink is required. And linear dimensions sometimes go for a walk. And so - quite a child prodigy.
  11. romandostalo
    romandostalo 4 February 2018 19: 35
    0
    Thank you for the article! We look forward to continuing.