370 years ago, 24 January 1648, Bohdan Khmelnytsky was elected hetman of the Zaporizhzhya Sich. The national liberation war of the Russian people against the Polish invaders began.
This event had a huge historical value. Part of the Russian south and west Russian lands occupied by Lithuania and Poland during the Russian unrest (period of feudal fragmentation), in 1654 returned to the Russian Empire. Later, Russia returned the remaining West Russian lands, the Russian people reunited.
These events are somewhat repeated in recent history. Again, Russia was in turmoil. We temporarily lost the original Russian lands: Small Russia (Ukraine) and White Russia. The Russian people turned out to be the largest divided people on the planet. At the same time, the occupation authorities in Kiev, subordinate to the West, are pursuing a policy similar to that of the former Poland. If before there was a process of polishing and the introduction of Catholicism, now Russians are being turned into “Ukrainians,” orthodoxy is being destroyed. The Ukrainian elite, as in the past part of the Cossack elders, betrayed their people, sold to the West for the opportunity to plunder their fellow countrymen, to be lackeys-managers and oligarch parasites in the colony and eventually become "Europeans."
Read more about the "Ukrainian myth" - in articles of the BO: The purpose of the project "Ukraine" - the destruction of the Russian world; Ukrainian Chimera vs. Svetlaya Rus; The myth of "European Russia-Ukraine"; The purpose of the project "Ukraine". “Russians will tear themselves with their own claws, and we will grow and strengthen”; West vs Russia: Creating the “Ukrainian Ethnic Chimera”; "Ukrainians" are the same Russians.
Bohdan Khmelnytsky. General situation in Little Russia
Very little is known about the life of Bogdan Khmelnitsky before 1647. Born 27 December 1595 of the year (or 1596). They called him Zinoviy. He was born on the third day of the Christmas holidays, when the memory of St. Fyodor the Outlined was celebrated, therefore, according to the calendar, he received a second name - Bogdan (from the Greek Fyodor - “God-given”). The father of Bohdan, Chigirinsky under-warrant, Mikhail Khmelnitsky, was in the service of the crown hetman Stanislav Zolkevsky. Bogdan's mother was a Cossack and was called Agafya.
This time was extremely difficult for the Russian people, who came under the rule of the Commonwealth. Previously, as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Russia, they did not differ from other subjects and did not experience any particular oppression. "Europeanization" touched mainly the tops - princely, boyar families. However, now the situation has changed, Poland, and through it the Vatican, sought to destroy the Russian-speaking population of the “borderlands-Ukraine” of the Polish state, to destroy the Orthodox faith. To the feudal (socio-economic) yoke was added national and religious. Russian and Orthodox population sought to deprive the faith, language, history, turn into a completely powerless, illiterate and weak-willed slave herd.
The Polish government, striving to secure for itself the “desert places” in Ukraine, forms a network of magnate latifundia on its eastern borders. The land is massively distributed to the Polish gentry. This leads to regular uprisings of the Russian people against the Polish colonialists. In addition, in 1596, the union of the Orthodox Church with the Catholic Church was proclaimed in Brest. Orthodoxy was outlawed. Russian people did not accept this. Polish pans and gentry "pacified" the Russian people with fire and sword.
It is worth noting that the numerous uprisings and wars of 1620 - 1630's were distinguished by extreme cruelty. Polish troops drowned the uprisings and riots of peasants and Cossacks in the blood. Completely destroyed entire villages. The rebels responded with merciless cruelty to Poles, Jews and their families who were captured by them. Polish gentry often did not bother with issues of property management. We hired educated managers, often they were Jews. In addition, the Jews were often owners of taverns, usurers, that is, people who parasitized on people's grief. The usury managers regularly sent the required taxes, and then sent down seven skins from the peasants. From here mutual hatred which has lived and to modern time.
Khmelnitsky began his studies at the Kiev fraternal school, then his father gave him a Latin school in Lviv (a Jesuit college). It was an ingenious invention of the papal throne. The Vatican created first-class schools with good personnel and trained representatives of the local elite in them. The Jesuits not only taught well, but gradually inspired hatred of Orthodoxy and everything Russian. There was a "recoding", first of all, young people from prominent clans, and then the entire population. Young people received European education, accepted Catholicism, entered the Polish elite, became related to the gentry. Such people became the most zealous servants of the Polish state and the Vatican. Moreover, the process was massive, in 1613, the college consisted of 530 students, and their number grew every year.
Bogdan became one of the best students of the school. He studied theology, history, read a lot, well learned Polish and Latin. At the same time, young Khmelnitsky withstood the temptation to accept Catholicism. After 8 years of study, Bogdan returned home. Still read a lot, and became interested in military affairs. He became a master of owning a saber (was oboer), an excellent rider.
At this time, the war began with Turkey and the Crimean Khanate. The Crimean horde reached Kamenets and Lvov, robbed and plundered everything in its path, hijacking thousands of Russians and Poles. For the people it was another terrible disaster. Cossacks as best they could withstand a predator. They made retaliatory raids and trips to the Crimea and Turkey, freed the captives. Khmelnitsky with his father participated in the Polish-Turkish war 1620-1621. In 1620, the great Crown Hetman Zolkiewski, counting on the help of the Moldavian Prince Gasper Graziani, moved against the Turks and Tatars. 9 - 10 (19 - 20) September 1620 was a battle. Zolkiewski army withstood the blow. But it was obvious that under the pressure of the superior forces of the enemy will have to retreat. In addition, the Moldavian prince and some Polish commanders fled with their troops (the overwhelming part died at Prut crossing). The Polish army and the Cossacks began to retreat, leading the rearguard battles with the advancing enemy. September 24 (October 6) in the Polish camp near Mogilev on the Dniester began disputes and confusion. This was used by the Tatars and Turks, they struck the crown army in the camp, killed many, and captured many. Getman Zolkiewski died. Mikhail Khmelnitsky also fell to the death of the brave. Bogdan was captured.
He lived in Constantinople in the house of one of the Turkish pasha, a naval commander. Seeing that he was educated in Khmelnitsky, he was used as a clerk and interpreter. Being in captivity, Bogdan managed to learn something. He learned Turkish and Tatar languages, became acquainted with the life of the Turks, studied the organization and structure of their army. He even made acquaintance with some prominent Turks, which was useful to him in the future, especially when negotiating with Porto.
In 1622, Khmelnitsky was bought from captivity. The mother shortly after the return of her son married the Royal Zolner (soldier) again and went to Belarus. Returning to the estate of his father - Subotov, he was enrolled in the registered Cossacks. He served in the Chigirinsky regiment and gradually reached the rank of centurion. He had a great influence on the Cossacks, was "for the chieftain." Apparently, at this time, he often drove troops that fought back Tatar raids, they themselves went to the Crimea and Turkey.
Meanwhile, the situation in Little Russia continued to heat up. About 5 million people lived in the region at that time. More than a million people lived in 700 cities, the rest of the population were peasants enslaved by Polish feudal lords. They fled en masse from their masters, became free people - Cossacks. Especially a lot of them were hidden in the areas of Poltava, Chigirin, where there were few inhabitants. Cossacks lived mainly in the southeast of Little Russia - Ukraine, many left in Zaporizhia. Cossacks were divided into registered and non-registrants. The registry was strictly limited, it was included mainly rich, wealthy elite of the Cossacks. Registrants themselves owned lands, often large estates, were friends with the Polish gentry. They were not hostile to the feudal system, which provided them with privileges and wealth, were always ready to negotiate with the Poles, to become part of an "enlightened Europe" (equal to the Polish gentry).
But most of the Cossacks was not in the registry. They were peasants fleeing from serfdom. The Polish authorities sought to turn the unregistered Cossacks into serfs, who responded with riots and uprisings, joined by the peasants. The Cossacks were a serious threat to Poland, as they were armed forces, had serious combat experience, and fighting spirit. The strongest, resolute and strong-willed people fled to the Cossacks (violent, passionaries). Cossacks did not want to put up with feudal, national and religious oppression. At the same time, the lower ranks of the Cossacks easily converged with the peasants. That is, the social base of the possible national liberation war was the widest.
In addition, there was still a third force hostile to the Commonwealth. These were burghers, townspeople. In hundreds of cities and towns, Russian people — craftsmen (workshop and non-workshop), their apprentices, pupils, lower classes, part of the clergy, etc., hated the Polish authorities. The burghers were also oppressed by the Polish gentry. They were also huddled because of their nationality and faith. In particular, the Orthodox did not have the right to participate in the elected bodies of the city government. Russian people struggled with oppression as best they could. In order to preserve their faith, culture, language, education (Russianness), they united around their churches, creating fraternities, the purpose of which was to help each other in an emergency situation. Brotherhoods opened their schools to preserve national education and culture.
Worried about the mass exodus of peasants to the Cossacks after the Polish-Turkish war of 1620-1621, the Polish government sent 1625-thousand to the southern Kiev region in September of 30. army led by hetman Stanislav Konetspolsky. October 1 government army approached Kanev. Cossack 3-th. the garrison left the city and after the battle with the Polish detachment near Moshny, retreated to Cherkasy, where it merged with 2-thousand. detachment of local Cossacks. Together, the Cossacks retreated to the mouth of the Tsibulnik River, where other Cossack detachments gathered. Soon the Cossacks led by Mark Zhmailo arrived here with artillery. Getman Zhmailo led the Cossack army. In October - November, the Poles and the Cossacks met in several battles. After the Poles failed to develop the Cossacks in open battle, they went to the negotiations. The registrar immediately threw Hetman Zhmailo, who hated the Polish and Ukrainian gentry, and chose a supporter of the "European values" Mikhail Doroshenko, who immediately signed peace with the Poles.
The Kurukovsky treaty was in the interests of the Polish invaders. The Cossack registry was reduced to 6 thousand Cossacks, who were supposed to perform the duties of the border guards. One thousand was supposed to live in Zaporozhye, and the rest to remain on the borders of the Kiev, Chernihiv and Bratslav provinces in readiness to follow the instructions of the authorities. All those who were not included in the register (about 40 thousand rebels) were obliged to return to the public state in which they were before arriving in Zaporozhye. That is, many voluntarily had to return to slavery. The Cossacks inscribed in the register enjoyed “Cossack liberties”: personal freedom, the right to be tried by their military court, to engage in animal and fishery and trade; Cossacks in the register were to receive a salary (annual payment in 60 thousand PLN); The “senior” over the Cossacks was asserted by the king or corona hetman.
The new "senior" Polish side was appointed Mikhail Doroshenko. In the fall and winter of 1625, he, along with representatives of Polish landowners t. By the “commission”, he traveled around the land in order to separate the “extractors” (drawn from the register) from the Cossacks, while the former actually lost all the “Cossack privileges”. Doroshenko personally recorded, including in the register of the most prosperous Cossacks. All those who did not get on the roster remained dependent people. It was established six registered regiments - Kiev, Pereyaslavsky, Belotserkovsky, Korsunsky, Kanevsky and Cherkassky. In each city where the regiment was established, management was created. Here lived the foreman, headed by the colonel. The regiment was divided into hundreds, which was commanded by a hundred-member foreman.
Bogdan Khmelnitsky was enrolled in the Chigirinsky Hundred of the Cherkasy Regiment. He often visited Zaporozhye at its very bottom. With the units of the registered Cossacks subordinate to him, on the orders of the king, he participated in the campaigns. In 1629, he especially distinguished himself - “he led two Kantemirovs alive to the king (from which the king was aware of many secret plans of the Turkish people in Lylyakh), because of which he had great mercy for the king because he was naturally intelligent in the science of the Latin language ...” (From the chronicle of Gregory Grabyanki). At the same time he got married. His sister became the sister of his old friend Yakima Anne Somko. By origin, it was from Pereyaslav burghers.
Meanwhile, the lives of ordinary people continued to deteriorate. The pans implanted Catholicism, tried to break the recalcitrant, not stopping in front of the bloody reprisals themselves. The Lviv chronicler wrote that the soldiers "murdered and reproved the obnoxious people, killed people for no reason." Nobility bullying also affected the registered Cossacks. Cossacks were beaten and tortured, taken away from them good.
In the chronicle of Gregory Grabyanka it was noted: "... great burdens to the Ukrainian people (territorial term, from the word" Ukraine-outskirts "- Author.) And to the Cossacks nalahuha, violence and resentment to the churches of God’s creation, honor and authority to exile, the court is not dayah, the Cossacks are in every way embittered, from every bidl and bee the tenth will be charged. Does anybody have a beast — give skin to a pan; if you have a fish — give an urgent tribute from there to Pan; from the military greed of the Tatar horse or weapon in the Cossack will be - give a flake to Pan ... ".
The peasants, tradesmen and Cossacks, plundered and humiliated by the Polish panarians, abandoned their homes and fled in search of a better life. Some fled to Zaporozhye. Others often with whole families went to the Russian kingdom. There they were given land, given the opportunity to engage in crafts. The time of a general fire was approaching.
To be continued ...