Military Review

370 years ago, the national liberation war of the Russian people against the Polish invaders began

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370 years ago, the national liberation war of the Russian people against the Polish invaders began

370 years ago, 24 January 1648, Bohdan Khmelnytsky was elected hetman of the Zaporizhzhya Sich. The national liberation war of the Russian people against the Polish invaders began.


This event had a huge historical value. Part of the Russian south and west Russian lands occupied by Lithuania and Poland during the Russian unrest (period of feudal fragmentation), in 1654 returned to the Russian Empire. Later, Russia returned the remaining West Russian lands, the Russian people reunited.

These events are somewhat repeated in recent history. Again, Russia was in turmoil. We temporarily lost the original Russian lands: Small Russia (Ukraine) and White Russia. The Russian people turned out to be the largest divided people on the planet. At the same time, the occupation authorities in Kiev, subordinate to the West, are pursuing a policy similar to that of the former Poland. If before there was a process of polishing and the introduction of Catholicism, now Russians are being turned into “Ukrainians,” orthodoxy is being destroyed. The Ukrainian elite, as in the past part of the Cossack elders, betrayed their people, sold to the West for the opportunity to plunder their fellow countrymen, to be lackeys-managers and oligarch parasites in the colony and eventually become "Europeans."

Read more about the "Ukrainian myth" - in articles of the BO: The purpose of the project "Ukraine" - the destruction of the Russian world; Ukrainian Chimera vs. Svetlaya Rus; The myth of "European Russia-Ukraine"; The purpose of the project "Ukraine". “Russians will tear themselves with their own claws, and we will grow and strengthen”; West vs Russia: Creating the “Ukrainian Ethnic Chimera”; "Ukrainians" are the same Russians.

Bohdan Khmelnytsky. General situation in Little Russia

Very little is known about the life of Bogdan Khmelnitsky before 1647. Born 27 December 1595 of the year (or 1596). They called him Zinoviy. He was born on the third day of the Christmas holidays, when the memory of St. Fyodor the Outlined was celebrated, therefore, according to the calendar, he received a second name - Bogdan (from the Greek Fyodor - “God-given”). The father of Bohdan, Chigirinsky under-warrant, Mikhail Khmelnitsky, was in the service of the crown hetman Stanislav Zolkevsky. Bogdan's mother was a Cossack and was called Agafya.

This time was extremely difficult for the Russian people, who came under the rule of the Commonwealth. Previously, as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Russia, they did not differ from other subjects and did not experience any particular oppression. "Europeanization" touched mainly the tops - princely, boyar families. However, now the situation has changed, Poland, and through it the Vatican, sought to destroy the Russian-speaking population of the “borderlands-Ukraine” of the Polish state, to destroy the Orthodox faith. To the feudal (socio-economic) yoke was added national and religious. Russian and Orthodox population sought to deprive the faith, language, history, turn into a completely powerless, illiterate and weak-willed slave herd.

The Polish government, striving to secure for itself the “desert places” in Ukraine, forms a network of magnate latifundia on its eastern borders. The land is massively distributed to the Polish gentry. This leads to regular uprisings of the Russian people against the Polish colonialists. In addition, in 1596, the union of the Orthodox Church with the Catholic Church was proclaimed in Brest. Orthodoxy was outlawed. Russian people did not accept this. Polish pans and gentry "pacified" the Russian people with fire and sword.

It is worth noting that the numerous uprisings and wars of 1620 - 1630's were distinguished by extreme cruelty. Polish troops drowned the uprisings and riots of peasants and Cossacks in the blood. Completely destroyed entire villages. The rebels responded with merciless cruelty to Poles, Jews and their families who were captured by them. Polish gentry often did not bother with issues of property management. We hired educated managers, often they were Jews. In addition, the Jews were often owners of taverns, usurers, that is, people who parasitized on people's grief. The usury managers regularly sent the required taxes, and then sent down seven skins from the peasants. From here mutual hatred which has lived and to modern time.

Khmelnitsky began his studies at the Kiev fraternal school, then his father gave him a Latin school in Lviv (a Jesuit college). It was an ingenious invention of the papal throne. The Vatican created first-class schools with good personnel and trained representatives of the local elite in them. The Jesuits not only taught well, but gradually inspired hatred of Orthodoxy and everything Russian. There was a "recoding", first of all, young people from prominent clans, and then the entire population. Young people received European education, accepted Catholicism, entered the Polish elite, became related to the gentry. Such people became the most zealous servants of the Polish state and the Vatican. Moreover, the process was massive, in 1613, the college consisted of 530 students, and their number grew every year.

Bogdan became one of the best students of the school. He studied theology, history, read a lot, well learned Polish and Latin. At the same time, young Khmelnitsky withstood the temptation to accept Catholicism. After 8 years of study, Bogdan returned home. Still read a lot, and became interested in military affairs. He became a master of owning a saber (was oboer), an excellent rider.

At this time, the war began with Turkey and the Crimean Khanate. The Crimean horde reached Kamenets and Lvov, robbed and plundered everything in its path, hijacking thousands of Russians and Poles. For the people it was another terrible disaster. Cossacks as best they could withstand a predator. They made retaliatory raids and trips to the Crimea and Turkey, freed the captives. Khmelnitsky with his father participated in the Polish-Turkish war 1620-1621. In 1620, the great Crown Hetman Zolkiewski, counting on the help of the Moldavian Prince Gasper Graziani, moved against the Turks and Tatars. 9 - 10 (19 - 20) September 1620 was a battle. Zolkiewski army withstood the blow. But it was obvious that under the pressure of the superior forces of the enemy will have to retreat. In addition, the Moldavian prince and some Polish commanders fled with their troops (the overwhelming part died at Prut crossing). The Polish army and the Cossacks began to retreat, leading the rearguard battles with the advancing enemy. September 24 (October 6) in the Polish camp near Mogilev on the Dniester began disputes and confusion. This was used by the Tatars and Turks, they struck the crown army in the camp, killed many, and captured many. Getman Zolkiewski died. Mikhail Khmelnitsky also fell to the death of the brave. Bogdan was captured.

He lived in Constantinople in the house of one of the Turkish pasha, a naval commander. Seeing that he was educated in Khmelnitsky, he was used as a clerk and interpreter. Being in captivity, Bogdan managed to learn something. He learned Turkish and Tatar languages, became acquainted with the life of the Turks, studied the organization and structure of their army. He even made acquaintance with some prominent Turks, which was useful to him in the future, especially when negotiating with Porto.

In 1622, Khmelnitsky was bought from captivity. The mother shortly after the return of her son married the Royal Zolner (soldier) again and went to Belarus. Returning to the estate of his father - Subotov, he was enrolled in the registered Cossacks. He served in the Chigirinsky regiment and gradually reached the rank of centurion. He had a great influence on the Cossacks, was "for the chieftain." Apparently, at this time, he often drove troops that fought back Tatar raids, they themselves went to the Crimea and Turkey.

Meanwhile, the situation in Little Russia continued to heat up. About 5 million people lived in the region at that time. More than a million people lived in 700 cities, the rest of the population were peasants enslaved by Polish feudal lords. They fled en masse from their masters, became free people - Cossacks. Especially a lot of them were hidden in the areas of Poltava, Chigirin, where there were few inhabitants. Cossacks lived mainly in the southeast of Little Russia - Ukraine, many left in Zaporizhia. Cossacks were divided into registered and non-registrants. The registry was strictly limited, it was included mainly rich, wealthy elite of the Cossacks. Registrants themselves owned lands, often large estates, were friends with the Polish gentry. They were not hostile to the feudal system, which provided them with privileges and wealth, were always ready to negotiate with the Poles, to become part of an "enlightened Europe" (equal to the Polish gentry).

But most of the Cossacks was not in the registry. They were peasants fleeing from serfdom. The Polish authorities sought to turn the unregistered Cossacks into serfs, who responded with riots and uprisings, joined by the peasants. The Cossacks were a serious threat to Poland, as they were armed forces, had serious combat experience, and fighting spirit. The strongest, resolute and strong-willed people fled to the Cossacks (violent, passionaries). Cossacks did not want to put up with feudal, national and religious oppression. At the same time, the lower ranks of the Cossacks easily converged with the peasants. That is, the social base of the possible national liberation war was the widest.

In addition, there was still a third force hostile to the Commonwealth. These were burghers, townspeople. In hundreds of cities and towns, Russian people — craftsmen (workshop and non-workshop), their apprentices, pupils, lower classes, part of the clergy, etc., hated the Polish authorities. The burghers were also oppressed by the Polish gentry. They were also huddled because of their nationality and faith. In particular, the Orthodox did not have the right to participate in the elected bodies of the city government. Russian people struggled with oppression as best they could. In order to preserve their faith, culture, language, education (Russianness), they united around their churches, creating fraternities, the purpose of which was to help each other in an emergency situation. Brotherhoods opened their schools to preserve national education and culture.

Worried about the mass exodus of peasants to the Cossacks after the Polish-Turkish war of 1620-1621, the Polish government sent 1625-thousand to the southern Kiev region in September of 30. army led by hetman Stanislav Konetspolsky. October 1 government army approached Kanev. Cossack 3-th. the garrison left the city and after the battle with the Polish detachment near Moshny, retreated to Cherkasy, where it merged with 2-thousand. detachment of local Cossacks. Together, the Cossacks retreated to the mouth of the Tsibulnik River, where other Cossack detachments gathered. Soon the Cossacks led by Mark Zhmailo arrived here with artillery. Getman Zhmailo led the Cossack army. In October - November, the Poles and the Cossacks met in several battles. After the Poles failed to develop the Cossacks in open battle, they went to the negotiations. The registrar immediately threw Hetman Zhmailo, who hated the Polish and Ukrainian gentry, and chose a supporter of the "European values" Mikhail Doroshenko, who immediately signed peace with the Poles.

The Kurukovsky treaty was in the interests of the Polish invaders. The Cossack registry was reduced to 6 thousand Cossacks, who were supposed to perform the duties of the border guards. One thousand was supposed to live in Zaporozhye, and the rest to remain on the borders of the Kiev, Chernihiv and Bratslav provinces in readiness to follow the instructions of the authorities. All those who were not included in the register (about 40 thousand rebels) were obliged to return to the public state in which they were before arriving in Zaporozhye. That is, many voluntarily had to return to slavery. The Cossacks inscribed in the register enjoyed “Cossack liberties”: personal freedom, the right to be tried by their military court, to engage in animal and fishery and trade; Cossacks in the register were to receive a salary (annual payment in 60 thousand PLN); The “senior” over the Cossacks was asserted by the king or corona hetman.

The new "senior" Polish side was appointed Mikhail Doroshenko. In the fall and winter of 1625, he, along with representatives of Polish landowners t. By the “commission”, he traveled around the land in order to separate the “extractors” (drawn from the register) from the Cossacks, while the former actually lost all the “Cossack privileges”. Doroshenko personally recorded, including in the register of the most prosperous Cossacks. All those who did not get on the roster remained dependent people. It was established six registered regiments - Kiev, Pereyaslavsky, Belotserkovsky, Korsunsky, Kanevsky and Cherkassky. In each city where the regiment was established, management was created. Here lived the foreman, headed by the colonel. The regiment was divided into hundreds, which was commanded by a hundred-member foreman.

Bogdan Khmelnitsky was enrolled in the Chigirinsky Hundred of the Cherkasy Regiment. He often visited Zaporozhye at its very bottom. With the units of the registered Cossacks subordinate to him, on the orders of the king, he participated in the campaigns. In 1629, he especially distinguished himself - “he led two Kantemirovs alive to the king (from which the king was aware of many secret plans of the Turkish people in Lylyakh), because of which he had great mercy for the king because he was naturally intelligent in the science of the Latin language ...” (From the chronicle of Gregory Grabyanki). At the same time he got married. His sister became the sister of his old friend Yakima Anne Somko. By origin, it was from Pereyaslav burghers.

Meanwhile, the lives of ordinary people continued to deteriorate. The pans implanted Catholicism, tried to break the recalcitrant, not stopping in front of the bloody reprisals themselves. The Lviv chronicler wrote that the soldiers "murdered and reproved the obnoxious people, killed people for no reason." Nobility bullying also affected the registered Cossacks. Cossacks were beaten and tortured, taken away from them good.

In the chronicle of Gregory Grabyanka it was noted: "... great burdens to the Ukrainian people (territorial term, from the word" Ukraine-outskirts "- Author.) And to the Cossacks nalahuha, violence and resentment to the churches of God’s creation, honor and authority to exile, the court is not dayah, the Cossacks are in every way embittered, from every bidl and bee the tenth will be charged. Does anybody have a beast — give skin to a pan; if you have a fish — give an urgent tribute from there to Pan; from the military greed of the Tatar horse or weapon in the Cossack will be - give a flake to Pan ... ".

The peasants, tradesmen and Cossacks, plundered and humiliated by the Polish panarians, abandoned their homes and fled in search of a better life. Some fled to Zaporozhye. Others often with whole families went to the Russian kingdom. There they were given land, given the opportunity to engage in crafts. The time of a general fire was approaching.

To be continued ...
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 24 January 2018 07: 25 New
    +7
    “Europeanization” mainly concerned the elite — princely, boyar clans.
    ....Those. became a Polish tycoon .... Here the author would have had to stop in more detail ....
    1. Spnsr
      Spnsr 24 January 2018 22: 58 New
      0
      Here the author would stop at all! And do not call the Western Slavs, otherwise the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the so-called ON speech are Poles! The Poles are the work of the Romanovs, and not only on paper!
      In Russian, Poland is still not at a high level of development, if we take as a basis the concept of civilization in the true, and not only the definition of the word! The period of the creation of Poland is the maximum of the last section of the rechospolit, and the formation of Poland took place as part of the Russian Empire, and then in the confrontation with the "West", literally like now the situation with Ukraine!
      Discard the extra noise from the students, and the story itself will appear in a more logical representation !!!
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 24 January 2018 07: 26 New
    0
    The time was tough.
    Latin schools of foreign influence were well planted. The word "Jesuitism" did not appear in vain.

    I must admit that in the American film "Taras Bulba", for all the absurdities, it was school episodes that were shown successfully.
  3. Cherkashin Ivan
    Cherkashin Ivan 24 January 2018 07: 48 New
    +9
    I can not agree with the name. As a result, it may have turned out that way, that is, "national liberation", but rather because the classes in Little Russia were of different nationalities.
    For the national liberation war, you need a national identity, correct if not right.
    And Little Russians identified themselves more likely by place of residence, religion and affiliation to a particular state.
    If Khmelnitsky had become some sort of prince in the "Grand Duchy of Russia" as part of the Commonwealth, would he have continued his war? I think no. And if the registry stretched thousands to 30 and equated all Cossacks to the gentry? I think the Cossacks would be happy.
    Remaining peasants and bourgeois, well, do not infringe on Orthodoxy so openly and ease oppression a little, and then everything would be quiet.
    So, the war was rather class and religious.
    1. captain
      captain 24 January 2018 10: 32 New
      +1
      Quote: Cherkashin Ivan
      I can not agree with the name. As a result, it may have turned out that way, that is, "national liberation", but rather because the classes in Little Russia were of different nationalities.
      For the national liberation war, you need a national identity, correct if not right.
      And Little Russians identified themselves more likely by place of residence, religion and affiliation to a particular state.
      If Khmelnitsky had become some sort of prince in the "Grand Duchy of Russia" as part of the Commonwealth, would he have continued his war? I think no. And if the registry stretched thousands to 30 and equated all Cossacks to the gentry? I think the Cossacks would be happy.
      Remaining peasants and bourgeois, well, do not infringe on Orthodoxy so openly and ease oppression a little, and then everything would be quiet.
      So, the war was rather class and religious.

      It is a pity that there was no VKP (b) then, the Bolsheviks would have brought to people the whole essence of the class struggle.
      1. Cherkashin Ivan
        Cherkashin Ivan 24 January 2018 10: 39 New
        +2
        Feel free, well, I agree in the annex to the 17th century, the classic class struggle sounds funny. But the lack of theoretical base did not fit any of the participants)
      2. avt
        avt 24 January 2018 12: 28 New
        +3
        Quote: captain
        It is a pity that there was no VKP (b) then, the Bolsheviks would have brought to people the whole essence of the class struggle.

        Type aspadin captain offended by the author of the previous comment? And the hilt-address of Hop’s appeal to Lyosha, the “Quietest” is weak to search for? Well, in part, to refute the evil tongues that Lesha, who really slowed down, moved when Khmel once again sent the message that if the king continues to pull further, he will make peace with the Poles and will go to Moscow with them? wassat And what? ,, Orthodox Cossacks "for ,, Orthodox faith" is not the first time that the Bulo. For example, the Trinity Lavra with Poles in siege did not hold?
        1. Weyland
          Weyland 25 January 2018 22: 10 New
          0
          Quote: avt
          Lyosha, who really slowed down, moved when Khmel once again sent that if the tsar continued to pull, would he reconcile himself with the Poles and go to Moscow with them?

          Actually, in 1634 we concluded a truce with the Poles for 20 years. And honestly waiting for the end of his term.
      3. Monarchist
        Monarchist 24 January 2018 14: 43 New
        +2
        Here, and then we are surprised: why people lived for centuries under the oaths and were happy.
        It’s a big stupid thing to understand the events of many centuries ago
    2. Spnsr
      Spnsr 24 January 2018 23: 08 New
      0
      And in my perception, it was a struggle for the throne in Third Rome! But not a liberation struggle.
      The only thing is that if there had not been this struggle for the throne, perhaps we would not have had the Russian World now!
      And calling the struggle for the throne in Third Rome can be called anything you like, at least as a liberation struggle from the speech of the Commonwealth, even from the Poles!
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 24 January 2018 09: 06 New
    +4
    We are temporarily lost native Russian lands: Small Russia (Ukraine) and White Russia. The Russian people turned out to be the largest divided people on the planet. At the same time, the occupation authorities in Kiev, subordinate to the West, are pursuing a policy similar to that of the former Poland

    Only if earlier they were captured by foreigners, now foreigners (the so-called Ukrainians), inside the Russian lands, were brought up by people who seized power in 1917.
    тabout now they turn Russians into "Ukrainians"destroy Orthodoxy

    Not now, but since 1917, let us recall Novorossiya forcibly torn from Russia and the wild Ukrainization of Russians there.
    In 1923, there were 7 Ukrainian schools in the Donbass and 2150 Russians. In 1939, there were 7 Ukrainian-Russian and 2250 Ukrainian. .. It was crushed Russian education.
    Why be surprised?
    1. Looking for
      Looking for 24 January 2018 17: 41 New
      0
      you are the same inhuman as the Ukrainian nationalists. Just the opposite.
      1. already a Muscovite
        already a Muscovite 24 January 2018 18: 15 New
        +1
        don't you like the truth? So we don’t have another one ...
    2. sd68
      sd68 25 January 2018 23: 52 New
      0
      so it’s clear. Ukrainian was banned before the revolution
      1. already a Muscovite
        already a Muscovite 26 January 2018 17: 58 New
        +1
        Is it ?? It seems to me that this is your modern Svidomo nonsense ... If this were so, then there would not be books before the age of 17 in Ukrainian. But they are ..
  5. Streletskos
    Streletskos 24 January 2018 09: 08 New
    15
    On two chairs the guy really tried to sit
    And so Bogdan is strength and power!
    1. Cherkashin Ivan
      Cherkashin Ivan 24 January 2018 09: 13 New
      +2
      Correct) there were more chairs, Russia, the Commonwealth, the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire. Here it is multi-vector)
      1. Streletskos
        Streletskos 24 January 2018 09: 16 New
        15
        Exactly
        Two (for him) two! The rest are stools, lean against laughing
        1. Cherkashin Ivan
          Cherkashin Ivan 24 January 2018 09: 20 New
          +1
          Well now it’s hard to get into his head, or rather it’s hard to understand what was cooked there and what options he considered priority. But it seems that the option with the Crimean Khanate was seriously considered.
          Although it seems to me that such a "union" would not have lived for a long time. Cossacks would become panes in their "state", and therefore the peasants are the basis of their well-being, and for the Krymchaks, it’s their prey, and this is the reason for the massacre between them.
  6. captain
    captain 24 January 2018 10: 35 New
    +1
    Consider the national liberation struggle in XV !! from the point of view of Marxism-Leninism, this is not very correct.
    1. Cherkashin Ivan
      Cherkashin Ivan 24 January 2018 10: 42 New
      +2
      And why, let me ask? What is my reasoning wrong? If Marxism is so unpleasant for you, then it is easier to consider this struggle as a religious one. I already said about the lack of national self-awareness, I will not repeat it.
  7. Stirbjorn
    Stirbjorn 24 January 2018 11: 57 New
    0
    Interesting article, I look forward to continuing with interest! good
  8. avt
    avt 24 January 2018 12: 22 New
    +2
    Well, of course, Bogdan-Zinovy ​​is the canonical figure of the unifier ..... but still, if for an adult
    With subordinate units of the registered Cossacks, by order of the king, he participated in campaigns. In 1629 he especially distinguished himself: “he brought the two Kantemirs alive to the king (from whom the king knew a lot about Turkish secret plans for Poles), because of which he had great mercy from the king,
    Yes?! And not for saving the king and participating in the battles near Smolensk? He fought there with the cantemirs schismatics?wassat
    At the same time, he got married. His wife was the sister of his old friend Yakima, Anna Somko. By origin, she was from the Pereyaslav bourgeoisie.
    Well, Az is a sinner, in general, in the nuances of his personal life, however, he is not very well versed. Therefore, the question is for the author - Is it not that Anna on whom the elder Chaplinsky was married by legal church marriage, who, according to the court, pressed the farm in addition to her? wassat That is, it turns out that Zinovy ​​lived in fornication with her, well, it’s not a bunch of such a notion - civil marriage. I am not in condemnation, but exclusively in the purity of the narrative. But maybe the author knows for sure in which church there is a record, practically a civil registration of marriage, about the wedding of our hero of the story with this lady of his heart?
    1. Weyland
      Weyland 25 January 2018 22: 17 New
      0
      Quote: avt
      This is not that Anna on whom the elder Chaplinsky was married by legal church marriage, who, according to the court, squeezed a farm in addition to her?

      No, of course - if only because Chaplinsky’s wife was called Elena, and all these events happened already after the death of Anna Somko! It’s like in the film “My Fair Nanny” - Khmelnitsky was widowed, took this Elena as a nanny to his children, and at the same time he began to use it for its natural purpose ...
    2. sd68
      sd68 25 January 2018 23: 56 New
      0
      in those days, a common thing, it seems.
      Take, for example, Marta Samuilovna Skavronskaya, and her illegitimate daughter, Lisa ....
    3. sd68
      sd68 26 January 2018 00: 12 New
      0
      By the way, Helena Khmelnitsky married in 1649.

      It was worth it, it seems wink
  9. Dimmih
    Dimmih 24 January 2018 13: 10 New
    +3
    It turns out that the author of the article is not devoid of common sense .... But at the same time, everyone is being pulled under one "Russian blanket." their "Russian" allies (Cossacks). So the Cossacks, it actually had its own specifics and for quite a long time served the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth very purposefully. The central authority in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was weakening, the magnates were gaining strength trying to crush the lands and population under themselves + the planting of Catholicism. We were taught at the institute that, in order to mock the Orthodox, the practice of giving the churches to the Jews was in order. Whether this was a massive phenomenon is a question, but I think in the propaganda of the rebels of that time it was pretty fanned. In general, a set of reasons led to the uprising, and all of them had their own weight, but do not exaggerate the "Russianness" of the rebellious masses. Let's not forget who Minin and Pozharsky were kicked out of the Kremlin!
    1. Cherkashin Ivan
      Cherkashin Ivan 24 January 2018 13: 22 New
      +3
      A little addition. The peasants had much more reasons for hatred of Jews. Jews engaged in usury, rented estates from the gentry and, accordingly, spread rot of the peasants and took the collection of taxes. Before, I was always struck by the cruelty with which they dealt with the Jews during the uprising. Now at least the reasons for this hatred are clear.
      1. Dimmih
        Dimmih 25 January 2018 05: 17 New
        +1
        The Jewish question has been overblown at all times. The extent to which Jews are left to the mercy is a vague question, there is no reliable information on it, so it is most likely inflated. The phenomenon was, but how massive is hard to say. The point here is that it’s no secret to anyone that it was believed that the Jews crucified Christ and, accordingly, they hated them as Christ murderers. Although, as established at the moment, the Sanhedrin could have sentenced to death, but the Roman administration confirmed and enforced the sentences. Accordingly, the Savior was crucified by none other than the Romans, of whom the Italians are descendants. If I am mistaken in something, please correct me. But this question was fanned if necessary.
        1. Weyland
          Weyland 25 January 2018 22: 26 New
          0
          Quote: Dimmih
          The extent to which Jews are left to the mercy is a vague question, there is no reliable information on it, so it is most likely inflated.

          Usually a Jewish tenant squeezed out of the peasants every five more than Pan paid for rent. But who made the lords give the estates for rent? It’s not the Jews who are to blame, but the lords!
          1. Dimmih
            Dimmih 26 January 2018 07: 38 New
            0
            In such cases, when I myself have not read something trustworthy on this topic, I always ask the same question — what will be your evidence? If they are not there, then you yourself know who. The answer is somewhere I read, heard, please do not offer.
    2. sd68
      sd68 24 January 2018 14: 40 New
      +3
      Yes, what kind of interventionists, the son of the Polish king themselves were called to the king, and when the king was chosen after all this, they seriously considered, including the candidacy of Marina Mnishek.
      Nicholas 2 was almost a purebred German, Catherine 2 was a purebred German ..
      At that level, nobody cared
      1. avt
        avt 24 January 2018 14: 46 New
        +2
        Quote: sd68
        Yes, what kind of interventionists, the son of the Polish king themselves were called to the king,

        From that knowledgeable people called that time not “intervention", we can say by that time - the invasion, and quite specifically - the Time of Troubles.
        1. sd68
          sd68 26 January 2018 00: 04 New
          0
          Time of Troubles, from the word troubles.
          no intervention clearly
      2. Looking for
        Looking for 24 January 2018 17: 48 New
        -1
        Do you know that Great Britain has been ruled by the Germans for 300 years too !!!
      3. Gopnik
        Gopnik 24 January 2018 18: 12 New
        0
        normal interventionists. They invaded Russia, besieged and captured Smolensk, defeated the Russian army near Klushino.
        Yes, even the Chinese. The main thing is that, unlike Vladislav, they were Orthodox and spoke Russian. Dzhugashvili, out there, was generally a Georgian, and spoke with an accent.
  10. Curious
    Curious 24 January 2018 14: 41 New
    +3
    I would not trifle in the place of the author, and would start with the Netherlands Revolution. So he would have written "450 years ago the national liberation struggle of the Russian people against Spanish rule" began. Further, the Czech uprising "400 years ago began the national liberation struggle of the Russian people against the Habsburg empire."
    Well, then you can take it from Khmelnitsky.
    And if on a global scale, then you can swing at the Medes. And what. "Exactly 2350 years ago, the national liberation struggle of the Russian people against Assyria began." That sounds.
    1. avt
      avt 24 January 2018 14: 48 New
      +4
      Quote: Curious
      And if on a global scale, then you can swing at the Medes. And what. "Exactly 2350 years ago, the national liberation struggle of the Russian people against Assyria began." That sounds.

      How will be correct ? Type - ,, The surrender by Khmelnitsky of the descendants of the ancient Sumerians to the Muscovite slavery of the Horde "? wassat
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 24 January 2018 15: 11 New
        +3
        No. Out of date.
        It should be like this: "Kiev Sumerians crossed over to the Siberian Aryans from the Horde." smile
  11. Monarchist
    Monarchist 24 January 2018 15: 01 New
    +1
    I didn’t understand a little: the father of Bogdna, Mikhail Khmelnitsky was a corral, had a farm and we must assume a land plot of more than three hundred. In the language of the twenties, a landowner officer, and his widow marry a simple soldier? Is something doubtful to me?
    1. sd68
      sd68 24 January 2018 16: 18 New
      +1
      doubt correctly.
      the soldier was a nobleman, although not wealthy
  12. Monarchist
    Monarchist 24 January 2018 15: 03 New
    0
    Quote: captain
    Consider the national liberation struggle in XV !! from the point of view of Marxism-Leninism, this is not very correct.

    Or rather stupid
    1. Cherkashin Ivan
      Cherkashin Ivan 25 January 2018 09: 33 New
      0
      Would you be careful, my friend, in the estimates. I'm not saying that being a monarchist in the 21st century is stupid, but I could.
  13. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 24 January 2018 15: 07 New
    +1
    Somehow I always considered him a Ukrainian ... recourse
    The Russian wiki also thinks so:
    Zinovy ​​Bogdan Mikhailovich Khmelnitsky (Ukrainian. Bogdan Zinovy ​​Mikhailovich Khmelnitsky)
    (December 27, 1595 [January 6, 1596]) [1], Subotov - July 27 [August 6] 1657, Chigirin [2]) -
    Hetman of the Zaporizhzhya Army, Ukrainian commander, politician and statesman
    1. Curious
      Curious 24 January 2018 15: 34 New
      +1
      Your information is out of date. You probably think the Maccabees are Jews?
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 24 January 2018 15: 48 New
        +1
        Southern arias coming from Altai Upland? Guessed? I study. fellow
        We recently had excavations. Found a lot of stone knives: such
        oval stones, on one side pointed (double-edged)
        on the other - round (so as not to scratch your hand). Now I guessed
        who trained local this advanced technology ...
    2. Gopnik
      Gopnik 24 January 2018 18: 14 New
      +1
      and he himself, interestingly, considered Ukrainian?
    3. sd68
      sd68 25 January 2018 23: 35 New
      0
      terminology has changed.
      then the Russians and Muscovites now began to be called Ukrainians and Russians — it all started with Peter 1, who introduced the imported word Rossia, first in Latin, and then the Cyrillic alphabet, Russia to refer to its expanded Moscow state.
      1. Gopnik
        Gopnik 26 January 2018 00: 43 New
        +2
        Did you read this in some Ukrainian textbooks? Russians have always called themselves Russians or Rusyns. But Ukrainians yes, they used to be called Russians, and then they lost that name. Russia was called Russia long before Peter.
  14. Monarchist
    Monarchist 24 January 2018 15: 08 New
    +1
    Quote: Stirbjorn
    Interesting article, I look forward to continuing with interest! good

    I prefer to search: Yavornitsky or read about it at Klyuchevsky or one of the classics
  15. already a Muscovite
    already a Muscovite 24 January 2018 18: 32 New
    +1
    I'm more interested in the question, where did the Russians go in Ukraine? No diaspora, no fraternity ... Yes, even groups in social networks do not exist ...
    1. avt
      avt 24 January 2018 18: 41 New
      +1
      Quote: already a Muscovite
      I'm more interested in the question, where did the Russians go in Ukraine?

      Andrei Vajra, quite well and fairly tough on YouTube, quite intelligibly addressed this issue.
    2. Bask
      Bask 24 January 2018 19: 10 New
      +1
      They haven’t gone anywhere. Forgive me, Lord Diaspora. For example, I have the Ural Cossack, grandfather Russian along the lines of my father and grandmother. I’m Russian by my grandfather and grandmother, Ukrainian grandmother. That’s all mixed up without a bottle. So don’t be compared to our patriots "and do not select the gene Russian, Ukrainian.
      1. already a Muscovite
        already a Muscovite 24 January 2018 19: 22 New
        +2
        Quote: Bask
        I have for example

        For example, you spread rot Russian and Russian in particular ... Or is this not true?
        I don’t single out any genes, Petya, Vasya, etc. ... but as practice has shown, not paying attention to such things is not useful ...
        1. Bask
          Bask 24 January 2018 20: 15 New
          +2
          And you watch more TV there they still don’t tell you. These gentlemen can pass any laws you want, but as I said in Russian, I will speak it. By the way, I also speak Ukrainian perfectly. We have eighty percent speak Russian, only in Ukraine it’s fashionable now to make a fool of yourself and shake your embroidered shirts. Some good posts get paid for this business, they earn money. I have godfathers from Mukachev, a city like this in the Lviv region, they watch Russian television and have nothing against Russians. Once again I’ll say enough nonsense. Many have relatives living in Ukraine, Russia, Belarus. Costs of the USSR.
          1. already a Muscovite
            already a Muscovite 24 January 2018 20: 40 New
            +1
            Well, don’t need these nonsense about TV ... It’s 2018, TVs have been with Wi-Fi for a long time, with YouTube on the remote control ... I’m even watching Sharia on TV ... There are more than enough alternatives to the first channel.
            It amazes me that all of you "speak Russian and don’t have anything against Russians," but your government thinks and does the exact opposite ... And the voices of Russians, namely ethnic Russians, in Ukraine are not heard at all ... Not so scared people?
            1. Bask
              Bask 24 January 2018 21: 33 New
              +1
              What ethnic Russians are we talking about? In my opinion, I clearly wrote that we are all mixed up and whoever shouts that he is Russian in the tenth generation is raving. All your complaints are about power, not about ordinary people. Maybe you have an alternative, but only conclusions not those. In your opinion, should we rush into the embrasures? I know that I will run, but I will say an seditious thing. Russia handed over the Russians in Ukraine. Europe and America invested money for all the horses, an entire generation who hated Russia was brought up with this money. Maybe you don’t in the know, but there are no revolutions without money. Or do you offer us bare hands against well-organized, but still support the power foreheads voevat.Muraev Maidan revolution called, so it instantly zaplevali.Tak things can and do you have different information, so an unambiguous conclusion.
              1. Gopnik
                Gopnik 25 January 2018 00: 34 New
                +1
                Something also became interesting to me. Those. are there no ethnic Russians in Ukraine? Are there ethnic Ukrainians?
                1. Bask
                  Bask 25 January 2018 01: 47 New
                  0
                  And where did I write about ethnic Ukrainians? Why these distortions? I cited my pedigree as an example above. And who am I? Ethnic Russian or Ukrainian? My friend, my dad is Azerbaijani, and my mother is Ukrainian. Who is he? Enough of this nonsense.
                  1. Gopnik
                    Gopnik 25 January 2018 14: 43 New
                    0
                    Maybe you didn’t write, but I asked. I don’t know who you are, figure it out yourself. What did the 2001 census indicate which nationality?
                    1. Bask
                      Bask 25 January 2018 15: 23 New
                      0
                      And why they asked if I didn’t write. I already know who. And I ask you because you provoke your question. I always considered myself Russian, but this does not negate the fact that I was born and raised in Ukraine.
                      1. Gopnik
                        Gopnik 25 January 2018 15: 35 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Bask
                        I already know who


                        So that's great. Why then ask me, "and who are you?"

                        Quote: Bask
                        because you provoke your question


                        Which one? And how? It seems that he did not ask anything seditious and provocative.

                        Quote: Bask
                        I always considered myself a Russian


                        And they indicated themselves in the census, in the column "nationality" to the Russians?

                        Quote: Bask
                        but this does not negate the fact that I was born and raised in Ukraine.


                        And how can this cancel ?? Many of the Russians were born and raised in Ukraine.
                  2. Sergey Medvedev
                    Sergey Medvedev 27 January 2018 00: 31 New
                    0
                    Quote: Bask
                    Dad is Azerbaijani, and mom is Ukrainian.

                    Your friend is Azerbaijani. Nationality, as well as the surname are transmitted along the male line.
                2. Dimmih
                  Dimmih 25 January 2018 05: 27 New
                  +1
                  Quote: Gopnik
                  Something also became interesting to me. Those. are there no ethnic Russians in Ukraine? Are there ethnic Ukrainians?

                  And who is ethnic Russian? I have a German mother, relatives of Tatars and Ukrainians, a Belarusian wife. If so, sort it out. And many have something similar. Therefore, "Russian" is not so much a set of pseudo-Aryan genes, but a worldview, a view of life from a certain angle. Therefore, all topics about the genetic self and purity of blood must be covered. Both my grandfathers during the Second World War of Aryans and other "purebred" exterminated as they could: one "Russian" chopped with a saber, the second, a purebred German, crushed the tank.
                  1. Gopnik
                    Gopnik 25 January 2018 14: 45 New
                    +1
                    Quote: Dimmih
                    And who is ethnic Russian?


                    A person entering the Russian ethnic group.

                    Quote: Dimmih
                    Therefore, "Russian" is not so much a set of pseudo-Aryan genes, but a worldview, a view of life from a certain angle. Therefore, all topics about the genetic self and purity of blood must be covered.


                    In fact, before you “cover up” you yourself have opened this topic. I'm talking about genes and the self did not write anything.
                    1. Bask
                      Bask 25 January 2018 15: 26 New
                      0
                      And how can you forgive the Russian ethnos? Please explain in more detail. You wrote clearly above, even in Russia there are no “pure” Russians by blood, and even more so in Ukraine.
                      1. Gopnik
                        Gopnik 25 January 2018 16: 06 New
                        +1
                        In the sense of "how is it"? I do not understand the question. If you are interested, take a textbook or reference book on ethnology and (or) ethnography and read about the Russian ethnos, as well as other ethnic groups that interest you.

                        Quote: Bask
                        They wrote to you clearly above, even in Russia there are no “pure” Russians by blood


                        They didn’t write to me that "there isn’t in Russia." A man simply described his situation - it happens. And what does pure blood mean? Are you a zoological racist?

                        Quote: Bask
                        and in Ukraine even more so.


                        But are there "pure blood" Ukrainians in Ukraine?

                        Since, nevertheless, did you identify yourself in the 2001 census? Russian, Ukrainian or something else? And then you, it seems to me, are avoiding this question.
  16. Lex.
    Lex. 24 January 2018 19: 05 New
    0
    Part of the Russian southern and western Russian lands occupied by Lithuania
    Then Lithuania was not modern Lietuva is not related to that Lithuania they even wanted to change the coat of arms as an alien
  17. Bask
    Bask 25 January 2018 16: 33 New
    0
    Gopnik,
    “Ie in Ukraine there are no ethnic Russians?” - Your question? And you do not provoke this? Yes, in the column, nationality always indicated that Russian. I agree, no one will cancel. That's what I tried to convey in my comments. no matter which of the powers that be, the Russian-speaking population of Ukraine has not gone away.
    1. already a Muscovite
      already a Muscovite 25 January 2018 17: 24 New
      +1
      Quote: Bask
      Whatever of the powers that be did, the Russian-speaking population of Ukraine has not gone away.

      But the fact that it (the Russian population) is really spread rot and destroyed, you do not agree with this ...
      I know that I will run, but I will say seditious thing. Russia handed over Russians in Ukraine. Europe and America invested money on all “horses”
      Kapets logic ... Should all Russians in Ukraine have given money for Cumadan? How disgusting is it to think that these people could have been and were my compatriots ... Your Vlad has agreed so far that he will not recognize Russians as an indigenous population ... Although, what am I trying to prove to you? After all, Russia passed ... I hope your hut will not hurt ...
      1. Bask
        Bask 25 January 2018 18: 40 New
        0
        Well, if the Russian-speaking spread rot and destroyed, there would be no one left in my city. Moreover, cities like Kharkov, Odessa, Dnepropetrovsk were depopulated. I won’t even say the rest, live in your surrealism.
  18. Bask
    Bask 25 January 2018 16: 52 New
    0
    Gopnik,
    I know what an ethnic group is. Therefore, I write that there are no pure ethnographic groups in the former USSR territory. They all mixed up for a long time. I haven’t written to you personally, but don’t consider it hard to re-read me. It’s difficult to rank me as racists. I always belonged to any race. I’ve written "Pure by Blood" specifically for you, bearing in mind that the population of Russia has relatives of different nationalities in the family. As well as the population of Ukraine. I think I answered the question about ethnic Ukrainians? Once again, I always considered myself Russian and not only to my children I say that they are Russian by nationality (do not consider it pathos).
    1. Gopnik
      Gopnik 25 January 2018 17: 08 New
      0
      Quote: Bask
      “Ie in Ukraine there are no ethnic Russians?” - Your question? And you do not provoke it?


      No, not provoked. I didn’t understand your phrase “What ethnic Russians are we talking about? I think I wrote clearly, we are all mixed up and whoever shouts that he is Russian in the tenth knee is raving” and asked a clarifying question. Now your position is clear, thank you.

      Quote: Bask
      I think I answered the question about ethnic Ukrainians?


      Yes, it is quite. Thank.

      Quote: Bask
      Once again, I always considered myself Russian and, moreover, I told my children that they were Russian by nationality ... Yes, in the column, nationality always indicated that it was Russian.


      I have no more questions. Everything is quite clear. Thanks again.
  19. Weyland
    Weyland 25 January 2018 22: 06 New
    0
    At the same time, the occupation authorities in Kiev, subordinate to the West, are pursuing a policy similar to that of the former Poland.
    It is better to compare with the time 25 years later Khmelnitsky. And just one letter of a difference - hetman Petro Doroshenko, am who laid Ukraine under the Sultan and became the "bay of the country of Ukraine"
  20. Andr1956
    Andr1956 31 January 2018 22: 05 New
    0
    And where does the Russian people? In my opinion, Bogdan Khmelnitsky was Ukrainian.