Analysis of the reality in which we exist allows us to evaluate it as a state of war. It is conducted against us in the economy, education, science, culture, even in the field of national personnel policy in the global civilizational and armed confrontation of the aggregate West (NATO-US). The readiness of the country and the population to protect the Fatherland becomes the most important criterion of security.
The war with Russia has not yet been transferred to the phase of open armed struggle and to our territory. Nevertheless, the United States is purposefully and systematically preparing - it is enough to name Ukraine, Poland, the Baltic States, the internal “fifth column”, which is supported from the outside and occupies serious positions in our economy, education, science and culture. A lot is said about the new US National Security Strategy (“Relationship of Intimidation”).
In Russia, the mechanisms of governing a country in a war are formed slowly and indistinctly, the mobilization component is not elaborated in detail, the spheres of patriotic education and preparation of the population for the defense of the Fatherland are orphaned and ineffective.
In fairness, let us say that in recent years at least something is being done in this area. But the modern geopolitical situation requires a fundamentally different quality of the Armed Forces, and most importantly, a new level of citizens' preparation for the defense of the Fatherland, since wars, as the classic said, are fought not by armies, but by nations.
It seems obvious that one year of active service does not allow to form reserves of the necessary qualifications and in the required quantity. The reduction of the two-year term was important in the 90s and early 2000s. Thus, many issues were resolved, including the fight against hazing. But today, the challenges of the time require a training system for military-trained reservists in addition to the Armed Forces - autonomous, built to fulfill state orders and under the control of senior management. In other words, the army should receive trained recruits, and the country should have a competent and sufficient mobilization reserve. After all, the outcome of the war does not depend on quantity tanks, but from the spirit and cohesion of the nation, the effectiveness of its management in armed confrontation, the willingness of the population to defend the Fatherland, the general level of military training of the majority.
90 years ago in the country, OSOAVIAHIM was created - a public organization for the purposeful solution of the tasks of patriotic education, which has become a competent leader. Today, this role is intended to perform DOSAAF Russia. But for the full revival of the organization, an appropriate mobilization task and a state order are necessary.
First of all, it is necessary to clearly define the goals of the “National Strategy for the Development and Security of Russia for the period up to 2050 of the year” and until the end of the XXI century. They should find official expression not only in the above-mentioned document, but also in the Military Doctrine, the National Defense Plan. Then become the basis of applied strategies of all ministries and departments.
“In the sphere of preparing the population of the country, work is carried out without tension and of proper quality,” states the president of the Board of Military Experts of Russia, Candidate of Political Sciences, Major General (Ret.) Alexander Vladimirov. “For example, after the liquidation of the Rosvoencenter, Rosmolodezh, the principal executor of the State program of patriotic education, has already withdrawn work from veterans from its functions and areas of responsibility, which leads to the loss of continuity of generations.” According to Vladimirov, Rosmolodezh, by definition, composition and focus of activities should not lead the patriotic education. However, the proposal of the College of military experts on the inclusion in the government of the Ministry of Veterans Affairs, which should address these issues, is still unclaimed. Although back in 2010, Vladimir Putin, pointing to the growing threats to national security, identified the need to create a Federal system for preparing the population for military service (“The Concept of the Federal System for Preparing Citizens of the Russian Federation for Military Service for the period up to 2020”).
To repeat: more than seven years ago, a practical model of universal education with the leading role of DOSAAF was proposed. So what's stopping you?
First, DOSAAF was removed from the system of subjects of national defense and was deprived of a mobilization task, the main subject of preparing citizens for military service and military-patriotic education, the developer and performer of state programs in this area are not defined, and there are no indicators and criteria for the effectiveness of the elements of the system. Secondly, the need for a military-trained reserve of the state and the army is not framed in a mandatory state order, and the legal and economic basis for the effective functioning of the elements of the system has not been created. Besides financing annually decreases.
We add that our school excludes the practical possibility of high-quality teaching of students in subjects and programs of preparation for the defense of the Fatherland and does not set such a task. Civic education does not provide skills even for such massive military occupational specialties as the shooter — senior shooter, grenade thrower, paramedic, radio operator, troop scout, drone operator, etc. The educational infrastructure and material base of DOSAAF require serious updating.
A priori, one of the departments concerned is the Ministry of Defense.
“But the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation has not yet developed a list of mandatory and specific requirements, standards and practical skills that every student must master by graduating from institutions of general (special, cadet) secondary and higher education after completing the compulsory subject courses" Fundamentals of Military Training "and" Young fighter ", - said Vladimirov. - Not defined and financial security.
Chief of mobilization
The general preparation of the population for the defense of the Fatherland should be based on historical traditions, ability to national mobilization. It is advisable to restore the institution of military districts in the old strategic cut, in a functional connection with the territorial defense and DOSAAF. It is necessary to solve the problem of the purpose of its infrastructure during the threatened period as centers for the collection, distribution and preparation of local mobresources.
It is important to return to the military commissariats of all levels the professional component (including modern means of communication), the ability to keep records of military service and specialists in the MES, the formation of automobile columns, marching companies, etc. What is the absence of an institution of compulsory registration and registration today? while problematic, even impossible.
The leadership of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation will need to appoint a person responsible for the interaction, setting tasks, determining the mobilization task, and forming a state order for DOSAAF. In Soviet times, such a man was the commander in chief of the Ground Forces. Today, these questions may be assigned to one of the deputy defense ministers of Russia.
It should be charged with the responsibility of the chief commanders of the types and types of troops of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, the National Guard, and other security agencies to develop lists of the MES required for them to be mastered in DOSAAF system. And through GOMU General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation to issue an application in the form of a state order and a mobilization task. The headquarters in this complex work should by definition be the General Staff of the RF Armed Forces.
The experience of the interaction of parts of the regular army of Syria and our military advisers with local armed groups, tribes, commanders and informal leaders is very valuable. Today, these issues can and should be taken into account in the practice of combat and operational training. In the course of the command-staff exercise, operational and strategic level military exercises, work out not only the mobilization deployment, but also territorial defense, interaction with government bodies, the population. Similar tasks should be assigned to the National Guard, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and the administrations of the subjects of the Russian Federation.
In all educational institutions of the civil service, full-time departments (streams, centers, courses) of military training are necessary. And in the system of cadet education of the Russian Federation of the main type (SVU, NVMU, PKU, KK of the Ministry of Defense, Rosgvardia, Ministry of Interior, FSB with a seven-year cycle) - study the subject "Basics of military training" with issuing certificates of junior commander-sergeant level to graduates. Where there is no full board, prepare students for the defense of the Fatherland at the level of the “Course of the Young Fighter”.
“These proposals were submitted by the Ministry of Defense of Russia, included in the Concept of cadet education, declared at the on-site meeting of the Interdepartmental Council of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia on Cadet Education (November 13, 2017), explains Major General Vladimirov. - We believe that the founders of educational institutions, who are the customers of specialized education, can themselves determine the necessary level of general military training of pupils, organize it in conjunction with DOSAAF and local military units. That will serve as the basis for the title, and not necessarily the lieutenant of the reserve. You can cook and ensigns, sergeants.
Military departments (centers) should become part of all institutions of higher general and secondary vocational education, for example, at the State University of Management, Moscow State University of Technology and Management. Razumovsky, where the military departments yet.
Obviously, the more serious the attention of the state, the more military departments and centers in the national education system, the larger the coverage of the population with preparations for the defense of the Fatherland, the more substantive the patriotic self-identification.
It is necessary for the leadership of the Ministry of Defense to hear the leaders of DOSAAF, their proposals to raise the status of the organization, support the prepared draft Federal Law “On pre-conscription and extra-military training of citizens of the Russian Federation.
By and large, it is necessary to form a new model of the mobilization readiness of the country. This will require the inclusion in the statutes of all economic structures (state and non-state) of an obligatory "mobilization" section, the formation of mobile units in their structure (departments, divisions, groups). It is necessary to consider the possibility of returning the institution of secondments to military personnel (military acceptance, field institutions of the State Bank in the formations, DOSAAF Russia staff, military departments of civilian higher education institutions, institutions and organizations performing the state defense order, etc.). All this will ensure the overall military stability of Russia, the survival of the population and state power in the event of the most adverse conditions of war and natural disasters.
Without the right to buildup
No less important are the issues of unification and separation of powers in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. The recognition of the fact that the war being waged against Russia requires a transition to the state practice of planning and mobilization actions, increases the personal responsibility of commanders and civil servants for the quality of the decisions made. In China, for example, from 1 in January 2018, the internal troops (armed people's militia) were reassigned to the single highest governing body of the country - the Military Council of the CPC Central Committee (also known as the Central Military Council).
Today, the army and Rosgvardiya have different powers. MES is generally separated from the solution of military-political tasks. The Security Council, an advisory body under the President of the Russian Federation, cannot fulfill the functions of the Military Council. The National Center for Defense Management of the Russian Federation is endowed with information and coordination functions, again, on ensuring security, but not on managing the war. And the country needs a single body following the example of the General Headquarters of the Great Patriotic War. Army - prepared mobilization reserve. Society - comprehensively secured national civil defense system. All this can be combined by the State Defense Committee (GKO) - the body that governs the entire country (the Armed Forces, the front and rear, the national economy, the population, the territories).
Special study will require economic issues. How will the country proceed to planned economic management (estimated year of war), autarky and self-sufficiency (in conditions of forced isolation and blockade)? In which documents is it defined? What should be the mobilization right, mobilizations, plans for the calculated war years? How possible and necessary in such cases is nationalization (for the purposes of economic unity of command) of large private property (termination of dividend payments to shareholders, activities of boards of directors, etc.)? What, finally, will be the circulation of money in a belligerent country, the centralized accounting and the normative distribution of material resources? All this requires careful study.
The college of military experts of Russia offers:
1. Prepare a discussion of the issue at a special meeting of the Security Council of the Russian Federation.
2. Create a working group in the Security Council of the Russian Federation with the inclusion of representatives of ministries, departments and public organizations.
3. To make an analytical study and expert report on legal and departmental acts on preparing the population for the defense of the Fatherland and its patriotic education.
4. Hold a series of special (closed) hearings on the proposed topics in the State Duma and the Federation Council.
5. Prepare a meeting of the State Council of the Russian Federation on this issue.
6. To develop common views on the substance of the issues raised, which are enshrined in national law - laws and other normative acts, in the main documents of the national strategic goal setting.
7. To conduct strategic games and KShU on the topics raised.
The implementation of these proposals will help define the new model of the mobilization component of the national defense of Russia. There can be no time for the buildup - our sworn friends will not give it to us.