Military Review

“Destructive and Fertile Bronze” (Culture of the Bronze Age - 1)

58
INTRODUCTION
More than a year ago, a whole series of materials on the subject of the emergence of metallurgy and the characteristics of the Aeneolithic = copper-stone age on the territory of the Old and New Worlds was published on the pages of IN. The conclusion was made about the polycentrism of the onset of metallurgy, the centers of copper metallurgy, the ancient cities, whose inhabitants already knew how to process the metal, and the migration routes of the ancient metallurgists were considered. Now it is time to get acquainted with the era when people learned to add ligatures such as arsenic, zinc, silver and, of course, tin to copper. And when they learned this, the copper age ended, and the bronze age came!


“Destructive and Fertile Bronze” (Culture of the Bronze Age - 1)

Cast bronze daggers "log" culture. State Hermitage.

And it so happened that in the vast territories of Europe and Asia, which were outside the zone of the first slave-owning states, at the turn of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. e., as well as in these countries themselves, conditions have developed that contributed to the development of bronze casting technology. At the same time, it coincided with the success in cattle breeding, which marked the entire second half of the 3rd millennium in gigantic open spaces from the Yenisei to the Iberian Peninsula. Improving nutritional patterns contributed to the rapid increase in fertility. And the growth of the population in turn immediately undermined the foundations of tribal relations. Now wealth began to accumulate in the form of livestock, but also clashes with other tribes were more frequent due to good pastures and fresh water sources that were of particular importance in the steppe regions. The war for the sake of enrichment due to the robbery of neighbors has now become a profitable fishery. What do the settlements of ancient herders, surrounded by high earthen ramparts and deep moats, found in the Upper Rhine region and in the lands of western France, tell us.


Bronze spearhead from the Museum of the Hallville family on Hamngatan Street, 4 building, in Stockholm.

GENERAL REVIEW
The different tribes that inhabited Europe and North Asia, the Bronze Age in time mostly coincided with the II millennium BC. e., but for many it was preserved even at the beginning of the next I millennium. All this time, the development of patriarchal-clan relations was going on here and the dominant position of men both in the clan and in the family itself was strengthened. In the same Bronze Age traces of plow farming are becoming more numerous. Ancient ancestral communities are united into whole populous tribes, and at the head is the national assembly of male warriors. But as the number of these tribal associations continues to grow, only members of the communities closest to the place of the general meeting now take part in directing the life of the tribe. The rest of the meetings are represented by their elders and military leaders. Thus, power was more and more separated from the mass of the rest of the tribesmen. And so it is in the hands of the aristocracy, and power, and strength, and wealth, as well as the administration of all religious rites, because the elders and leaders of tribal military units often become priests to be closer to the gods and to be able to rely on their authority. and will.


Vessel "log" culture. State Hermitage.

If we look at the map of Europe and Asia of the beginning of the II millennium BC. Oe., we can see that to the east of the Yenisei River in the territory of the Baikal region and in the Baikal steppes, since the Aeneolithic era, the population of Glavkovo culture has lived (after the name of the suburb of Glavkovo in the city of Irkutsk, where many of its finds were found) in turn, it will be possible to see the presence of connections with the characteristic early Bronze culture in ... North China.


Chinese three-legged vessel of the Shang Dynasty from the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago.

The whole territory of modern Kazakhstan, the steppe and forest-steppe zones of Western Siberia, the Southern Urals and to the Caspian Sea is occupied by the Andronovo culture tribes (Andronovskaya was named after the very first find made near the village of Andronovo, in the south of Achinsk district in the Krasnoyarsk Territory), in this era its bulk is strikingly culturally homogeneous, even though they dwelt in a vast space. Further to the west, in the region of the Lower and Middle Volga, in the Black Sea steppes to the Dnieper, and further south to present-day Odessa, and in the north to the Oka River basin, there was a second huge community of tribes belonging to the “Srubnaya” culture They called for the characteristic ritual of burial of the deceased in wooden log cabins under bulk mounds.), and close to Andronovtsy culture. Also, the tribes close to her lived in Central Asia, which, incidentally, is not surprising, given their localization.


Bronze cast vessel of the Shang dynasty era from the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago.

Regarding the North Caucasus, it can be said that, although modern science considers the monuments found there as belonging to several different cultures, nevertheless, it considers that all of them were closely related to each other. For example, many features of related cultures are found in the monuments of the Bronze Age, found on the territory of Georgia and in Armenia.


Typical bronze ax of bell-shaped cup culture of the Early Bronze Age era 2300 - 2000 BC. Discovered near Budapest. (Historical Museum, Budapest)


Reconstruction of the burial culture of bell-shaped cups. (National Archaeological Museum of Spain, Madrid)

The territory of the Volga-Oka interfluve belonged to the Fatyanovo culture tribes, and the Middle Podneprovye region from the Eneolithic period was inhabited by the tribes of the Middle Dnieper culture. The center of Europe — the districts of the Czech Republic, then Lower Austria, Silesia, Saxony, and Thuringia — belonged first to the tribes of the culture of bell-shaped cup fields, and then to the tribes of Unitez culture, so named after the cemetery near the village of Unetitsa near Prague (2300 — 1600 of the year BC) , and eventually transformed into a Lusatian culture (the Luzhitsky culture was named after the region in Germany, and where the burial of this culture was first discovered.).


Reconstruction of the ax of the puddle culture. Biskupin Museum. Poland.

This culture has spread even wider and has covered a wide area in both Germany and Poland. Then its influence spread to the south - to the lands of the Danube Basin, where in the territory of modern Hungary a special center of bronze culture was formed, which had a connection through the Balkans with a powerful Cretan-Mycenaean civilization.


1700 Ax - 1200's BC. Discovered in the territory of Hungary. (Historical Museum, Budapest)

At the very beginning of the Bronze Age in northern Italy, France and the Iberian Peninsula, in the Eneolithic, the formation of a large center of ancient European metallurgy took place. The south of the Iberian Peninsula was inhabited by tribes of El-Argars culture (named for the locality of El Argars in southern Spain). The British Isles are also characterized by constancy of culture. This is the general cultural and historical picture characteristic of the beginning of the II millennium BC. er., and which over time, of course, could not remain unchanged.


Sample ceramics El-Agar culture. (National Archaeological Museum of Spain, Madrid)


Bronze sword of el-argarsky culture (National Archaeological Museum of Spain, Madrid)

CULTURES IN DETAILS
Now we will talk about the centers of culture of this ancient era and how they changed over time. So, let's start with the fact that the huge region of Eurasia in the Bronze Age was inhabited by the Andronov and “Srubnaya” cultures. At first they lived in the Middle Volga and the Southern Urals, and their culture had a great resemblance to the tribes of the catacomb and pit culture. But then at the beginning of the Bronze Age they moved further east up to the Minusinsk Basin, and in the west they reached the Dnieper and the lands in the lower course of the Southern Bug. It is believed that they first domesticated the horse as beef cattle, and later as a means of transportation. But they also engaged in farming, that is, they became more settled and began to settle in large settlements. The maintenance of cattle in their stalls in the winter was also known to them, that is, they already possessed a multitude of skills inherent in people of a fairly high level of civilization. Although with regard to writing, it was unknown to them.


Bronze Age Stone Maces (Museum of Archeology and Ethnography of Tyumen State University)

This is proved by the excavation of the Andronovo settlement near the village of Alekseevsky, on the Tobol River, where the remains of livestock pens, including covered ones, were found near the dwellings. The inhabitants of the Andronovo and "log houses" villages united into communities, each of which was completely autonomous. The inhabitants of the villages made fabrics and sewed clothes from them, owned knitting techniques, worked on leather and fur, and made leather shoes. Tools, tools and weapon - all this was also produced by masters who were available in each community. Andronovtsy also skillfully sculpted pottery. Pots differed well polished surface and beautiful geometric patterns, similar to the complex patterns of Central Asian carpets.

Already in the early burials of Srubna culture, foundry molds were found for casting battle axes of characteristic shape, which came here from Dvorichya through the Caucasus. Daggers, spear and arrowheads, and, of course, various jewelery - earrings, bracelets and plaques that decorated the clothes were made of bronze. Initially, casting was carried out near the house. But as the technology and the range of products became more complex, specialists appeared - foundry workers. Many lived in communities, but by the end of II millennium BC. er wandering masters appeared and, apparently, there were quite a lot of them. Moving from one community to another, they worked to order and walked, and most likely, drove on carts further to where the work was for them. To this day, many buried treasures with casting molds, bronze ingots, metal scrap and finished products have been preserved. They are found throughout the territory where the tribes of “Srubna” culture lived, as well as in many areas of Western and Southern Siberia, as well as in Kazakhstan.


Arrowheads: bone, bronze. (Museum of Archeology and Ethnography of Tyumen State University)

At the same time, the development of bronze-casting caused a revival of trade between the tribes, and those tribes and communities in whose lands metal deposits were discovered engaged in their mining. Such areas of ancient metallurgy were found in many areas of the USSR, again in Kazakhstan, in the southern Urals and in the Caucasus.

Again, treasures tell us about the formation of the clan aristocracy, who had the opportunity to acquire richly decorated weapons, articles made of gold and precious stone. Another sign of the presence of aristocracy is the huge bulk mounds.

One of the most famous is the mound in the tract "Three Brothers", located near the city of Steppe. There is no doubt that only a lot of people could fill such a huge mound. The “Wide Grave” barrow on the Lower Dnieper, near the village of Lepetiha, and barrows in the steppes of Central Kazakhstan are just as huge. As a rule, they hide the rich burials of the leaders inside the stone crypts.

The study of ancient settlements and burial mounds of the Andronovo culture shows that many of their features then became very characteristic of Sakas and Savromats already in the 6th — 4th centuries. BC er The anthropological study of the remains of ancient Andronovites and Savromats also suggests genetic affinity, which suggests that those tribes that created Andronovo culture, both in culture and language, were the direct ancestors of the Saks and Sauromats, that is, their language belonged to the Iranian branch. Indo-European language group. The language of the Scythians, Savromats (and later Sarmatians), Sakas, and from modern - Ossetian language, ascending to one of the ancient dialects of the Sarmatian language, all belong to the East Iranian subgroup of Indo-Iranian languages ​​of the Indo-European language family.


Karasuk burial. Landscape Museum-Reserve Kazanovka.

In the second half of the II millennium BC. er Andronian tribes began to spread southward and eventually settled on the lands of southern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, where numerous monuments belonging to their culture were discovered. Finds of artifacts similar to those of the Andronovo culture are also found on the territory of ancient Khorezm and also in the south of Central Asia, right up to the borders of modern Afghanistan and even Iran, that is, their habitat was extremely wide.


Typical Karasuk knife. Found in China, belonged to the era of Shang. (Chernusky Museum, Paris)

But then something happened that caused such a strong change in the culture of the Andronovs that in the areas of the Middle Yenisei and Altai a culture of its own arose, called Karasuk (1500 — 800 BC), so named after the excavation of the cemetery on the river Karasuk. Another form was pottery; bronze articles also became completely different in appearance than in Andronovo time; in addition to traditional farming, cattle breeding and, first of all, sheep breeding became widespread; and the population of the region has become more mobile. Even the physical type has changed and has become more close to the type similar to the type of population of Northern China. Perhaps the reason lies in the mass migration of Chinese from North China? Later, this assumption was confirmed by studying the Karasuk monuments. It turned out that the bronze products of Karasuk were changing in proportion to the distance to the Great Wall of China. This was confirmed by the fact that on the Karasuk steles (vertically installed stone slabs-monuments), the ornaments directly go back to the typically Yin ones.


Two bronze knives. (Chernusky Museum, Paris)

The Yin vessels on three hollow legs were found in the Baikal region, as well as in the Minusinsk Basin and in the Altai, where Karasuk monuments are especially abundant, and in Kazakhstan - in the Semipalatinsk region and near Zaisan Lake. Moreover, according to the Chinese chronicles, it was in these places that the Din-ling tribes living in North China and close to the Chinese were settled. So most likely they brought with them to South Siberia their techniques of bronze-casting skill, which in turn were borrowed by them from residents of the Shang (Yin) kingdom in China.


Bronze Age Knife Reconstruction. (Museum of Archeology and Ethnography of Tyumen State University)

Karasuk monuments are found in Siberia until the VIII century. BC Oe., when there begin to spread gradually ornaments and products that bear the imprint of Scythian culture. At the same time, and first of all in Altai, the first products made of iron appeared. The burial rite was the burial of the deceased in a stone box under the bulk mound. Daggers and knives of characteristic shape, pendants, beads, metal plates and buttons are found in the burials. Total found over 2000 such graves. It is believed that it was precisely in Karasuk time that the horse ceased to be only a means of infiltration, and it began to be used already for riding. Warriors of the Karasuk culture were armed with spears with cast bronze tips with slots on the blades and bronze piercing swords, like the swords of Crete-Mykene.


Bronze sword rapier. (Lyon Historical Museum - Gadan Museum)

To be continued ...
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  1. BRONEVIK
    BRONEVIK 25 January 2018 06: 54
    22
    The Bronze Age is cool!
    Beautiful and practical
    But fragile and not economical ...
    1. Krasnoyarsk
      Krasnoyarsk 25 January 2018 09: 45
      +4
      Quote: BRONEVIK
      The Bronze Age is cool!
      Beautiful and practical
      But fragile and not economical ...

      This is really cool. However, doesn’t it seem strange to you that a person first learned to get bronze, and this is after all an alloy, and only then learned to get a simpler one - iron? Technology has always gone from simple to complex, but not the other way around. Something is wrong here ....
      1. BRONEVIK
        BRONEVIK 25 January 2018 10: 35
        19
        In general, it seems to me - that a number of technologies somehow sharply fell into the hands of people. A sharp surge of knowledge - in the same Egypt. Priests, for example, knew that the earth was round (in the Middle Ages they believed it was on whales and elephants), they calculated diameters, rotations of celestial bodies, and floods of the Nile.
        Strange and harsh)
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 25 January 2018 10: 51
          +7
          However, doesn’t it seem strange to you that a person first learned to get bronze, and this is after all an alloy, and only then learned to get a simpler one - iron?

          Of course, I’m not a metallurgist (we have Curious metallurgy, or, Viktor Nikolaevich), but does it seem to have a different melting point? what why "danced" from the technological equipment of the forge? who was the first to raise the temperature, was he the first to get the iron buns? No, of course, my friends, I could be wrong! drinks
          1. Cat
            Cat 25 January 2018 11: 28
            +5
            Nikolay You are right, even today it’s more technologically (easier) to get bronze than iron. In the first case, it scans a barbecue in the country, in the second it is necessary to manually sew furs or drag a vacuum cleaner from the house. On their own experience (more precisely, the skin), the wives do not like it! hi
          2. Krasnoyarsk
            Krasnoyarsk 25 January 2018 12: 39
            +2
            Quote: Mikado
            However, doesn’t it seem strange to you that a person first learned to get bronze, and this is after all an alloy, and only then learned to get a simpler one - iron?

            Of course, I’m not a metallurgist (we have Curious metallurgy, or, Viktor Nikolaevich), but does it seem to have a different melting point? what why "danced" from the technological equipment of the forge? who was the first to raise the temperature, was he the first to get the iron buns? No, of course, my friends, I could be wrong! drinks

            So I would like to get acquainted with the opinion of Viktor Nikolayevich, that is, the metallurgist.
            I still cannot understand how it might have crossed the mind of a person to add tin to the same copper in order to obtain a stronger metal. Further, in what proportions? Get copper, get tin, figure out in what proportions to mix them (!!!) Why, since they are so literate, they did not add beryllium to bronze?
            In general, only the metallurgist can believe that it was much easier for primitive people to understand that the alloy of copper and tin would be stronger than copper itself, and to do this in practice.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 25 January 2018 13: 07
              +3
              So I would like to get acquainted with the opinion of Viktor Nikolayevich, that is, the metallurgist.

              chat with him more! The cleverest person, only shaved off a beard! wink drinks
            2. igordok
              igordok 25 January 2018 13: 57
              +2
              Quote: Krasnoyarsk
              I still cannot understand how it might have crossed the mind of a person to add tin to the same copper in order to obtain a stronger metal.

              Experience is the son of difficult mistakes. (A.S. Pushkin)
            3. Amurets
              Amurets 26 January 2018 12: 56
              +1
              Quote: Krasnoyarsk
              I still cannot understand how it might have crossed the mind of a person to add tin to the same copper in order to obtain a stronger metal. Further, in what proportions?

              Do you know anything about naturally-alloyed materials? But there are many of them. It would be difficult for an ancient person to clean metals and ores from impurities, and he did not need it. For the most part, alloys both melt at lower temperatures, and are stronger. "Deposits. Native copper found in deposits of the USSR has mineralogical significance. In former times, it was probably the subject of special mining. Leningrad Mining Museum and the Museum of the Moscow Geological Prospecting Institute preserved samples of plate-shaped large blocks of native copper delivered to time from old mines in Degelen mountains (Semipalatinsk region), where individual blocks reached several tons in weight.
              Copper accumulations in the form of irregularly shaped nodules in the sandstones of the Naukat field (on the left bank of the Syr-DaRbi river, 18 km from Posyetovka station, Tashkent railway station) are also of undoubted interest.
              Remarkable crystalline twin splices and dendrites from the upper horizons of the famous Turyinsky copper deposits (S. Ural) were described by G. Rose in 1837.
              Of the foreign deposits, the largest hydrothermal deposits of native copper in the Upper Lake region (USA) have already been mentioned. Here, native copper is found in ancient conglomerates in the form of cement and in tonsils of igneous rocks. "Http://iznedr.ru/books/item/f00/s00/z0000019/st03
              0.shtml
            4. alatanas
              alatanas 27 January 2018 20: 17
              0
              Then beryllium was lying on the ground - in piles. lol laughing
            5. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh 28 January 2018 14: 59
              0
              "to obtain a stronger metal than copper, it is necessary to add tin to the same copper." ////

              Lots of experiments. In certain areas (the Caucasus - one of them)
              people have been engaged in metal smelting for hundreds of years and hereditarily for generations.
              First they threw fires into the bonfires and the first stoves, what they got, then they chose what was fused with what and how. A primitive research institute that worked for hundreds or even thousands of years.
              smile
              They gradually came up with all kinds of blowers in the stoves to raise the temperature.
              And where there is melting, there is both casting and forging.
          3. ando_bor
            ando_bor 25 January 2018 16: 21
            +3
            Quote: Mikado
            who was the first to raise the temperature, was he the first to get the iron buns?
            iron was also known as “bronze”, but it was either worse — screaming, or more expensive — from gold concentrates, and simply did not soar with it, and only when in territories left without bronze or its components as a result of breaking ties after the collapse of the Bronze Age (~ 12th century BC), having exhausted all reserves and already starting to grow after the "dark centuries" (~ 7th century BC), for want of bronze began to work closely with iron, it turned out that it turned out that it and for many purposes it’s no worse, cheaper, and more common than bronze; parted.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 25 January 2018 16: 24
              +6
              thanks, grateful! hi So when did the iron "flood into the masses"? I remember that it was the presence of iron weapons in the school curriculum that explained the successes of the Assyrians and Dorians. what
              1. ando_bor
                ando_bor 25 January 2018 20: 36
                +3
                Quote: Mikado
                I remember that it was the presence of iron weapons in the school curriculum that explained the successes of the Assyrians and Dorians

                I remember the same thing, and only at the age of fifty I learned a lot and saw in real life I began to understand how everything was, although I didn’t come up with it myself - I read it, but I won’t give the link because I collected this idea in parts, and the Assyrians and Dorians are one of the first from the dark ages after the collapse of the Bronze Age, they got out already on iron, while others were still in decline on the remains of bronze.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 25 January 2018 21: 21
                  +4
                  Now you understand why I said about your value in the discussion? hi drinks
      2. brn521
        brn521 25 January 2018 12: 42
        +6
        Quote: Krasnoyarsk
        Doesn’t it seem strange to you that a person first learned how to get bronze, and this, after all, is an alloy, and only then he learned to get a simpler one - iron?

        There is no particular problem with bronze, apart from the invention of the process itself. We take copper ore, add realgar or auripigment. We get liquid arsenic bronze. From which we immediately pour out what we need. For example, several dozens or even hundreds of arrowheads in one fell swoop. And iron means higher temperatures, higher consumption of coal, huge labor costs for forging and long fuss with each item.
        1. Krasnoyarsk
          Krasnoyarsk 25 January 2018 12: 46
          +3
          Quote: brn521
          Quote: Krasnoyarsk
          Doesn’t it seem strange to you that a person first learned how to get bronze, and this, after all, is an alloy, and only then he learned to get a simpler one - iron?

          There is no particular problem with bronze, apart from the invention of the process itself. We take copper ore, add realgar or auripigment. We get liquid arsenic bronze. From which we immediately pour out what we need. For example, several dozens or even hundreds of arrowheads in one fell swoop. And iron means higher temperatures, higher consumption of coal, huge labor costs for forging and long fuss with each item.

          Thank you very much. And yet you must admit that the “primitive” thinker worked what is needed!
          1. ando_bor
            ando_bor 25 January 2018 21: 06
            +3
            Quote: Krasnoyarsk
            And yet you must admit that the “primitive” thinker worked what is needed!

            Here you are absolutely right, our ancestors were not dumber than us, but vice versa. - Over the past 25 thousand years, people's brains have been decreasing, this is a scientific fact, development has gone the way of creating social networks for their development and improvement, through the exchange of information. and it turned out to be more effective than stupidly building up personal brains - Neanderthals burned out on this - they lost to the sapiens, they had more brains, the brain is a very expensive and expensive device, half of the energy received from food or even more goes to it, and the brain is smaller but with the possibility Sharing information with many others has proven to be more effective, and this is still a trend.
            1. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh 28 January 2018 15: 06
              +1
              "The last 25 thousand years, the brains of people have been reduced," ////
              ------
              The brain is a comp. You did not notice that the size of computers also decreased?
              Moreover, sharply. But the computers did not go stupid. So it is with the brain. Neurons are reduced, but there are more. Like the connections between them. And the brain shell has sharply decreased, protecting the entire system from physical shock.
              Before, people were often hit on the head: with batons, swords. wassat Now - less often.
              That shock absorber has become thinner and lighter.
              1. ando_bor
                ando_bor 28 January 2018 16: 44
                0
                Quote: voyaka uh
                The brain is a comp. You did not notice that the size of computers also decreased?

                Yes, but before that, for two and a half million years, a person was only building up brains,
                there was a revolution in evolution, abandoning the build-up of brains when they were enough to create networks, mankind went along the path of their development, a civilization swept along - the Internet was invented. A network is much more efficient than a "personal computer" and it is also a very expensive, expensive device.
                1. voyaka uh
                  voyaka uh 28 January 2018 17: 32
                  +1
                  The network appeared long before the Internet. When everyone sat staring at the newspapers
                  if you found this time. As they sit now, buried in smartphones.
                  Perhaps the importance of the parts of the brain is changing. Previously, memory played a critical role, and the analytical parts of the brain were secondary. Today, 90% do not need to remember - you need to get into Google. But the analysis of the information you need to do yourself. Well, we got into a separate and controversial topic ... drinks
                  1. ando_bor
                    ando_bor 28 January 2018 22: 05
                    0
                    Quote: voyaka uh
                    The network appeared long before the Internet.

                    The network appeared among the Sapiens, in Africa that thousands of years ago, thanks to it, they won against Neanderthals by dissolving them in non-African races, although they were smarter, but they did not create a network due to the low population density in their habitats. The places were harsh because the brains grew larger, but the network won and not everyone’s personal brains. Brains are expensive energy cost - it’s more efficient to create a network. This is what I called the "Internet."
      3. Weyland
        Weyland 25 January 2018 23: 08
        +3
        Quote: Krasnoyarsk
        Doesn’t it seem strange to you that a person first learned how to get bronze, and this, after all, is an alloy, and only then he learned to get a simpler one - iron?

        Compare their melting point! It is she - the determining factor in the development of technology!
      4. Sergey Kuzovkov
        Sergey Kuzovkov 26 January 2018 12: 04
        +1
        bronze melts at 800 degrees iron at 1200 degrees
        1. Weyland
          Weyland 26 January 2018 21: 02
          0
          google laziness? Different grades of bronze - 900-1050С, iron - 1539С
    2. svp67
      svp67 27 January 2018 18: 43
      0
      Quote: BRONEVIK
      But fragile and not economical ...

      And they had plenty to choose from?
      And here are some more examples of axes of the copper age of Sintashta culture, which includes many famous Arkaim, everything as it should be in a military one, with a hems part and a mint
      and such copy tips

  2. parusnik
    parusnik 25 January 2018 07: 34
    +6
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, just pleased with the article ... Thank you ...
  3. Net
    Net 25 January 2018 07: 39
    +2
    The culture is not "Glavkovskaya", but Glazkovskaya (from the word "eye") ..
    1. kalibr
      25 January 2018 07: 58
      +3
      That's right, "mole mole rat" wrote!
  4. Curious
    Curious 25 January 2018 09: 47
    +7
    Hello! Some clarifications.
    “Now is the time to get to know the era when people learned to add ligatures such as arsenic, zinc, silver, and, of course, tin to copper.”
    Ligature in metallurgy is an intermediate auxiliary alloy used to introduce alloying elements into a liquid metal. Bronze Age metallurgists have not yet advanced to the use of ligatures.
    And the listed arsenic, zinc, and tin are alloying additives.
    As for silver, it is not added to copper. Add copper to silver. But this is no longer bronze.
    1. ando_bor
      ando_bor 25 January 2018 10: 42
      +5
      Quote: Curious
      And the listed arsenic, zinc, and tin are alloying additives.

      The first bronzes were natural, that is, impurities were contained in the copper ore itself, and if tin can still be added to copper, which they learned to do later, then adding arsenic to the copper melt is generally unrealistic, it was initially present in the ore, and it came to bronze when engage in hot processing of native copper from copper "hats" of the oxidized zone of sulfide deposits. At the temperature at which copper only softens for forging, bronze from the ore is already melted. And most importantly, there was a demand for it, all technological breakthroughs do not occur as a result of the discovery, but as a consequence of the demand for the product.
      1. Curious
        Curious 25 January 2018 10: 52
        +7
        "The first bronzes were natural" - i.e. were copper, naturally doped with arsenic.
        1. ando_bor
          ando_bor 25 January 2018 12: 21
          +4
          Quote: Curious
          were copper, naturally doped with arsenic.

          Not so, it’s natural ore alloyed and not native copper, but ore and bronze came out working with native copper - if you take a piece of native copper in the form of dendrites and veins with host rocks from the so-called "copper hat" - this is the upper zone of many copper deposits, these rocks will just be copper ore - secondary copper minerals from which, as a result of natural electrochemical processes, copper was restored and heated in order to clean and forge copper, then in the presence of tin or arsenic in the containing ore , earlier (at lower temperatures) bronze will be melted from the ore than native copper, relative to tin, will melt - then it is necessarily in the ore and will remain because copper was restored due to it, these metals are on the opposite side in the electrochemical series of metals, and arsenic in general it’s not metal that it will be in ore and not in native copper, arsenic cannot be added to copper at all, it must be added only to ore before smelting, or it must be present there initially, as often happens, arsenic often goes with copper together with deposits, about together and "go" but reduced to the metal in different ways, and native copper is unlikely to have a bronze composition, there are impurities, but they are often harmful for the bronze, such as lead or rare - gold and silver.
          1. Curious
            Curious 25 January 2018 12: 50
            +5
            I always try to hint to you that to go into such technological subtleties is unnecessarily applicable to this article, since not only metallurgists read it, but you, on the contrary, are deeper and deeper. Better write an article like "Bronze Age Metallurgy." Without fanaticism, popular science. And then we will sit down to discuss TMP, the rest will be bored.
            1. ando_bor
              ando_bor 25 January 2018 14: 01
              +3
              I am ready to discuss other aspects of the Bronze Age, there are a lot of them and in general terms, as in the article - everything is on the heap, "bronze" is cool. Even antiquity sometimes looks wretched against bronze. For me, the obelisk of Theodosius serves as an illustration, the ancient pedestal seems older than the "bronze" obelisk itself, although for the ancient Romans the creators of the obelisk were older than the ancient Romans.
              And the "bronze floors" of the mounds are often richer and more interesting than the Scythian ones, although gold is less common there.
              Antique pedestal;

              The obelisk itself;
              1. Krasnoyarsk
                Krasnoyarsk 25 January 2018 15: 00
                +2
                Quote: ando_bor
                I am ready to discuss other aspects of the Bronze Age, there are a lot of them and in general terms, as in the article - everything is on the heap, "bronze" is cool. Even antiquity sometimes looks wretched against bronze. For me, the obelisk of Theodosius serves as an illustration, the ancient pedestal seems older than the "bronze" obelisk itself, although for the ancient Romans the creators of the obelisk were older than the ancient Romans.
                And the "bronze floors" of the mounds are often richer and more interesting than the Scythian ones, although gold is less common there.
                Antique pedestal;

                The obelisk itself;

                You are so ornately expressing your idea that you have to re-read your post several times. Well well, intrigued. And why is this obelisk so interested in you?
                1. ando_bor
                  ando_bor 25 January 2018 15: 39
                  +1
                  Ornate that would be shorter, otherwise you need to write a dissertation, to express thoughts.
                  - A powerful building in excellent condition, which speaks of its quality and solidity over three thousand years old, while something like that in ancient times is two times younger, you still need to look, I can’t remember right away. And this is no exception, in the Western Caucasus after dolmens up to the present there are no solid stone structures at all. And the modern ones, I also suspect that more than three thousand years will not stand idle.
                  1. Krasnoyarsk
                    Krasnoyarsk 26 January 2018 00: 40
                    +1
                    [quote = ando_bor]
                    - A powerful building in excellent condition, which indicates its quality and solidity over three thousand years old, [/ quote
                    And of course you are sure of that. I mean age. And you, of course, are sure that the obelisk is carved from solid stone. And what is depicted on it is the same artfully carved in stone?
          2. Krasnoyarsk
            Krasnoyarsk 25 January 2018 12: 53
            +3
            Quote: ando_bor
            Quote: Curious
            were copper, naturally doped with arsenic.

            Not so, it’s natural ore alloyed and not native copper, but ore and bronze came out working with native copper - if you take a piece of native copper in the form of dendrites and veins with host rocks from the so-called "copper hat" - this is the upper zone of many copper deposits, these rocks will just be copper ore - secondary copper minerals from which, as a result of natural electrochemical processes, copper was restored and heated in order to clean and forge copper, then in the presence of tin or arsenic in the containing ore , earlier (at lower temperatures) bronze will be melted from the ore than native copper, relative to tin, will melt - then it is necessarily in the ore and will remain because copper was restored due to it, these metals are on the opposite side in the electrochemical series of metals, and arsenic in general it’s not metal that it will be in ore and not in native copper, arsenic cannot be added to copper at all, it must be added only to ore before smelting, or it must be present there initially, as often happens, arsenic often goes with copper together with deposits, about together and "go" but reduced to the metal in different ways, and native copper is unlikely to have a bronze composition, there are impurities, but they are often harmful for the bronze, such as lead or rare - gold and silver.

            And the casket just opened. Thank.
          3. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 29 January 2018 02: 15
            +1
            Thank you, good interesting details in which i'm boom-boom
    2. Weyland
      Weyland 26 January 2018 21: 09
      0
      Quote: Curious
      As for silver, it is not added to copper

      google "shibuichi" (or shibuichi)
      1. Curious
        Curious 26 January 2018 21: 19
        0
        We discussed bronze, not alloys used to make jewelry. My first comment was on how the ligature differs from the alloying additive in metallurgy.
        If we consider silver, then products from it are very impractical. Yes, and something difficult to produce is problematic. Therefore, in jewelry use alloys of silver with other metals (alloys) - platinum, copper, germanium, zinc, silicon.
        So not silver is added to copper, but copper to silver.
  5. ando_bor
    ando_bor 25 January 2018 10: 03
    +4
    The more I am interested in the Bronze Age, the more I am amazed at the level of development of civilization in that era, in some respects they have just reached those levels, in the Western Caucasus after dolmens for more than three thousand years no one has built anything like this, but generally did not build stone up to the present.
    1. BRONEVIK
      BRONEVIK 25 January 2018 10: 36
      18
      I want to sleep near dolmens.
      Original energy
      1. ando_bor
        ando_bor 25 January 2018 12: 38
        +2
        Quote: BRONEVIK
        I want to sleep near dolmens.
        Original energy

        You know, all dolmens have different energies, esotericists will tell
        I’m far from any esotericism, but without any mysticism that dolmens are overgrown with, I won’t deny claims about energy, moreover, I confirm that dolmens are always located in extraordinary places within a certain territory, I can repel some anomalies with modern methods or with the same biolocation, as a rule, these are deep faults, key relief elements, possibly folds, or some kind of deep stresses incomprehensible to me, in ancient times people heard these fields better than we do — they had less information noise, and were especially powerful zovali.
  6. Dimmih
    Dimmih 25 January 2018 11: 13
    +3
    Thanks for the article, everything is very clear and consistent, no confusion!
  7. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 25 January 2018 15: 33
    19
    Bronze things are very beautiful
    like a bronze age
    And his artifacts
    Interestingly
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 25 January 2018 15: 44
      +4
      Bronze things are very beautiful
      like the Bronze Age and its artifacts
      Interestingly

      Dear Compote, confess, are you the son of the Land of the Rising Sun and a fan of Mikado? wink drinks you got straight hoku! good
  8. Operator
    Operator 25 January 2018 18: 54
    +1
    The haplotype of people of Andronovo and Srubnaya cultures was represented by the Aryan R1a, i.e. during the period 3-2 millennia BC the steppe strip from Siberia to the Bug was inhabited by our ancestors. Separate Aryan tribes reached Manchuria.

    In the middle of the 2 of the millennium, most of them went to Central Asia, Asia Minor, the Iranian Highlands and the Hindustan Peninsula. Northern Semites (J2) from Central Asia, previously assimilated by the Aryans, came to the deserted steppe territories. These Iranian-speaking Semites are known as Scythians and Sarmatians.

    In the steppe zone of the Far East, the Aryans were replaced by the Tungus (C2, future Mongols) and Ugro-Finns (N1, future Tatars, Yakuts and Tuvans), and not the Chinese (O2), who at that time lived exclusively in southern China and had not yet begun expansion in the northern direction.

    So, the merits in spreading the technology of obtaining and processing bronze and horse domestication in the steppe belt of Eurasia belong exclusively to our ancestors.
    1. ando_bor
      ando_bor 25 January 2018 22: 16
      +1
      Quote: Operator
      So, the merits in spreading the technology of obtaining and processing bronze and horse domestication in the steppe belt of Eurasia belong exclusively to our ancestors.

      The Chinese generally have interesting bronze, not in the sense of the metal itself, but its history, the first thing they started to make from it, not tools and weapons, but ritual vessels to pour, the same in Mesoamerica, basically familiar with metallurgy, including bronzes and being at the level of development of civilization at the level of the European Bronze Age, they made trinkets from metals, but worked and fought with stones. The examples from North America presented in the article are just similar to the history of bronze in the Old World, only at the very beginning of the journey.
      1. Weyland
        Weyland 26 January 2018 21: 13
        0
        Quote: ando_bor
        they made trinkets from metals, and they worked and fought with stones.

        The problem of religious beliefs: when casting bronze, the Incas fanned the fire only with their mouths (through a solder type pipe) - it was believed that this is how a piece of soul is put into metal. Therefore, bellows were not used in principle, and blowing with your mouth ... you can’t melt more than 100 g of bronze, which weapon out of such a mass ...
        1. ando_bor
          ando_bor 29 January 2018 12: 52
          +1
          Quote: Weyland
          The problem of religious beliefs:

          No, history doesn’t work like that, - the laws of history are different, religious tricks to fit the situation, and not vice versa.
          For example: - Witches were burned not because they were engaged in witchcraft, but because there was nothing to eat, they chose the most unnecessary and eliminated, and explained them with troubles.
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 29 January 2018 02: 18
      +1
      "also the domestication of the horse belong exclusively to our ancestors Aryans" ////

      And they taught all other people to breathe and smell, you missed it laughing
      1. Operator
        Operator 29 January 2018 08: 24
        0
        Our blood relatives in the person of the tribe of Levi and his representative Moses drove your ancestors through the Sinai desert for forty years, but to no avail laughing
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 29 January 2018 16: 43
          +1
          We know that Moses was a true Aryan.
          Because, the character is Nordic, persistent. smile
          1. Operator
            Operator 29 January 2018 19: 57
            0
            Because the tribe of Levi comes from the Mitannian Aryans and Moses was the bearer of the haplogroup R1a.
  9. Blue cop
    Blue cop 27 January 2018 16: 00
    16
    In different tribes inhabiting Europe and North Asia, the Bronze Age in time basically coincided with the II millennium BC. e.

    Yes, but where is this said? Generally 3 thousand BC. e.
    Also, tribes close to it lived in Central Asia, which, incidentally, is not surprising, given their localization.

    Interesting - and what are these tribes?
    1. Blue cop
      Blue cop 29 January 2018 15: 27
      15
      I don’t understand - why such errors