Military Review

A great historian from a small house ...

37
“Why do people love to study their past, their history? Probably, for the same reason, why a person, having stumbled from a run-up, loves, having risen, to look back at the place of his fall. ”
(From aphorisms of V.O. Klyuchevsky)



If you somehow find yourself in Penza, then ... ask the first comer, where is the Sura swimming pool. You will be shown, after which you will need to get up so that the entrance to it remains on your right. And then it turns out that right in front of you stands this strange building of “ship-like” outlines - the Kuznetsky Bank. But you should not look at it, but a little to the right and there you will see a street stretching somewhere upwards, built up with old wooden houses.


Bank "Kuznetsky" - a ship sailing for money.

Go over it, looking again to the right, and very soon you will stumble upon two more or less decent-looking houses interconnected, one of which will have a sign with the inscription - “V.O. Klyuchevskogo. Go there and you will not regret it.


Here it is this street ...


Here is this house ... and an old lamppost, which is very significant.


And this is it too, and behind it is something modern and impressive!

You will see nothing especially there, of course. Little of those years, unfortunately, survived. But it is still a piece of the life of those distant years and, at the same time, and in my opinion, a tribute to this wonderful person. One of those we really need to be proud of.

A great historian from a small house ...

IN. Klyuchevsky. Painting by L. Pasternak (1909).

Well, and so, in the museum you can order a tour for yourself and then you will be told that VO was born. Klyuchevsky 16 (28) of January 1841 of the year, again under Penza, in the village of Voskresensk in the family of a parish priest, whose wealth was not distinguished. And he was nine years old when in August 1850 he lost his father and his family had to move with his need to Penza. One of her husband's friends showed compassion for a poor widow and gave him a small house to live with. “Was there anyone who was poorer than us when we were left orphaned by the mother’s arms,” Klyuchevsky once wrote to his sister when he recalled the hungry years of his childhood and adolescence. But in Penza, Klyuchevsky was able to study at the parish theological school, and after that he enrolled in the district religious school, and then to the seminary. And already then, while still studying at a religious school, Klyuchevsky read the works of historians and became so interested in history that he decided to devote himself to science, although the authorities distinguished him for his success and predicted his career as a clergyman, followed by admission to a theological academy. However, Kliuchevskiy didn’t attract a religious leader, so much so that in the last year of seminary he decided to quit it and then independently prepare for a year at Moscow University.


And here is his bronze bust, which can be seen in the museum.

In 1861, Kliuvsky’s dream came true, and he became a student. He attended lectures by F.I. Buslaeva, N.S. Tikhonravova, P.M. Leontiev - famous professors of the time. But he especially liked SM Solovyov: “Solovyov gave the listener a wonderfully integral, slender thread conducted through a chain of generalized facts, a look at the course of Russian history, and it is known what a pleasure for the young mind, beginning scientific study, to feel like owning a whole look at a scientific subject”.


It is not known whether such a machine "Singer" mother Kliuchevskogo, but later, when he got money, she could well be. Having become accustomed to living “within their means”, many people of that time sewed themselves and loved ones themselves, bought only cloth and threads. And some earned that sewed to order.

The era in which Kliuchevsky studied was stormy - a landmark event took place in the country - the abolition of serfdom, and all other bourgeois reforms of the beginning of the 1860s that put Russia on the rails of capitalist development began. Moreover, he was an opponent of the extreme measures allowed by the government in relation to the disgruntled, but he also did not approve of student performances with political demands. The theme of his graduation essay was very interesting and, one might say, somewhat unusual: “Legends of foreigners about the Moscow state” (1866), and Klyuchevsky studied more than 40 legends and notes left by foreigners about Russia of the XV-XVII centuries, that is, he worked present a large amount of historical sources. For the high quality of the research, he received a gold medal and an invitation to stay at the department "to prepare for the title of professor." That is, from the poor three-window Penza house, this man was able to step to the top of the scientist’s career, he had the opportunity to do science and teach in the best university of the empire.


The furniture of those years, far from our "today".


Embroidered at the time, even the salaries of the icons. And one such icon is exhibited in the Penza museum Klyuchevsky.

Klyuchevsky showed a very serious attitude towards sources in his master’s (master’s) thesis “The Old Russian Lives of the Saints as a Historical Source” (1871). The topic was offered to him by Solovyov, who apparently wanted to use not only the secular, but also the spiritual knowledge of the young undergraduate to study the important issue of the role of Orthodox monasteries in the development of Russian lands. And Klyuchevsky did not let him down, he did a truly titanic work, having studied at least five thousand living lists. No fakes, correspondence and secret frauds made by malicious agents of the West and the Vatican, in particular, he did not find in them, as he did not find inconsistencies in the Russian chronicles. Moreover, in preparing his dissertation, he managed to write six more interesting independent studies, including such work as “The Economic Activity of the Solovetsky Monastery in the White Sea Region” (1866-1867). But all these truly tremendous efforts did not yield the expected result. The texts were monotonous, the details were missing, that is, this work did not satisfy him. But then he got the opportunity to teach in 1872 — 1875. I began to lecture on Russian history at the Higher Women's Courses in Moscow. They became the most complete and popular account of the entire history of Russia from its most ancient times to the epoch of Peter I. All specialists noted and continue to note the exceptional wealth of the informative material embedded in them, which could not but affect the depth with which their author revealed the course of the historical process. in Russia.


The museum has a lot of old books. Including this Bible.


This is her title page.

Then with 1879, V.O. Klyuchevsky began to lecture at Moscow University, where he replaced the deceased historian Solovyov at the Department of Russian History. He spent whole 36 years of life (from 1871-1906) to the walls of this university, where he was first a student, then a assistant professor, and from 1882 onwards, a professor. In addition, he also lectured on Russian civil history at the Moscow Theological Academy (in Sergiev Posad) and also taught 15 years at Moscow women's courses. He even gave lectures at the Aleksandrovsky Military School and at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture ... That is, he worked a lot and hard.


Bookcase with books.


Clock clocks


Inkwell.


Samovar.

This work brought Klyuchevsky deserved fame. Who knew how to throw a sharp word in time, a master to hold an audience in his hands, a brilliant scholar, he always attracted attention. Wherever he lectured, the audience was always crowded.
Wardrobe with dishes of those years. When I personally appear in this museum, I always remember my old house on Proletarskaya Street. And they were similar. Also, three windows to the street, also a large stove, and only then, with the death of his brother grandfather, there were six windows. As in this museum ...
His doctoral dissertation, called "Boyar Duma of Ancient Russia" (1880), was even more significant, followed by a series of scientific works on Russian history: "The Russian ruble of the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. in its relation to the present ”(1884),“ The Origin of Serfdom in Russia ”(1885),“ Perfume to Serve and the Abolition of Serfdom in Russia ”(1886),“ Eugene Onegin and His Ancestors ”(1887), the cathedrals of ancient Russia "(1890), etc. What distinguished them in the first place? The abundance of sources used and very attentive and thoughtful attitude towards them. And again, we emphasize that he did not find any "conspiracies of the Germans", although he worked with the originals of documents from that far time.


What is it, guessing is not easy at all. And this is the oven door! Then they were cast from iron and sometimes decorated quite whimsically.

Klyuchevsky’s scientific authority was so high that in 1893-1895. Emperor Alexander III invited him to read the course of national history for Grand Duke George Alexandrovich.


Kliuchevskii studied under this book ...


And for this too ...


The uniform of the spiritual seminarian.

But the most impressive scientific research of Kliuchevskii, which received truly world-wide recognition, was his “Course of Russian History” in five parts, on which he worked for more than three decades. Interestingly, Klyuchevsky considered ... the colonization factor to be the main factor in the history of Russia, the pivot around which all the main events unfolded.


An impressive table, isn't it?

In his opinion, the entire history of the country was the history of colonization — that is, the century-old expansion of Russia. Considering it from this angle, he divided the national history into four historical periods. The first began in the eighth century. and lasted until the XIII century., the time of the concentration of the Russians in the middle and upper Dnieper with its tributaries. In the economy, then dominated by foreign trade. The population was fragmented between cities. The second period had a chronological framework from the 13th century. and until the middle of the XV century. Now the bulk of the population has moved between the rivers Volga and Oka. The country was still fragmented, but now it was divided into princely inheritances, often hostile to each other. The basis of the economy of the principalities was the free labor of peasants-plowmen. The third period, in his opinion, took place from the middle of the 15th century. and until the second decade of the 17th century, when both the Don and Middle Volga black soils were mastered; the all-Russian state appeared; enslavement of the peasants began. Finally, the last period - until the middle of the XIX century. (further "The Course ..." did not cover the history) became the time of the spread of the Russian people throughout the territory from the Baltic and the White Sea to the Black, and to the East to the Urals. An autocratic Russian empire arose, in which the main thing was the military-service class — the Russian nobility. The economic basis of this society was the labor of serfs plus the factory industry.


Leaving the museum courtyard, I found an amusing “action” there - the museum staff played in front of a group of children from some school camp a sketch from the life of those early years and talked about how our ancestors drank tea. They introduced them to the Russian tradition of tea drinking and ... treated them to tea and sweets.


Therefore, when I hear that our children are “growing Ivanas, not remembering kinship,” that they do not know the original Russian culture, that work in this direction is not conducted, I know that in reality this is far from being the case. Being maintained, and regular, at least at the Klyuchevsky Museum. And, by the way, not only with him!


Tea was with donuts and gingerbread and right in the courtyard of the museum. I personally liked everything that I heard and saw there.

In 1900, Klyuchevsky became an academician, and from 1908, he was elected an honorary academician of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.


Family photo. Klyuchevsky on it in a cap.


Portrait of a wife with son Boris.

At 1905, Klyuchevsky received an official invitation to take part in the work of the Commission on the revision of laws on the press and in meetings (chaired by Nicholas II) and on the draft of the establishment of the State Duma and the scope of its authority.


Now children have to explain why they needed such holders ...

In 1906, another interesting event happened: in Paris, he was accepted into the Lodge of the Scottish Rule "Cosmos" along with some other historians and famous Russian public figures belonging to the Cadet party ... That's when someone will smell the "conspiracy theory ”, But at that time such membership was an indicator of only the social and professional significance of a person. It was so accepted and in no way affected its activities. The Russian professor received such a salary that he could have a two-storied mansion with an office, his own departure, subscribed to a box in the theater, a domestic servant, and took students at home at all. The sovereign emperor himself received him in his palace, where he lectured to Grand Duke Georgy Alexandrovich - where could he go higher than that ?!


Monument to Klyuchevsky in Penza.

Klyuchevsky 12 died on May 1911 in Moscow and was buried in the cemetery of Donskoy Monastery.
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  1. Amurets
    Amurets 24 January 2018 06: 35 New
    +7
    Thank! As this whole situation reminds the atmosphere of the old houses of Blagoveshchensk. And the grandmother had such a samovar, dark yellow brass. And the sewing machine “Singer,” in my opinion there were no others before. That's right, it was a lifesaver in the family and how sad it was when the shuttle broke from old age and it was impossible to repair it. The fact is that this machine allowed to do such work that modern machines do not allow.
    Thank you for the biography of Klyuchevsky, I just did not delve into his life, so I found a lot of new things.
    1. peta locksmith
      peta locksmith 24 January 2018 11: 35 New
      +3
      Zinger’s mother-in-law is still alive - even the varnish and pearl inlay is preserved
      the wife sewed a blouse made of natural silk on her - and they sew all small things with her mother-in-law on Singer
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 24 January 2018 12: 02 New
        +2
        and now it works. of necessity
    2. Monarchist
      Monarchist 24 January 2018 11: 37 New
      +4
      Amurtsu. “Singer, in my opinion there were no others before” is a common misconception that there were no other machines besides the “Singer”. Somehow, more than twenty years ago, I came across such information :: Russian Empire on the number of sewing "cars per capita was the leader among European countries. In Russia, in addition to cars manufactured by Singer, there were cars manufactured at domestic enterprises, although they looked like Singer in appearance, they also had their own ts." zest ". The most famous were the machines manufactured at the factory of the merchant Popov. The so-called" Popovka "were better than the Singer."
      It’s something like a Maxim machine gun: the name is the base as well, but completely different machine guns
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 24 January 2018 12: 41 New
        +1
        Quote: Monarchist
        The most famous were cars manufactured at the factory of the merchant Popov. the so-called "Popovka" were better than the "Singer". "

        Thanks for the info. I didn't know.
      2. Curious
        Curious 24 January 2018 21: 51 New
        +1
        "The most famous were the cars produced at the factory of the merchant Popov. The so-called" Popovka "were better than the Singer."
        The merchant Popov has never produced a Singer machine. The "Trading House of the Popov Brothers" was, as it is now called, a distributor of shuttle stitch "Seidel and Naumann" across Russia and Persia. On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of entering the Russian market, Bruno Naumann released a jubilee batch of cars decorated with portraits of the Popov brothers. Just she in the photo in my comment below.
  2. Same lech
    Same lech 24 January 2018 06: 36 New
    +7
    smile Russian outback ...
    there Russia there smells Russian SPIRIT ...
    in my youth I had a chance to travel to such historical places ... there always appeared a certain sense of peace and quiet ... it is impossible to convey in words this feeling.
    1. antivirus
      antivirus 24 January 2018 12: 05 New
      +2
      40 years ago, professor: "on an expedition we traveled to villages, rewrote songs, listened, recorded (in magician), the generation will soon be lost.”
      lost - left jeans and burgers
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 24 January 2018 07: 36 New
    +7
    And Klyuchevsky did not let him down; he did a truly titanic work, having studied at least five thousand living lists. He did not find any fakes, correspondence and secret frauds made by malicious agents of the West and the Vatican, in particular, as he did not find inconsistencies in the Russian chronicles.
    ... And Tartaria also did not find .... smile Thank you for an interesting tour ...
    1. kalibr
      24 January 2018 08: 20 New
      +7
      Yes, but he could have had at his hands discoveries of such a level, he, a person who was a church boy, a sincere believer, would surely use it, took steps to search for “real” material, comparing the handwriting of which the annals were written, subjected them to textual analysis. He could not get past this, because this would be the discovery of the century. But ... didn’t notice anything! But today, people who DID NOT KEEP ANCIENT MANUSCRIPTS do not know which way the door opens in the archive of ancient acts, all texts are disavowed.
      1. marline
        marline 24 January 2018 08: 50 New
        +3
        Quote: kalibr
        Yes, but you could ...

        To a man who viewed the history of Russia as an expansionist path of development? I'm afraid Klyuchevsky could not even imagine a story in which his ancestors all profiled.
      2. Monarchist
        Monarchist 24 January 2018 11: 44 New
        +6
        You just noticed that: we have “urapatriotic” comrades who practically don’t know the history of Russia and repeat them like parrots: damned Germans and Latins falsified Russian history and only he knows the true history.
    2. antivirus
      antivirus 24 January 2018 12: 06 New
      +5
      And Tartaria also did not find
      she is in perpendicular reality
  4. Blue cop
    Blue cop 24 January 2018 08: 00 New
    20
    Some artifacts
    Super home
    In my opinion, Klyuchevsky said: History is interesting to someone who deserves to have a Fatherland
  5. Curious
    Curious 24 January 2018 08: 27 New
    +6
    "The Russian professor received such a salary that he could have a two-story mansion with an office, his own exit, subscribed to a box in the theater, domestic servants, and generally took tests from students at home."
    This ordinary professor could afford. And extraordinary professors lived much more modestly, two times.
  6. marline
    marline 24 January 2018 08: 42 New
    +4
    Thank you for the article.
    For only one division of Russian history into periods, Klyuchevsky must be entered in gold letters in the list of the best scientists of Russia.
    Special thanks for the easy and laid-back refutation of the myth of "Russian children abandoned without upbringing."
  7. Streletskos
    Streletskos 24 January 2018 09: 06 New
    20
    Klyuchevsky is the name
    Pillar
    Enduring
    Penza I look rich in nuggets wink
  8. Mikado
    Mikado 24 January 2018 10: 05 New
    +5
    And this is the stove door! Then they were cast from cast iron and sometimes decorated rather whimsically.

    for some reason I remembered the Polotsk Sophia Cathedral with a collection of tiles. Many were with pansky emblems.
    Using an example of an article, this is how a maximum of cognitive information can be fished out from a relatively small museum. Thank! hi
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 24 January 2018 11: 55 New
      +2
      Quote: Mikado
      for some reason I remembered the Polotsk Sophia Cathedral with a collection of tiles. Many were with pansky emblems.
      Using an example of an article, this is how a maximum of cognitive information can be fished out from a relatively small museum. Thank!

      Greetings, Nikolai. When we were breaking old houses in the center of the city, there was also a lot of artistic casting and tiles. Everything ruthlessly went into scrap metal and garbage .. Yes, and during the reconstruction of old buildings, when local heating changed to central, a lot of casting also went into scrap.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 24 January 2018 12: 15 New
        +3
        Good afternoon, Nikolai! Yeah .. sometimes we don’t know how to keep old things. Once Kotische asked the question, what remains of the pre-revolutionary ships as museums? one-two .. and miscalculated! request
  9. Servisinzhener
    Servisinzhener 24 January 2018 10: 50 New
    +5
    Thank you, very informative article. I did not know about this museum. Was a week in Penza two years ago. A lot of original Russian antiquity which is not in the Kuban.
  10. BAI
    BAI 24 January 2018 11: 34 New
    +3
    The sewing machine looks like a foot drive, but no sign of a belt drive is visible. In the USSR, the Podolsk machine was produced - an exact copy, only the bed is a plywood stand, and the rest is one-on-one (I still have it, in my opinion, the release of the early 60s).
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 24 January 2018 13: 04 New
      +1
      Quote: BAI
      The sewing machine is similar with a foot drive, but no sign of a belt drive is visible

      There is a belt drive. It's just that the picture is taken so that it is hard to see. Here is a snapshot of a similar machine from a different angle.
      Yes, and separately attached manual drive to this machine
      1. Curious
        Curious 24 January 2018 14: 16 New
        +3
        That's really a really promoted brand. As soon as they remember the sewing machines, it means "Singer". But in Russia, other companies were also popular: Willer and Wilson, Wilcox and Gibbs, Seidel and Naumann.

        Lockstitch sewing machine "Seidel and Naumann". German Empire, 1895
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 24 January 2018 14: 41 New
          +3
          and the Singer House in St. Petersburg became the House of the Book. drinks
          1. Curious
            Curious 24 January 2018 14: 47 New
            +3

            The building was considered technically perfect: it already had elevators and an automatic system for cleaning roofs from snow.
            1. Curious
              Curious 24 January 2018 14: 49 New
              +4

              "Book House".
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 24 January 2018 15: 31 New
                +3
                it seems that during the WWII there was some kind of "urban legend", and even after the fake they came up with the idea that it was in this building that was the main hub of the German espionage agents, and in the ball up above they had a transmitter. Of course, a fairy tale. But ... maybe offer A.V. Oleinikov write about it? wink He is on the theme of the PMV "devoured the cat" and "killed the monkey with a club." drinks
                1. Curious
                  Curious 24 January 2018 15: 59 New
                  +2
                  The company "Singer" sewed a uniform for the Russian army. However, its name was popularly associated with Germany, and when the First World War began, the owners hastened to turn the lower floor under the US Consulate and began to emphasize in every possible way that it was an American company. This is a documentary fact.
                  Sometimes there is information that the feint with America did not help - the counterintelligence of the Russian General Staff accused the company of espionage from Germany.
                  In general, this machine is the hero of more than one legend. In 1998, information went that among Russian cars there is one with a serial number starting with the number "1". The owner was promised a reward of a million dollars.
                  Then they started a rumor that wealthy emigrants, fleeing abroad after the revolution, re-smelted jewelry in the form of a sewing machine so that it could be taken abroad. Everything valuable at the border was expropriated, and household items could be transported without problems. Black cars painted black were then sought by the whole world. No one tried to calculate how much such a "casting" would weigh?
                  And the story about the fact that some needles for Singer cars contained red mercury, which was used in the construction of the atomic bomb?
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 24 January 2018 16: 24 New
                    +2
                    in general, the scope for the "yellow legends". Take it right and write in the style of "You Won't Believe It!" belay Thanks for the interesting excursion, Viktor Nikolaevich! hi
        2. Amurets
          Amurets 24 January 2018 15: 04 New
          +2
          Quote: Curious
          That's really a really promoted brand. As soon as they remember the sewing machines, it means "Singer".

          Yes, I agree. It’s like razors, if you remember safe ones, then: “Gillette”
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 24 January 2018 20: 57 New
            +1
            in one of the articles there was a photo in which Soviet soldiers waged a city battle in Germany in the 45th against the background of the M3 Scout car (we had a very similar post-war BTR-40). And the battle against the background of a sign of washing powder. That's what - forgot! recourse but famous, still use! And about world brands yet - in the “Knights of Polotsk” I gave an example of an advertisement for “Nestle” (“baby milk flour”) in a Russian medical journal of the early 20th century. Who would have thought that they would “conquer” our market ... request
            1. Curious
              Curious 24 January 2018 22: 04 New
              +2

              Not this one? It has been produced since 1907.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 24 January 2018 22: 06 New
                +2
                it seems he is! bow again, Viktor Nikolaevich hi I was looking for an article now, I did not find it, unfortunately. hi
  11. Monarchist
    Monarchist 24 January 2018 12: 02 New
    +4
    Tatishchev, Miller (yes, and he too) Lomonosov, Karamzin, Ilovaisky (many generations of Russians studied in his textbook) Karamzin, Soloviev, Klyuchevsky, Likhachev, they did a lot to study our history. In order to enlighten us, that is, such figures that in the shaggy year I read a history textbook, far from perfect, and then I forgot everything and heard on TV the same “historian” only insolent and it went: some seas dig, and others “express themselves” "into the Mongols and let's conquer ourselves. Along the way, the Egyptians teach the pyramids to build
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 24 January 2018 12: 36 New
      +3
      others are “expressed” in the Mongols and let us conquer ourselves.

      the expression was in exposing the loin - proven! And with bare backside you just won’t do it ... fellow laughing
  12. uralina
    uralina 26 January 2018 18: 39 New
    0
    If you want to know the story, it's worth traveling. I love to travel, and when such an opportunity arises - I definitely use it. Was in Egypt, really very colorful, bright and interesting. Honestly, after visiting this country, I became very interested in its history. And so, recently I got on my regular excursions to Berlin, and I visited there in two museums "Museum Islands". And one of the museums was dedicated to Ancient Egypt! How many interesting things are there, beyond words. But, I wouldn’t have learned so many things, if not for Evgeny Kulikov, our guide to Berlin https://v-berline.com/. He knows so much, super! I didn’t even think that in a completely different country I could learn a lot about Ancient Egypt.