FAILURE FROM THE BEGINNING
Let's start with the fact that the most plausible figure seems to be 1,2 million people. She is called by the historian Sergey Drobyazko, who studied the data in the most detailed way. Among them were many immigrants from Central Asia, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Ukraine. The number of actual Russians is estimated at about 400 thousand.
Almost immediately, the Russian units proved to be bad assistants. Many very quickly understood their own real position of serfs, and wrong, hopelessness of their work. Moreover, this awareness came even before Stalingrad, when the USSR stood on the edge of the abyss. In this regard, the fate of the so-called Russian National People’s Army (RNNA) is very indicative. Sergey Ivanov, Konstantin Kromiadi and others who had powdered the brains of Soviet prisoners with stories about the new Russian state, which would arise during the struggle against the Bolsheviks and Jews, formed this “army” on the initiative of several white émigrés. The number of participants in the formation reached 4 thousand, and the Germans pinned certain hopes on him. The most important task of the RNNA was entrusted with the spring of 1942: it was used against the Soviet units of the 4 Airborne Corps and the 1 Guards Cavalry Corps located in the German rear in the Vyazma and Dorogobuzh area.
It was assumed that collaborators dressed in Soviet uniforms would capture Lieutenant General Pavel Belov and try to persuade the Red Army men to surrender. However, the opposite happened: the 100 fighters of the RNNA switched to the Soviet side. After that, the "army" was aimed at fighting the partisans. The struggle was sluggish, and the people of the Army massively went over to the side of those with whom they were to fight. So, only 6 – 15 August 1942-o to the partisans (with weapons in their hands) 200 officers and soldiers crossed the RNNA. And in October, there was a major conflict between the PHNA and the German command, which set out to unequivocally show who is the master and who is the servant. From the very beginning of its existence, the RNNA wore a Soviet uniform there, but with shoulder straps and white-blue-red cockades. Now the order was given to change into German uniform. In addition, the people's army should be divided into battalions. The personnel were indignant and refused to obey, as a result, they had to use SS troops - for admonishing overbearing serfs. Weapons from the RNNA fighters were taken away, then, however, returned, after which the 300 people immediately went to the partisans. Further more: in November, 600 people joined the ranks of defectors. In the end, the Germans lost patience, the RNNA was disbanded, and its units were transferred to France.
MARCH OF TRAINS
In April, 1943, the Nazis sought to raise the morale of their assistants and immediately enrolled all Russian in the Vlasov Russian Liberation Army (ROA). In this way, they tried to convince them that they were one. The Germans did this not at all from the breadth of the soul, but because the exodus began: in the same 1943, thousands of people fled to the 14 partisans.
It was already the most real decomposition, and the Germans decided to get out of harm's way to remove the “helpers” from the Eastern Front. Relatively reliable units were sent to France, Holland, Belgium and the Balkans, and the unreliable ones were simply disbanded. This dealt a rather powerful blow to the mind of the defectors, who finally understood the insignificance of their real status. Many of them preferred to flee to the partisans than to go to the West.
In this regard, the fate of the 1-th Russian national brigade SS "Druzhina" is most indicative. It was created on the basis of the Combat Union of Russian Nationalists, headed by Soviet colonel Vladimir Gil (who took the pseudonym Rodionov). Initially, the 1 Russian National Detachment of the SS (Druzhina No. 1) arose, after unification with Druzhina No. 2, the formation was referred to as the 1 Russian National SS Regiment. And after gaining at the expense of local residents and prisoners in May 1943, the SS team itself was formed. The headquarters of the brigade was operated by the German headquarters, which headed the Hauptsturmführer SS Rozner. It is clear that there could be no talk of any kind of independence. The number of the brigade was 3 thousand people. Specialized "vigilantes" in the fight against partisans.
Thus, the brigade took part in anti-partisan operations in the Begoml-Lepel area. There, the partisans strongly taught the “Russian” SS men, which had a good educational effect. Many people thought about the transition, and the partisans immediately took advantage of these moods. In August, 1943-th Gil-Rodionov established contact with the command of the Zheleznyak guerrilla brigade. He and the SS brigade soldiers were promised an amnesty in the event that the “warriors” would side with the partisans. The proposal was readily accepted, parts of the brigade destroyed the German headquarters, and at the same time those officers who were considered unreliable. Next, former SS men attacked the nearest German garrisons.
Almost the entire composition of the unit, which became known as the 1 th anti-fascist partisan brigade, went to the partisans. Vladimir Gil was awarded the Order of the Red Star and reinstated in his former rank. Freshly baked guerrillas have performed quite well in battle. So, they defeated the German garrisons in Ilya, Obodovtsy and Vileyka. In April, 1944, the Nazis launched a major operation to defeat the partisans of the Polotsk-Lepel zone. The brigade was forced to break through the German blockade. During this breakthrough, Gil received serious injuries, from which he died.
MOVEMENT OF DESERTERS
Vlasov army, however, also did not want to fight. Andrei Vlasov persistently tried to convince the German command that he needed more time to prepare. With difficulty we managed to force Sergey Bunyachenko’s 1 division to advance to the Oder front. There, on April 13, she took part in the attack of the Soviet troops, and the Vlasovites did not like this contribution to the fight against Bolshevism. They beat them seriously, for real. Then Bunyachenko stole his formation in the Czech Republic to connect with other Vlasov units.
For the time being, we leave aside ideological anti-communists and make an obvious conclusion. For the most part, the so-called Vlasovites were deserters rather than anti-Communists. They simply did not have the will to somehow confront the huge military-political machine of the Third Reich. In a number of cases, lack of will was promoted by an insult to the Soviet power, in which very many were really offended. However, many offended to the end opposed the fascist invaders, not fearing hardship or death. So the factor of resentment, not to mention the ideological, did not play a decisive role.
It is curious to compare all this with the First World War. Then those who disagree with the authorities did not run over to the Germans or the Austrians, they did not desert. They conducted stubborn (and rather risky) revolutionary work in the tsarist army. The Bolsheviks were famous for their organization and courage, they supported the overthrow of all imperialist governments, but they did not take the side of the Germans. The Bolsheviks have always been in favor of holding the front, and categorically against desertion. And they never supported the deserter call "Bayonet into the ground - and let's go and let my woman squeeze."
The Bolsheviks continued to fight, fraternizing with the Germans, while not surrendering to them, agitating the very same Germans and preparing for a decisive revolutionary assault. The resistance of the Bolsheviks was recognized by many army commanders, for example, the commander of the Northern front, General Vladimir Cheremisov. He was so shocked by the fortress of the Bolsheviks that he even financed their newspaper “Our Way”. And not only he, but many other commanders also financed the Bolshevik press. This, incidentally, to the question of where the Bolsheviks took money from. And, of course, here you can and should remember the Moonsund battle, during which the Bolsheviks concentrated in their hands resistance to the Germans.
Quite another thing - the "assistants" of the Germans. They showed themselves very, very weak. Their irretrievable losses amounted to 8,5 thousand people, of which 8 thousand were missing. In fact, it was about deserters and defector. As a result, the Germans disbanded many of these parts, leaving them fortification work. When the Allies landed on the coast of the Atlantic, many eastern fled, others surrendered, and others even rebelled, interrupting their superiors. And even under the curtain of the “helpers” they tried to use them to form the Russian Liberation Army.
LOCAL REPUBLIC: PUBLIC PRESS
The current fans of collaborationism have a special pride - the Lokotsky district, loudly called a republic. During the war, the Germans allowed the creation of a police autonomous unit in the territory of several districts of the Oryol and Kursk regions for reasons that will be discussed below. This education was headed by Bronislav Kaminsky, the leader of the so-called People’s Socialist Party of Russia “Viking” (at first, the burgomaster was Konstantin Voskoboinik, who was killed by partisans). You will tell nothing, the good name for Russian nationalist party! In its manifesto we read: “Our party is a national party. She remembers and appreciates the best traditions of the Russian people. She knows that the Vikings Knights, relying on the Russian people, created the Russian state in hoary antiquity ”. It is significant that these collaborators build the Russian state by non-Russian Vikings, who only rely on the Russian people! By the way, the newly-minted "Vikings" - the Nazis were initially not allowed to create a party, the go-ahead was given only in 1943 year. Such is the "independence".
Nowadays Lokot self-government is regularly PR, trying to present it as an alternative to communism and Stalinism. A lot of molasses is being poured over what economic prosperity the local collaborationists managed to achieve after the abolition of the hated collective farm system. Say, there was plenty of land and cattle with poultry among the peasants. At the same time, it is completely incomprehensible what kind of prosperity can be discussed in the conditions of the hardest war, when the overwhelming majority of the adult male population is put under the gun. And besides, powerful requisitions were imposed on the local population: thousands of cattle were driven to the needs of the German “liberator” army.
Kaminsky created the Russian People’s Liberation Army (RONA), whose numbers reached 20 thousands. She acted, however, not too effectively, although she was fierce in respect of the captured partisans and those who were suspected of complicity. Here the administrative and legal talents of the Kamin people, who made up a special anti-partisan code from the 150 articles, each of which relied on the death penalty. They served quite productively as scouts, directing German punishers to partisans. However, there were also enough defectors in RONA: only in the winter of 1942 – 1943 of the year, thousands of Kamin residents, who had previously destroyed German garrisons and warehouses, took over the partisan side.
Kaminsky and his minions controlled only part of their autonomy, whose population was 0,5 million people. “By looking at the map, it is easy to see that Kaminsky was given control of the territories around the Bryansk-Navlya-Lgov and Bryansk-Navlya-Khutor-Mikhailovsky railway lines,” writes historian Alexander Dyukov. - It was in these areas that the so-called Southern Bryansk partisan region acted ... In this way, territories that were de facto controlled by partisans were transferred to Kaminsky ... In order to save “German blood”, the 2nd command tank the army went on to provide Bronislaw Kaminsky, who demonstrated his loyalty to the invaders, to “militarize” his subordinate area and fight the partisans, naturally, under German control ”(Die Aktion Kaminsky. Trampled victory. Against lies and revisionism).
One of the Kaminists, Mikheyev, honestly admitted: “Only 10% of the forest belonged to us”. And General Bernhard Ramke stated: "The gunmen of engineer Kaminsky cannot repel major attacks on themselves." In fact, the Nazis were experimenting with their subordinate "Untermensch", whose main task was to protect the railway lines from the partisans. The experiment failed miserably, so, by the way, the Germans didn’t do this anywhere else.
The end of Kaminsky was disgraceful: the Germans shot him during the suppression of the Warsaw uprising.
In general, if the deserters desperately wanted to live, and the misguided ones wanted to atone for them, then ideological anti-Communists sought death with the urgency of suicides. And here it is appropriate to recall about one more "heroes" of the anti-Bolshevik struggle. “N. Sakhnovsky, a member and then head of the Russian Imperial Union-Order, fought as part of the Belgian Walloon Legion of the SS troops under the command of the deeply religious Catholic Leon Degrel,” writes the historian Vladimir Larionov. - Sakhnovsky’s battalion received weapons only in Ukraine, and escaping from the encirclement in the Korsun-Shevchenko Operation of the Red Army, the battalion almost without exception died in a heroic hand-to-hand combat ”(“ Knights of Holy Russia ”).
This is just some kind of extravaganza - "died in hand-to-hand combat", but the weapon was not given out! It is clear why the Nazis assigned the role of serfs and cannon fodder to the Russian “helpers”. But how could the Russian people grab such a deadly bait? It is indicative that fans of collaborationism glorify the Cossacks with might and main, who followed Peter Krasnov and were eventually extradited to Joseph Stalin by Western democracies. (For some reason, the act of extradition is called betrayal, which is completely absurd, because the allies did not betray anyone. They just fulfilled their allied obligations, issuing the USSR to those who fought on the German side, including themselves.) it is known that many of these accidents committed suicide, fearing "terrible reprisals."
These horrors are greatly exaggerated, the attitude towards collaborators was often quite liberal. Here is an example: October 31 1944, the British authorities handed over to the Soviet allies 10 thousands of repatriates who served in the Wehrmacht. As soon as they arrived in Murmansk, they were forgiven, and also excused from criminal liability. The test, however, had to be passed, and the collaborators spent a year in the filtration camp, which is quite logical. After that, the overwhelming majority were released, moreover, the seniority was accrued.
The data of archives, which expose the lie that allegedly all or most of the prisoners were sitting, has long been open. Historian Victor Zemskov worked in the State Archives of the Russian Federation, studied the materials stored there. It turns out that by March 1 1946 2 427 906 returnees were sent to their place of residence, 801 152 - to serve in the Soviet army, 608 095 - enlisted in the working battalions of the People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR. But 272 867 people (6,5%) handed over to the NKVD of the USSR. Actually, they were sitting.
Cossack suicide is a terrible end, which shows the depth of despair and doom of "Russian" collaborationism.
Thousands of fighters against Bolshevism did not constitute any independent force, did not possess any subjectivity. At first they went to war for the Germans, then they rushed to seek the patronage of the Anglo-Americans, hoping for their help and intercession. But among the collaborators, who hold far-right views, there were enough people who perfectly understand what Western democracies are. They knew that it was plutocracy, trying to subjugate Russia. The same Krasnov in the novel “From the Double-headed Eagle to the Red Banner” put the words that England was the main enemy in the mouth of his hero Sablin. And so the people who fought yesterday for the anti-democratic Adolf Hitler, with some kind of blind hope, rush into the arms of this most important enemy.
Peter Krasnov (third from left)
It may be objected that Krasnov and Krasnov used even a ghostly, but still a chance for salvation. Yes, this is true, although it is significant that they themselves considered themselves completely dependent on some external, foreign forces. And this shows the weakness of collaborationism, which was expressed in a terrible disease of the will. If these people really were sure they were right, they would continue the struggle, for example, entering into an alliance with the Serbian Chetniks Drazhi Mikhailovich.
In any case, it was possible to make an attempt, because everything is better than reducing accounts with life, committing a terrible sin of suicide. However, it turned out that these people had no faith in themselves; there was only a blind hatred of Bolshevism, which was combined with a wild fear of him. And this hatred in half with fear blinded and stunned collaborators. They were not looking for the Truth, but for the Forces, after seeing her in the deadly Teutonic armadades. They came under the banner of foreign invaders, which means political suicide. And then many of them - quite naturally - literally committed suicide.
Here are indicative lines from the diary of a certain Lydia Osipova, who passionately hated Bolshevism and who wanted the arrival of the German liberators: “They are bombing, but we are not afraid. Bombs something liberation. And so they think and feel everything. No one is afraid of bombs ... And I decided upon the arrival of the Bolsheviks to poison myself and poison Nicholas [her husband. - A.E.] so that he did not know. " To read all this is wild, here some very terrible, infernal abysses open up. And again, there is suicidality. Lack of own strength, hatred and fear - all this threw ideological collaborators into a spinning funnel of suicide. They were so merged with someone else's Force that they dissolved in it and died with it together.
Now we need to remember that collaborationism existed in countries where there were no Bolsheviks in power. On this occasion, Yury Nersesov wrote very well: “By the beginning of the war, the population of the Third French Republic with colonies exceeded 110 million people ... At least 200 thousand French citizens got into the ranks of the German army. Another 500 thousand served in the military units of the collaborationist government of Marshal Petain, who independently fought against the allies in Africa and the Middle East, and also joined German units, making up, in particular, an infantry regiment and an artillery division in the famous 90 th motorized light division African corps of field marshal Rommel. Taking into account the hard-working guerrillas and underground fighters of the police, Gestapo men and fascist militants, about 1 million is obtained with 80 thousand dead.
The same picture will be in any other European country. From Poland, where with 35 million pre-war population only from the territories occupied by Germany, 500 thousand people joined the army and police, to Denmark, which capitulated to Germany almost without resistance, only in the SS troops on the Eastern front lost dead and captured 2,5 thousand people.
So it turns out that the share of collaborators in European countries where there was neither a GULAG nor a collective farm is much higher than the Soviet one ”(“ The Myth of the Second Civil ”).
There were, of course, ideological people there, like, say, Belgian SS man Leon Degrel. In the winter of 1945, he led three battalions and three separate companies of Walloon volunteers to help German cities. After the battles at Stargard, only 625 people survived. Or the SS volunteer Eugene Volo, the last of those who received the Iron Cross in the Reich Chancellery. Although there were a minority of these, most of the collaborators simply submitted to the Force, being bewitched by the power and ruthlessness of the German military-political machine. The same is true with the majority of “Russian” collaborators. True, the disease of the will, forcing one to look for the Force (and not to be it), was also inherent in Hitler's ideological accomplices.
It must be said that in our country this disease of will is fatally superimposed on our long-standing Westernism, inherent in very different people, and even to those who are very, very far from collaborationism. In the West they see the Force before which they bow. Not the Truth, but namely the Force expressed in the ruthless, all-crushing expansion and the rampant accumulation of material resources. This Force kills and enslaves the will, turning man into an object, a conductor of cosmic power. In the end, the subjects of the Force themselves become such objects. Recall that plutocrac is a slave to its capital.
In 1941 – 1945, the majority of Russians fought on the side of Truth, opposing the armadas of the German Forces. A minority bowed before the Force, which made him weak and doomed to failure.