Military Review

Armor for the Fields of Gold Brocade

145
We have already said on the pages of the VO that PR (“public relations”) have always existed, although this is what nobody called them before 1807. Majestic palaces were built and huge statues were carved, luxurious clothes were sewn and fantastic feasts rolled in and all just to visually emphasize the superiority of some people over others. And, of course, all these huge palaces and majestic monuments, as well as giant ships, were built to impress the neighbors of this or that state. “We can - you are not!” That's the whole logic of these structures. Well, one of the clearest examples of this kind of rivalry was the tournament on the “field of golden brocade”, which we will tell you about today.



The landing of Henry VIII in France. The author of the original is unknown. A copy of J. Basire (1774).

And it was that at the beginning of the XVI century. relations between England and France still left much to be desired. The Hundred Years War seemed to be over long ago, but the English kings all formally considered themselves the heirs of the French throne. On the other hand, after Roz’s extermination war, England was interested in strengthening its position on the continent, so a strong alliance with France was beneficial for her. The French King Francis I and the King of England Henry VIII, realizing this, agreed to meet at the border near the city of Calais, so that ... none of them would feel hurt.


“The field of golden brocade”, engraving by J. Basir (1774) in a 16th-century painting

The fact is that Calais at that time still belonged to the British, so the meeting was to be held in the “neutral territory” between the two countries. To do this, a camp was built right in the field, which became a real city. More than 5000 workers were involved in the works, who leveled the area, dug pits, slaughtered pillars and put up around 2800 tents, which were simply used by a phenomenal amount of velvet and gold brocade, which gave the name to this historical event. In the retinue of both kings and with that, and on the other hand, included several thousand people of courtiers and servants.

Armor for the Fields of Gold Brocade

Knight's armor of Henry VIII 1520 g. Pic. A. Shepsa.

By order of Henry VIII there was built a palace, the inner courtyard of which had an area of ​​90 on 90 meters, and its total area was about 10 thousand square meters. On a two-meter-long brick foundation, walls of a ten-meter height made of fabric painted stone and stretched on wooden pillars towered. The roof was also made of cloth, but it seemed that it was made of metal. A particularly strong impression was made by the many glass windows, because of which it received the name "crystal", so that the Victorian "crystal palace" had in the past a worthy predecessor. The fountains of red wine arranged in front of the palace became the peak of wealth and ostentatious extravagance.


Armor 1520 g. With polleksom.

Pay attention to the lattice visor with large holes that could be used for observation, and for breathing. The latter was very important, because the knights in metal armor were overheated, as the iron of the armor was an excellent heat insulator. It was especially important to cool the face and head.


Henry VIII. Painting by Hans Holbein (14971498 – 1543). Walker picture gallery.

Francis I built such a high tent that it looked like the tallest tower known. The tower was crowned with a statue of St. Michael, who plunged the dragon. It had four large rooms, covered with blue velvet, embroidered with golden lilies. The first meeting of the monarchs occurred 7 June 1520 of the year. Moreover, like today, at the meeting of the presidents, the whole ceremony was arranged literally every minute in such a way that none of the parties would be compromised. Both kings were dressed luxuriously and looked at each other with a legitimate interest, which is no wonder. After all, they were almost the same age (Heinrich at the time of the meeting turned 29 years, and Francis - 25), both were famous for their education and advanced views.


Armor with a full-length close-up.

But although the first meeting of the monarchs was held in a “warm and friendly atmosphere,” the hopes for a union were ruined by rivalry between the French and the British, which arose because of the incorrect target setting of this meeting. Practically each of its participants spared neither the strength nor the means to demonstrate to everyone else, and above all to the opposing side, their magnificence. Two weeks of feasts and tournaments have resulted in the very open competition, nothing to do with the “engineering of agreement” (and that is what PR is!), Which has no!


Kulet - “plate ass” armor with pollekom.

For tournaments alone, 1500 swords were made, 1000 swords for horsemen fights and 600 two-handed swords for foot fights.


Francis I. Painting by Jean Clouet, Louvre, Paris.

At feasts, both sides ate more 2000 sheep, some 700 eels and ... 50 herons. But besides the nobility, her entourage, their retinue and their servants were also present at the meeting. Therefore, it is hardly surprising that only for the retinue of the English monarch during the meeting more than 2200 cattle were slaughtered. As was customary at that time, people ate and drunk and it was this that demonstrated their superiority to the opposing side and so strengthened the image of their sovereign.


"Armor with a skirt" 1520

At first, the monarchs managed to achieve a certain mutual understanding and common interests, but everything achieved at such a high price destroyed “His Majesty the case.” Henry VIII, a man of strong build and physically developed, decided to call the French king to the wrestling match, which was obviously inferior in size. Therefore, Henry did not doubt that he would win. But it turned out that Francis I held a seizure and managed to throw Henry to the ground. It was too much for a touchy Englishman, and he could not accept his defeat. If he were a little smarter, he would just be glad that fate itself gave him the opportunity to earn the favor of the French king (I personally, for example, would just succumb to him - well, that it’s worthwhile to hang on the ground for political victory in the end), but ... time though they considered themselves educated, they had no idea how to succeed. In the end, everything turned out the way it turned out ...


"Armor with a skirt." Front view.

However, Francis also made mistakes, along with his retinue, who overdid on the part of luxury: after all, France was richer than England and the “Gold Brocade Field” once again emphasized this and seemed offensive to the British.


A carpet depicting the duel of Francis I with Henry VIII.

The meeting of the kings ended on June 24 of 1520, with a solemn mass, after which all participants were granted absolution from the participants. But be that as it may, nothing good came of the meeting. Although the two-year-old French prince Francois and the four-year-old English princess Maria were engaged, because of their early childhood, she was never confirmed. Only two months after the “field of gold brocade” Henry VIII made an alliance with Charles V, and he was the worst enemy of Francis I. And two years later, both England and France launched another war.


This photo from the Royal Arsenal clearly shows how the “armor with a skirt” was arranged, reliably protecting its owner from almost all types of tournament weapons. Again, attention is drawn to the perforated visor, which is designed in such a way that it provides both a good view and quite decent ventilation.

That is, huge funds were thrown into the vanity chamber and did not lead to any positive result. No, in general, the result, of course, was - now we know that “we don’t need to do this,” that is, a negative experience is also an experience, and a valuable one. But then the British and the French looked at the consequences of this “field” as a complete disappointment. However, after the "field" there was not only disappointment. The armor made for King Henry VIII remained, and today we can judge by it the skill of the master armors who served the British crown in 1520.


Badge of the Order of the Garter on the "Armor with a skirt."

It is known that Henry VIII was very worried about the fact that his country depended on the import of foreign armor, but didn’t produce its own, which is why he decided to try to invite Italian gunsmiths to work in Southwestern. But for some unknown reason, this deal fell through. But Heinrich was stubborn and in 1515, he invited craftsmen from Germany and Flanders to come to England, who this time agreed and began to work in the arms workshop created for them in Greenwich. I must say that the English nobility bought armor throughout Europe. Someone richer ordered their famous masters, someone bought armor from visiting traders, which the blacksmiths immediately urged them on the figure. Therefore, they wore armor in the latest fashion, but often used a kind of "mix" of old and modern parts, bought for the occasion.

In any case, the influence of the Italian school, whose influence in England, apparently, was very strong, and the schools of the German-Flemish masters invited by King Henry, gave rise to the appearance of armor of a kind of "Greenwich style".

However, this very “Greenwich style” had a rather small impact on the armor of the main mass of knights in England, since the main customer of the Royal workshops in Greenwich was the king himself, whom their masters served. Many of these armor have survived today, and can be seen in the Royal Arsenal in Leeds. There are four known armor, personally owned by Henry VIII. One of his armor is in Windsor Castle, and two, according to experts, they also belong to Henry VIII - are on display at the Metropolitan Museum in New York.


Solety "bear paw".

First of all, this is a very specific type of armor for the foot bout, specially made for the competition on the “Golden Brocade Field”. They weigh 42,68 kg and are designed so that they cover absolutely all parts of the body. But ... to complete these armor to the end and failed. The French changed the rules of the tournament and asked the British to change the tournament armor accordingly. That is why this armor was completed and was not. But the same year the king was made another, called “tonlet” or “steel skirt”.

As time was running out, the armor was clearly made in a hurry, so the masters went according to the “constructor” principle: they took some parts from some earlier armor and only a few for it were made anew. In this case, to show the "unity" of all its details should ... uniform engraving made on it with a chisel.

The armor came out pretty specific. First, he had a huge bascinet made in Milan (as evidenced by the stamp of the arms workshop of the city of Missaglia on the back of the helmet), but with a modified form of the visor. Bracers were made from the details of the old armor, and the leggings had special grooves for the spurs, which were required by the rider, but not needed for the walking armor. Shoulders - from overlapping plates - a distinctive feature of the workshop in Greenwich. Left (when viewed from the front) - of eight lanes, right - of seven. The skirt consists of nine bands at the front and rear, with loops on the left and secured with a belt and buckle on the right. Wambrasses and armor legs were probably made in Italy or in Flanders, and they were clearly taken for this armor from some older armor. The etched finish maintains traces of gilding and includes images of: St. George, the Virgin and the Infant on both sides of the bascinet and on the shoulder pads; The Order of the Garter is around the neck of the bascinet, and the garter itself is depicted on the leg to the left. The skirt was originally gilded and decorated with engraving depicting stylized foliage in the upper rows, and below - Tudor roses. The original decoration of the armor, at the time of its creation, may have been black, which created a bright black and gold checkered pattern. Judging by the size of the armor, the growth of its owner should have been at least 1875 mm. Weight xnumx kg
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 22 January 2018 06: 53
    +7
    Interesting. To succumb is incompatible with the kings of that breed. This is some kind of fox could be like Louis XI. And in all times and countries, little things are not trifles.

    "I won’t sit below Boris."
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 22 January 2018 08: 46
      +3
      Louis didn’t achieve anything either in a personal meeting with the king of Castile, Charles the fifth with Francis personally got along, but interests would be irreconcilable
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 22 January 2018 06: 54
    +7
    And it was so that at the beginning of the XVI century. relations between England and France still left much to be desired. The hundred-year war seems to have ended long ago, but the English kings all formally considered themselves heirs to the French throne.
    And what has changed in relations between honey Angliets and France so far? Both competed and competed, though now this is called competition. At the expense of the article: a solid, well-designed article.
    Thanks, read with interest.
    1. kalibr
      22 January 2018 07: 44
      +7
      Faced this at the household level. I asked the Frenchwoman in English, where is ... a toytole, and she (local from ...) said she did not know. A card under her nose - no, no. And left! They asked in Russian and French - joy, desire to help. My former student, who entered the Sorbonne, taught English to the wife of the Minister of Agriculture of France. And she told her ... about the "contradictions." And remember the movie "Big Walk" with Louis de Funes? Yes, allies, yes, friends, but ... how did they even tease there ?!
  3. tlauicol
    tlauicol 22 January 2018 07: 00
    +3
    I wonder why the tournament Italian armor did not take root in Russia? Or ceremonial? That mud in Moscow was a dime a dozen
    1. kalibr
      22 January 2018 07: 38
      +5
      And who were our main opponents? It was against them that they fought with a bow and arrow. What about armor? It is known that their boyars bought and ... went to show off and that's it!
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 22 January 2018 08: 12
        +2
        Well, the Kremlin rebuilt, for example, on IT. manners. Tatar hats were put on princes / kings. But the fashion for the royal armor was not adopted, and the tournaments themselves, too
    2. Cxnumx
      Cxnumx 22 January 2018 08: 19
      +5
      Quote: Tlauicol
      I wonder why the tournament Italian armor did not take root in Russia? Or ceremonial? That mud in Moscow was a dime a dozen

      because such armor was just doh .. dough beggar - time; and only a real master in this type of armor could make it — two. try to order one now - the price and terms will "please you"))
      and our military school implied greater freedom and versatility.
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 22 January 2018 08: 30
        +2
        Well, hospitality expenses - are they show-offs or "public relations"? Masters were also discharged for more expensive cases - architecture, artillery, for example.
        1. Cxnumx
          Cxnumx 22 January 2018 09: 14
          +4
          Quote: Tlauicol
          Well, hospitality expenses - are they show-offs or "public relations"? Masters were also discharged for more expensive cases - architecture, artillery, for example.

          to erect a cathedral and cast a cannon / bell is a matter of national importance, but riveting such an armor is of course art, but only for yourself (it may come in handy for some descendants). Yes, and I do not remember that we were prescribed masters for the manufacture of swords (the same flambergs). did their own, no less skillful, but for other tasks.
          PS Well, maybe someone from the very rich and ordered, but something I do not remember this. and they don’t seem to mention our tournaments either.
    3. Weyland
      Weyland 22 January 2018 20: 33
      +3
      Quote: Tlauicol
      why tournament Italian armor did not take root in Russia?

      EMNIP, in the battle of Sheloni, the Novgorodians came out against Muscovites in European-made armor. Remind the result?
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 23 January 2018 05: 25
        +1
        Quote: Weyland
        Quote: Tlauicol
        why tournament Italian armor did not take root in Russia?

        EMNIP, in the battle of Sheloni, the Novgorodians came out against Muscovites in European-made armor. Remind the result?

        Yeah, the armor of European manufacture as the cause of the defeat of the Novgorodians :)) funny good
    4. Rey_ka
      Rey_ka 2 February 2018 08: 59
      0
      The Lapotniks didn’t understand fashion! (fat trolling)
  4. XII Legion
    XII Legion 22 January 2018 07: 02
    19
    The pinnacle of European armor making art
    And the top of slowness in it
    The king’s image is really in such a super - until they overtake or throw off the horse.
    Informative and attractive
    Thank you!
    1. Cxnumx
      Cxnumx 22 January 2018 08: 24
      +7
      Quote: XII Legion
      And the top of slowness in it

      except in the tournament ... but he did it for that. in the combat version, you can even run and jump. the same 20 kg distributed throughout the body - this is not so much. You don’t run marathons, of course, but you’re too tired to kill you))
  5. tlauicol
    tlauicol 22 January 2018 07: 14
    +7
    very little time will pass and the son of Francis Heinrich 2y Valois will come out at the tournament against the Earl of Montgomery crying
    1. Luga
      Luga 22 January 2018 11: 01
      +9
      Quote: Tlauicol
      very little time will pass and the son of Francis Heinrich 2y Valois will come out at the tournament against the Earl of Montgomery

      Five years will pass and at the Battle of Pavia, the French gendarmes in such or similar armor will be ruthlessly shot by the Spanish musketeers, and poor Francis will be held captive for more than a year ...
  6. parusnik
    parusnik 22 January 2018 07: 57
    +7
    And two years later, both England and France began another war.
    ... During which the troops of Henry approached Paris, but by 1525 the money in the English treasury had ended .. The war ended ...
  7. soldier
    soldier 22 January 2018 08: 00
    17
    The armor came out quite specific.

    Undoubtedly
    Trained subject
  8. Albatroz
    Albatroz 22 January 2018 10: 29
    +3
    The king’s cross is heavy - to walk in such armor
    But not all cats are Pancake week
    Shrovetide to us - readers of good articles)
    1. Cat
      Cat 22 January 2018 20: 20
      +4
      Well, all in one pile do not bother!
      Correctly it is necessary to tell readers - Shrovetide, and for cats - Shrovetide in double !!! hi
      1. long in stock.
        long in stock. 22 January 2018 20: 33
        +6
        a decent cat is always a carnival ..
        1. kalibr
          22 January 2018 21: 07
          +3
          How well you said, aphoristic!
  9. Curious
    Curious 22 January 2018 10: 38
    +7
    "I wonder why the tournament Italian armor did not take root in Russia? Or ceremonial? Fruits in Moscow was a dime a dozen "
    Probably because in Europe and in Russia the specifics of the arms race of that time were determined by the peculiarities of military operations and the influence of the "main enemy."
    Military development in Russia took place under a very serious Eastern influence: a lot of Oriental weapons appeared, including defensive and defense technologies, including grazial armor. "Mirror personal", which had Iranian and Central Asian descent, served to strengthen chain mail armor.
    Full grain armor is the influence of the Ottoman Empire.

    Mirror Armor
    Moscow, The Armory, 1616. Masters Dmitry Konovalov, Andrey Tyrman. Steel, silver, cloth; forging, chasing, etching, carving, gilding.

    The Armory Chamber has six such armor.
    There is such armor in the Royal Treasury of Stockholm, which got there in the form of a trophy of the Livonian war.
    By the beginning of the 17th century, eastern influence began to weaken, and Russia began to borrow from the West. There appeared their ceremonial armor, very similar to knightly ones, and even the habit of decorating horses with huge blankets, as they did during the tournaments (it should be noted that the knights themselves in Western Europe were almost gone by that time). Since the 18th century, the "military fashion of Russia" has become absolutely European.
    In general, the topic is interesting and deserves a separate article.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 22 January 2018 10: 57
      +4
      By the beginning of the 17th century, eastern influence began to weaken, and Russia began to borrow from the West. There appeared their ceremonial armor, very similar to knightly ones, and even the habit of decorating horses with huge blankets, as they did during the tournaments (it should be noted that the knights themselves in Western Europe were almost gone by that time). Since the 18th century, the "military fashion of Russia" has become absolutely European.

      change of military doctrine ... hi
      1. Curious
        Curious 22 January 2018 11: 20
        +5
        I would say "a change in the foreign policy vector."
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 22 January 2018 11: 30
          +4
          and that too. It would be difficult to fight the Europeans with the Pre-Petrine army.
          1. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 22 January 2018 18: 20
            +3
            Quote: Mikado
            It would be difficult to fight the Europeans with the Pre-Petrine army.

            Why?
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 22 January 2018 18: 51
              +4
              organization, training and tactics ...
              1. Mordvin 3
                Mordvin 3 22 January 2018 18: 55
                +4
                So Nevsky did not beat the knights?
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 22 January 2018 19: 27
                  +5
                  Nevsky beat me. drinks Just at the time of the end of the 17th century, it seems to me that the European armies, especially those who had gone through the school of the 30-year war, were organized and trained differently. The tactics were different too. Recently I read about caroliners, interesting! hi
                  1. Mordvin 3
                    Mordvin 3 22 January 2018 19: 49
                    +3
                    So at the end of the 17 century, it seems, there were no knights, and Peter was. recourse drinks And isn’t it Peter who smashed these heaters near Poltava? wink
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 22 January 2018 21: 02
                      +6
                      exactly. If the battle of Rocroix can be considered a turning point for the invincible Spanish infantry, then about Poltava we can rightly say that the best part of the Swedish army was ground there, and it (the army) never recovered ... request the caroliners had tactics that were different from the rest of the West’s troops — speed and “relying on a bayonet”. It swept under Narva, where such infantry met the poorly trained Russian army. But under Poltava, Peter opposed them "his game." soldier And yes, interrupted the military professionals! good drinks Russians learn fast ... yes
                      1. marline
                        marline 23 January 2018 08: 29
                        +2
                        Quote: Mikado
                        the caroliners had tactics that were different from the rest of the West’s troops — speed and “support on the bayonet”.

                        A bullet is a fool, a bayonet is well done! Something that reminds me of ...
                    2. tlauicol
                      tlauicol 23 January 2018 05: 28
                      +2
                      near Poltava, the far from pre-Peter army won
                      1. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 23 January 2018 08: 02
                        +3
                        And who else did Russia encounter in pre-Petrine times? with the poles? Everything went with varying success on the western front. winked
                2. Weyland
                  Weyland 22 January 2018 20: 40
                  +6
                  Bill. Only now their armor was then much simpler. Watch the film: “The Abduction of a Sorcerer” (although the action takes place there about 40 years before the Battle of Neva) - there, too, the heroine from the 20th century was surprised that the armor was “not spectacular,” and she was told that they would become spectacular in a couple of centuries. Everything is historical there, since the author, Kir Bulychev, is a professional historian.
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 22 January 2018 21: 03
                    +7
                    Everything is historical there, since the author, Kir Bulychev, is a professional historian.

                    and a wonderful orientalist. "West wind - clear weather" is a classic about the Second World War in the Pacific Ocean. hi
    2. marline
      marline 22 January 2018 12: 08
      +4
      Quote: Curious
      Probably because in Europe and in Russia the specifics of the arms race of that time were determined by the peculiarities of military operations and the influence of the "main enemy."
      Military development in Russia took place under a very serious Eastern influence: a lot of Oriental weapons appeared, including defensive and defense technologies, including grazial armor.

      In addition to the mirror armor, it is worth noting the ring-plate armor, which began to spread in Russia just at that time. These are ankylosing spondylitis, yushmans and colonists. We are very fond of artists (starting with Vasnetsov) to portray heroes and heroes in them. Meanwhile, they provided high protection (comparable to plate armor) while maintaining the flexibility of chain mail, allowing you to shoot from a bow.
      1. Curious
        Curious 22 January 2018 13: 18
        +6

        Bakhterets Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich. Moscow, the Armory, 1620. Master Konon Mikhailov. Iron, silver. Forging, chasing, notching in gold.
        1. marline
          marline 22 January 2018 13: 31
          +5
          There are also such options:

          Shpakovsky had an entire article already dedicated to war elephants.
          1. Curious
            Curious 22 January 2018 13: 41
            +6
            War elephants in the Russian troops were not seen.
            1. marline
              marline 22 January 2018 13: 49
              +5
              Quote: Curious
              War elephants in the Russian troops were not seen.

              But the bakhterets were. This I cited the "eastern influence".
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 22 January 2018 14: 03
                +3
                the photo is gorgeous.
                War elephants in the Russian troops were not seen.

                This is Viktor Nikolaevich, just an old retrograde, and an apologist for traditional history. wink Some would explain that there were a huge number of elephants in the Russian army when the ancient Russians built the Chinese (Ancient Russian) wall. And elephants were also the first to be taught from us, starting with mammoths. laughing so mustache and bulo! drinks and eastern influence - yes, I agree completely.
                1. Curious
                  Curious 22 January 2018 14: 25
                  +6
                  The ancient matrix superethnos used only unicorns, no elephants. Then the insidious Angles and Saxons brought out some kind of microbe, from which the horns of the unicorns disappeared, and with them their magical abilities. Unicorns became simple horses.
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 22 January 2018 14: 29
                    +3
                    The ancient matrix superethnos used only unicorns, no elephants.

                    not rhinos, an hour? wink Look, on New Year's Eve, I saw a sinful affair for the first time from the beginning to the end of “Three hundred Spartans” - well, that very article with computer graphics. No, do not think anything, there was simply nothing more worthy at that moment on TV. request damn, I understand, bullshit is bullshit, but the "battle rhino" - generally does not fit anywhere fellow
                    1. marline
                      marline 22 January 2018 14: 46
                      +1
                      Quote: Mikado
                      damn, I understand, bullshit is bullshit, but the "battle rhino" - generally does not fit anywhere fellow

                      Damn them with rhinos !!!
                      I was shocked when I hoplites, and not simple, but the king’s personal bodyguards with a naked behind ... torso. And how they began to fight out of action ... In short, after such revelations, I did not even pay attention to rhinos and gunpowder.
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado 22 January 2018 14: 51
                        +3
                        And how they began to fight out of order ...

                        yes, I also didn’t understand - at first refuse a disabled patriot, because he can’t fight in order, then he can fight out of order ... request
                        I was shocked when I hoplites, and not simple, but the king’s personal bodyguards with a naked behind ... torso.

                        the Mongols were also holothorsous, proved by some users laughing
                    2. albert
                      albert 22 January 2018 21: 28
                      +3
                      In India, in ancient times, there were attempts to use rhinos for military purposes. But this did not last long, since the rhinos are poorly tamed, but they are not very visible. Therefore, the fighting rhinos quickly came to naught.
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado 22 January 2018 21: 40
                        +3
                        Therefore, fighting rhinos quickly came to naught.

                        I didn’t know about the information about the attempts, thanks! I also heard that they are poorly tamed. Although .. they perform in the circus, but it seems to me that this number is from the category of "exotic." About a year ago, posters appeared.
                      2. Mikado
                        Mikado 22 January 2018 21: 42
                        +3
                        if we take wild animals, then I would like to add separately about moose. It seems that there were also attempts to use it for military purposes. An interesting article on the "Popular Mechanics": https://www.popmech.ru/weapon/10162-rogataya-kava
                        leriya-boevye-losi /
                        Although I have a feeling that one of the photos in this article is clearly fake ...

                        yes, it looks like a truncated weapon on its side is a fake what
                      3. Mikado
                        Mikado 22 January 2018 21: 57
                        +4
                        I lied about moose. Sorry. April Fools' article was a rally. Sorry! recourse here .... bad people! am
                  2. marline
                    marline 22 January 2018 14: 41
                    +3
                    Quote: Curious
                    Ancient matrix superethnos used only unicorns

                    Ek, you are peremptory - and you forgot about the humpbacked horse?! ... And about the gray wolves?! ... In the end, you didn’t even mention the Cossack-smithy, Little Russian trait ...
                    1. Curious
                      Curious 22 January 2018 14: 50
                      +4
                      Skates, wolves - all this ersatz, after the disappearance of unicorns, replacement in haste. And to hell, half of Europe moved around, why did you decide that this type of movement was used only by Little Russians?

                      Czech drawing of 1848
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado 22 January 2018 14: 53
                        +4
                        "All the women are witches, and those who are older are certainly witches!" (N.V. Gogol, "Viy") drinks
                      2. marline
                        marline 22 January 2018 15: 20
                        +4
                        Quote: Curious
                        Skates, wolves - all this ersatz, after the disappearance of unicorns, replacement in haste.

                        I don’t agree ... it’s okay - it’s not difficult to mix them with the Mongolian horse, but wolves! Yes, Europeans still remember about Russian wolves-wargs and wake up in a cold sweat ... They even shoot in a movie ...
                        Quote: Curious
                        And to hell, half of Europe moved around, why did you decide that this type of movement was used only by Little Russians?
                        Czech drawing of 1848

                        Here, of course, I gave a little swing ... But on the other hand - the Czechs are Slavic-Aryans, they simply do not remember laughing
                  3. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 22 January 2018 22: 27
                    +3
                    And in China, who plucked the beast qilin?
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 22 January 2018 22: 38
                      +5
                      Ancient Rus, naturally. Proved by the reverend yes
                2. marline
                  marline 22 January 2018 14: 35
                  +5
                  Quote: Mikado
                  Some would explain that there were a huge number of elephants in the Russian army when the ancient Russians built the Chinese (Ancient Russian) wall. And elephants were also the first to be taught from us, starting with mammoths. laughing

                  Now call Venia))))
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 22 January 2018 14: 46
                    +4
                    hahaha, everyone will find a worthy opponent with their point of view. If Marat had come, there would have been no price. good drinks
                3. Amurets
                  Amurets 22 January 2018 14: 57
                  +3
                  Quote: Mikado
                  Some would explain that there were a huge number of elephants in the Russian army when the ancient Russians built the Chinese (Ancient Russian) wall. And elephants were also the first to be taught from us, starting with mammoths. laughing so mustache and bulo! drinks and eastern influence - yes, I agree completely.

                  That's right. Tribal mammoth farms are still found in Yakutia, though in the form of mammoth cemeteries, and Old Russian letters to the VKS / VRS are still not readable, since local Russians did not know how to write, they just painted something.
            2. Rey_ka
              Rey_ka 2 February 2018 09: 41
              0
              but there were fighting bears. a vivid example of a documentary feature film about Kolovrat
  10. Curious
    Curious 22 January 2018 10: 47
    +8
    "... armor iron was an excellent heat insulator."
    Iron, like any metal, by virtue of its physical properties, cannot be a heat insulator by definition. It may be a heat conductor.
    1. kalibr
      22 January 2018 11: 05
      +1
      But I myself put on such armor and it was very hot in them ... if I were a conductor, I wouldn’t be!
      1. Curious
        Curious 22 January 2018 11: 19
        +6
        If you were not a guide, you would die of hypothermia. You have air between your body and armor. Here it is - a heat insulator. It has very poor thermal conductivity. Ventilation is needed.
        Heating radiators in your apartment from what?
        1. Curious
          Curious 22 January 2018 13: 12
          +4
          There is a typo in the text. Instead of hypothermia, hyperthermia should be read.
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 22 January 2018 15: 02
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        But I myself put on such armor and it was very hot in them ... if I were a conductor, I wouldn’t be!

        It all depends on the season, if it’s warm, then there will be a murderer, and in the cold it so insists that the soul is out of the cold.
      3. Looking for
        Looking for 22 January 2018 16: 42
        +3
        Well, my friend, you’re already doing that ... have you even studied physics at school?
        1. marline
          marline 22 January 2018 16: 57
          +4
          Wow ... another "physicist" .... divorced something ...
          1. Hantengri
            Hantengri 23 January 2018 04: 09
            +2
            Quote: merlin
            Wow ... another "physicist" .... divorced something ...

            And now it was a shame, yes!
            1. marline
              marline 23 January 2018 08: 33
              +2
              No need to kick the author - he sees it)))
              The article is not in the Physical Review Letters, and on historical subjects, so that such mistakes are permissible, moreover, the author has already pointed out an error. But I continue to kick the author as idiocy.
      4. Hantengri
        Hantengri 23 January 2018 04: 07
        +3
        Quote: kalibr
        But I myself put on such armor and it was very hot in them ... if I were a conductor, I wouldn’t be!

        Yeah! A humanist, he is also a humanitarian in Africa!
        1. Do you dress like armor, on a naked body, or with an armor?
        2. What was the ambient temperature? +45 in the shade, or -30 in the sun? laughing
  11. kalibr
    22 January 2018 11: 04
    +4
    Quote: Curious
    In general, the topic is interesting and deserves a separate article.

    All right! Thank you for your attention ...
    1. Curious
      Curious 22 January 2018 11: 22
      +7
      You, Vyacheslav Olegovich, try not to put off. And then Samsonov, if this topic is covered, then we will find out about the armor of the ancient superethnos ...
      1. kalibr
        22 January 2018 21: 00
        +3
        I don’t know ... a lot of current work, just a lot.
        1. Curious
          Curious 22 January 2018 21: 29
          +5
          Work is not Alitet; it will not go to the mountains. The end of the ends of an intelligent assistant get yourself.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 22 January 2018 21: 46
            +3
            can I ask a question in the forehead: what do you mean? wink a beast, a beast, Viktor Nikolaevich!
            1. Curious
              Curious 22 January 2018 22: 34
              +5
              Unfortunately, I have a protracted creative crisis provoked by arrogant interference from some ... In short, some.
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 22 January 2018 22: 51
                +5
                put your favorite music, choose an interesting topic - and go. yes You will need humor on the verge of steaminess (but within the framework!) - I will help with pleasure! wink Although .. you humorously with a stern face will give me a head start what Joker, verily! good drinks
  12. marline
    marline 22 January 2018 11: 53
    +3
    Thank you for the article. Very informative.
  13. Des10
    Des10 22 January 2018 12: 08
    +2
    "Pay attention to the grille visor with large holes that could be used for both observation and breathing. The latter was very important, since the knights in metal armor were very overheated, since the iron of the armor was an excellent heat insulator. "
    Hmm ... since the iron of the armor was an excellent heat insulator ... somehow I can’t believe it lol
    but nice to read. smile
    1. kalibr
      22 January 2018 20: 59
      +2
      About the fact that the heat insulator read armor metal from Christopher Gravett. Of course, anyone can make a mistake, but he is a well-known specialist in armor.
  14. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 22 January 2018 12: 48
    19
    I have not heard of such a tournament
    Interestingly
    In general, one should be careful as a monarch - either an arrow in the throat or a spear in the eye
    Whatever armor - but there is a risk, that in the tournament, that on the hunt
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 22 January 2018 13: 07
      +5
      then an arrow in the throat, then a spear in the eye

      then a dagger from loyal subjects, when you yourself do not wait, and no armor will help wink
      1. marline
        marline 22 January 2018 13: 12
        +3
        Quote: Mikado
        then an arrow in the throat, then a spear in the eye

        then a dagger from loyal subjects, when you yourself do not wait, and no armor will help wink

        And from the “right” seasonings to dishes and wine, armor also does not help much. wink
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 22 January 2018 13: 21
          +4
          According to one of the legends, Edward II “caught” something in some way. The overthrown monarchs in general, as a rule, do not live long .. why would this be? what drinks
          1. marline
            marline 22 January 2018 13: 27
            +4
            Quote: Mikado
            The overthrown monarchs in general, as a rule, do not live long .. why would this be? what drinks

            Mostly due to illness: apoplexy strikes are very common - there were cases when monarchs died from them right during the overthrow. Hemorrhoids and diarrhea can also be reduced to a grave in a week, there are examples ...
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 22 January 2018 13: 38
              +5
              Apoplexy strikes are very common - there were cases when monarchs died from them right during the overthrow.

              it seems that it was the most fashionable joke of 1801 - the "apoplexy hit with a snuffbox" ... what
          2. Curious
            Curious 22 January 2018 13: 46
            +5
            Once the Polish king Stanislav Leshchinsky, having found himself in a difficult situation, wanted to abdicate. Hearing this, Cardinal Primate Radzievsky said: "Unfortunately, the sovereign's crown, unlike a hat, is removed only with the head."
            1. marline
              marline 22 January 2018 13: 56
              +2
              Quote: Curious
              Once the Polish king Stanislav Leshchinsky, having found himself in a difficult situation, wanted to abdicate. Hearing this, Cardinal Primate Radzievsky said: "Unfortunately, the sovereign's crown, unlike a hat, is removed only with the head."

              Polish gentry ... Many Polish kings had a desire to take off their "hats" from the lords, it stopped that the lords were more likely to tear off the "crown" from the king, because the quartz army was little green ... and lived to see the partition ...
            2. Antares
              Antares 22 January 2018 15: 33
              +1
              Quote: Curious
              Once the Polish king Stanislav Leshchinsky, having found himself in a difficult situation, wanted to abdicate. Hearing this, Cardinal Primate Radzievsky said: "Unfortunately, the sovereign's crown, unlike a hat, is removed only with the head."

              difficult moment? This is not the moment when the Polish king (Leschinsky king from Charles 12 and August 2-Peter 1) also besieged Warsaw at the head of the Cossack (detachments of the Apostle) -Russian troops (Golitsyn) and his Saxons?
              Yes, he fled in plain clothes, grabbing the treasury ..... Horn (the Swedish commandant of Warsaw) was furious.
              1. Curious
                Curious 22 January 2018 16: 12
                +3
                In peasant clothing, he fled from Gdansk in 1734.
                1. Antares
                  Antares 22 January 2018 20: 33
                  +3
                  Quote: Curious
                  In peasant clothing, he fled from Gdansk in 1734.

                  right. This is me according to Tolstoy.
          3. Weyland
            Weyland 22 January 2018 20: 44
            +5
            Quote: Mikado
            why would it?

            Svarog lowered his eyes for the first time in the conversation:

            - I was sure that they would just be arrested and forced to sign a renunciation ...

            “If you thought so, dear, you still have to reach out and reach in order to become a real king,” the Old Queen snapped. “Who does this leave the deposed predecessor alive?” This, my good one, is against tradition. If someone wants to venture a new conspiracy, you don’t even need to look for slogans and banners: here he is, poor, offended, overthrown, angry uncles, ay-yi-yi were taken away from the tiny little sissy ...
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 22 January 2018 21: 09
              +4
              Yes Yes exactly! You can’t leave alive - the law of logic, if you want to keep power. request
              1. abrakadabre
                abrakadabre 23 January 2018 03: 45
                +3
                Very rare exceptions: Diocletian in Ancient Rome, Charles the Fifth in Spain.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 23 January 2018 10: 22
                  +3
                  also the last of the Merovingians. He was just tonsured a monk (forcibly, naturally).
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 22 January 2018 15: 18
        +2
        Quote: Mikado
        then a dagger from loyal subjects, when you yourself do not wait, and no armor will help

        That’s for sure, the arrow could have flown on the hunt, as if armor didn’t help.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 22 January 2018 15: 34
          +4
          That’s for sure, the arrow could have flown on the hunt, as if armor didn’t help.

          it is interesting that Edward II Plantagenet was kept for some time in Korf Castle. Over three hundred years before, another Edward II was killed in this castle, only from the Wessex dynasty. Yes, killed by the conspirators! hi
          1. marline
            marline 22 January 2018 15: 38
            +2
            Quote: Mikado
            That’s for sure, the arrow could have flown on the hunt, as if armor didn’t help.

            it is interesting that Edward II Plantagenet was kept for some time in Korf Castle. Over three hundred years before, another Edward II was killed in this castle, only from the Wessex dynasty. Yes, killed by the conspirators! hi

            Here they are - truly English ancient traditions ... Gentlemen - you will not say anything ...
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 22 January 2018 15: 50
              +4
              Here they are - truly English ancient traditions ... Gentlemen - you will not say anything ...

              yes, for sure, the British appreciate the traditions not only in tea drinking and subtle humorwink by the way, I would love to read about England before the Norman conquest. Everything was interesting there. who can write? request
              1. marline
                marline 22 January 2018 16: 04
                +2
                Quote: Mikado
                by the way, I would love to read about England before the Norman conquest. Everything was interesting there. who can write? request

                Times of King Arthur? Or the Roman period?
                At one time he was interested in just the Roman period, but, unfortunately, everything was more or less interesting in hostile languages. That, given the historical specifics, "it is inconvenient to eat a green one."
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 22 January 2018 16: 15
                  +3
                  Times of King Arthur? Or the Roman period?

                  rather, between the Romans and William. hi Yes, it seems the main literature is in English.
                  1. marline
                    marline 22 January 2018 16: 24
                    +2
                    It seems that it remains to ask Shpakovsky what
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 22 January 2018 16: 33
                      +5
                      will we ask in chorus? wink drinks
                      1. marline
                        marline 22 January 2018 16: 39
                        +3
                        Quote: Mikado
                        will we ask in chorus?

                        It is possible and so ... On the other hand, we have elections on the nose ... so you can proceed according to the election campaign: start collecting pluses if desired.
              2. Amurets
                Amurets 22 January 2018 23: 38
                +2
                Quote: Mikado
                by the way, I would love to read about England before the Norman conquest. Everything was interesting there. who can write?

                It is better to read Rosemary Sutcliffe from fiction, well, the series "Everyday Life" can be found in Russian. "Https://www.litmir.me/books_in_series/?id=5435
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 22 January 2018 23: 45
                  +2
                  Thanks, put in the "bookmarks"! good
            2. kalibr
              22 January 2018 21: 02
              +4
              There will be an article about the castle where Edward 2 died will be!
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 22 January 2018 21: 06
                +3
                Then Vadim-Merlin and my comrades are asking for something else about pre-Wilhelm England! yes but at least about Harold!
                1. marline
                  marline 23 January 2018 08: 37
                  +2
                  Quote: Mikado
                  Then Vadim-Merlin and my comrades are asking for something else about pre-Wilhelm England! yes but at least about Harold!

                  ++++++++++++++
    2. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 23 January 2018 03: 41
      +3
      In general, one should be careful as a monarch - either an arrow in the throat or a spear in the eye
      It is for this reason that the duel in armor and weapons so desired by both monarchs did not take place during that tournament. Both close associates dissuaded that the loss can be perceived not as personal, but as a humiliation of the whole country. And there, and not until the new hundred-year war.
  15. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 22 January 2018 14: 52
    +1
    since the iron of the armor was an excellent heat insulator.

    Mommy ... oh ... That's all, burped. Is it possible to return the author to the 7 class of a very, very high school? And let him sit there for at least three years, no less. In general, all this material, unfortunately, cannot be used for its intended purpose. Paper at its presentation is not used, alas.
    But I would like to somehow protect myself from the shamefully illiterate, who had not mastered the simplest curriculum of charlatans and loafers, who imagined themselves to be scientists and experts. No claim by this ignoramus should be given any attention.
    It happens that a person does not know some specific things, and this happens often. It happens that a person makes the wrong conclusions. Without this, there is no science. But if he could not cope with the development of a modest baggage of basic knowledge taught in high school, listening to his chatter is simply silly. It is not worth it.
    1. marline
      marline 22 January 2018 15: 09
      +4
      Quote: Mikhail3
      Is it possible to return the author to the 7th grade of a very, very high school?

      You probably wanted to write in the eighth, but slightly mistaken in the digital?
      Quote: Mikhail3
      And let him sit there for at least three years, no less.

      In the 7th and 9th, mechanics is studied mainly. The real meaning is only in the 8th. Well, in the 10th grade there is thermodynamics. So your advice ... some strange ...
      Quote: Mikhail3
      But if he could not cope with the development of a modest baggage of basic knowledge taught in high school, listening to his chatter is simply silly

      And let's, for a change, we will check you on the assimilation of "modest baggage of basic knowledge", say class for 9?
    2. Curious
      Curious 22 January 2018 15: 18
      +5
      Here you are, grandmother, and St. George's Day. They were waiting for Vienna, preparing appropriate arguments, and the blow was dealt in a completely different place.
      You, Mikhail3, probably had little to do with the humanities that you were so surprised. The author has already been pointed out to this knowledge gap. However, I would like to see constructive criticism of the essence of the main plot. Nevertheless, heat transfer and its types are not the topic of the article.
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 22 January 2018 21: 49
        +5
        Waited for Vienna, prepared appropriate arguments

        you have no arguments. stop Do not convince. Checked! drinks
        1. Curious
          Curious 22 January 2018 22: 41
          +4
          I wanted to try holy water.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 22 January 2018 23: 24
            +5
            as the hero of the musical "Ball of Vampires" said against the cross directed at him: "Will not help! I am a Jewish vampire!" request

            here it is the same. Everyone has the right to their opinion! hi the main thing is not to cross the line yes
          2. abrakadabre
            abrakadabre 23 January 2018 03: 52
            +5
            I wanted to try holy water.
            Believe me, in this case, the aspen stake is more effective.
            1. marline
              marline 23 January 2018 09: 12
              +2
              Quote: abrakadabre
              Believe me, in this case, the aspen stake is more effective.

              Somehow you are radically ...
              In the end, there is such a kosher persuasion method as thermorectal cryptanalysis. Nicholas-Mikado in this topic already hinted at the effectiveness of this method, even to convince kings wink
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 23 January 2018 14: 08
                +2
                it's not me it's Maurice Druon said wink drinks although .. there was no longer convincing the king, there the main thing was to convince the people that Edward, he said, had died himself, having fungus pervading! request
                1. marline
                  marline 23 January 2018 15: 10
                  +1
                  Quote: Mikado
                  although .. there was no longer convincing the king, there the main thing was to convince the people that Edward

                  I don’t know about the people, but Edward was persuaded to accept Islam qualitatively wink
                  1. Mikado
                    Mikado 23 January 2018 15: 32
                    +2
                    in this way anyone would be convinced belay
                    in general - the main thing is to pick up a big drin, and the convinced will appear wink drinks

                    for example, the Red Army soldier Vasily Vataman Faustpatron in melee stunned two Fritz. laughing True, then on the Internet they made fakes, they say, "beat ten to death." fellow angry the other Fritz, apparently, died from the sight themselves drinks
                    1. marline
                      marline 23 January 2018 15: 38
                      +1
                      laughing laughing laughing
                      Quote: Mikado
                      in this way anyone would be convinced belay

                      Here! The method works !!!
                      1. Mikado
                        Mikado 23 January 2018 15: 52
                        +2
                        the method for Edward was more cynical what
                      2. Mikado
                        Mikado 23 January 2018 16: 10
                        +2
                        Vadim, pay attention again to Wataman in the photo. It seems that, behind his back, a carbine model of the year 44, with a folding bayonet. what
                      3. marline
                        marline 23 January 2018 16: 23
                        +1
                        Quote: Mikado
                        Vadim, pay attention again to Wataman in the photo. It seems that, behind his back, a carbine model of the year 44, with a folding bayonet. what

                        Exactly he:

                        Egorov wrote that Vasily’s carbine had been knocked out when he unsuccessfully fell into the trenches, so he grabbed what came to hand.
                        Sorry, Egorov wrote "Shpagina", something I'm confused in the testimony ...
              2. abrakadabre
                abrakadabre 23 January 2018 22: 41
                +1
                Somehow you are radically ...
                I did not specify where exactly to apply the aspen stake. And there are many options: the traditional one is in the heart, and as is the case with cryptanalysis ...
                wassat
                1. marline
                  marline 24 January 2018 08: 14
                  0
                  Quote: abrakadabre
                  I did not specify where exactly to apply the aspen stake. And there are many options: the traditional one is in the heart, and as is the case with cryptanalysis ...
                  wassat

                  Then I remove all my objections. smile
    3. kalibr
      23 January 2018 06: 57
      +2
      Mikhail3 It doesn’t work, Misha, to protect yourself. How I watered you ... this is how I will be! No, of course, you can write to the site administration that you ... an academician such and such, the author of such well-known scientific works on history, categorically protest and all that ... But it is unlikely that even in this case there will be any result . Moreover, I can even provide a link to the source, where did I get this from Christopher Gravett. Ah, and he is illiterate, and his in the 7th grade? Well, I will sit next to him. In the meantime, have to be patient. But the pictures and photos are beautiful, you can enjoy your eyesight with them and still at least learn something.
      1. marline
        marline 23 January 2018 09: 06
        +3
        I didn’t want to write ... eh ...
        Of course, I don’t know how it is written by Christopher Gravett - can you give a passage? But in fact, steel is a poor heat insulator.
        Thermal insulation - reduces the heat transfer process and is a kind of thermal resistance. Thus, materials with a low coefficient of thermal conductivity are the best thermal insulation. In steel, this indicator is approximately 50 W / (m · K), it is certainly better than gold - 320 W / (m · K), but much worse than a good glass wool thermal insulator - 0,032-0,041 W / (m · K) ), even in snow this indicator is much better - 0,15 W / (m · K).
        Therefore, the best heat insulator in the protection of the knight was the under-armor - quilted.
        PS Of course, the above described is not too important for the article and this mistake does not make the article as a whole worse, but here as they say in the name of the triumph of justice.
  16. Antares
    Antares 22 January 2018 15: 23
    +4
    Continued article https://topwar.ru/94898-dospehi-korolya-mnogozhen
    ca.html
    Therefore, Henry had no doubt that victory would go to him. But it turned out that Francis I captured and managed to throw Henry on the ground.

    Here the reader should tell the background of the battle.
    There were fights on June 11 (heralds in their papers mention that on this day Francis I fought for the first time in the tournament)
    On June 13, it was decided to engage in wrestling and archery, in which Henry proved himself unsurpassed. Encouraged by his own victory, the English king immediately agreed to Francis’s offer to fight one on one. (For Karavaeva, for some reason, Henry won the victory)
    Francis was taller, and the Englishman was too self-confident. The episode is in the series The Tudors. Beaten emotionally. For a student of Thomas More and ward Woolsey, he did not look like a man who learned from his mistakes.
    For the touchy Englishman, this was too much, and he could not accept his defeat. Had he been a little smarter, he would have only been glad that fate itself had given him the opportunity to earn the favor of the French king (personally, for example, I would have succumbed to him - well, it’s worth lying around on earth for the sake of a political victory in the end)

    Human (animal) instincts are sitting in us. And the mind controls a little. So the emotions are stronger here. Defeat, shame, thirst for revenge ... Young king, ambitious and proud. Do you want Machiavelli's exploits or, at worst, Thomas More ...

    This is not the "Landing of Henry VIII in France.", But the Departure of Henry VIII from Dover in Calais on May 31, 1520.
    (Anonymous artist. Royal collection of Hampton Court Castle in the suburbs of London, Rind-on-Thames. English school, circa 1520-40. Oil on canvas. 168.9 x 346.7 cm.
    Collection of Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Elizabeth II.)
    The French king Francis I and the king of England Henry VIII, realizing this, agreed to meet at the border near the city of Calais, so that ... none of them would be offended.

    Arda Valley in northern France, which was located between the palace of the English king in Gini and the residence of the French king in Arda, was chosen as a place for her. By the XNUMXth century this strip of land remained the only neutral territory between England and France
    The British-French rapprochement was also facilitated by the intellectual atmosphere of 1516-1520, appeals to the world of authoritative humanists - Thomas More, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Guillaume Bude. I will add the work of Wolsey and the financial capabilities of the English crown. Finally, another circumstance that contributed to the warming in Anglo-French relations was the victory of Charles I of Spain in the struggle for the imperial throne, in which he defeated Henry and Francis.
    Camp itself Field of golden brocade, contemporaries called the eighth wonder of the world.
    From the propaganda of one’s superiority, certain points can be distinguished. The traditional "victories" of France on land and the "victories" of England at sea. That is, France has surpassed in luxury on land (by the way the French exceeded even the wealthy Spaniards in luxury) and England at sea
    The ship of Henry himself, the Great Harry, with golden sails and the flag of St. George, symbolizes the power, wealth and valor of the English monarch. A separate ship was needed to transport royal jewels, and the rest, of which a great many are depicted in the picture, moved about six thousand courtiers

    The displacement at that time was significant - 1000 tons. By design, the ship resembled a karakk. The crew of the ship totaled 700 people, 350 of which were marines, 300 sailors and 50 gunners.
    Also, the English "PR action" is visible even in the picture Golden Brocade Field (in the article)
    His composition testifies to the use of this work for political propaganda - the artist tried to depict many English castles and palaces: in the foreground is the royal palace, built specifically for this meeting, at some distance, surrounded by water, is the English castle of Hamme (Hammes), Calais lost in a ghostly haze, and the French camp brought to the background, and the shape of the tents can hardly be guessed. Thanks to the composition of this picture, commissioned, among other paintings, in which the artists captured the moments of Henry's highest triumph at the end of the reign of the English king, the political and symbolic interpretation of this meeting by the British becomes apparent: their sovereign enters France as their own possessions.

    If you look closely, the picture allows you to imagine what the royal procession looked like, moving into the palace - Woolsey was on the left hand of the king, and right after Henry was driving Sir Charles Brandon, the official royal “champion” - defender speaking on behalf of the king at tournaments. The first herald master of the Order of the Garter rides in front of the king, heralds carrying wands on either side of them, followed by the Marquis of Dorset with the royal sword, the Duke of Suffolk and Earl of Essex followed the king a little, the latter holds the marshal’s wand emphasizing him status of the head of the royal procession. Thus, the king appears surrounded by his faithful courtiers and symbols of his own power
    The topic is interesting. Even if my historical knowledge was limited to episodes from the history of ships and the Tudors series.
    1. kalibr
      22 January 2018 21: 06
      +4
      Very good addition, thanks. The topic is also not mine. Mine is armor. But you cannot write only about them without touching the canvas from historical events.
      1. Antares
        Antares 23 January 2018 12: 00
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        The topic is also not mine.

        on the contrary, I’m interested in events, but in armor I don’t understand nicherta.
  17. NF68
    NF68 22 January 2018 16: 13
    +3
    + + + + + + + + + +
  18. sivuch
    sivuch 22 January 2018 17: 56
    +6
    No, to read the Commine first - the same one explained in detail why such meetings do not end in good, with a bunch of examples. But kings learn only from their mistakes
  19. ruskih
    ruskih 22 January 2018 18: 53
    +8
    Mikado,
    "All the women are witches, and those who are older are certainly witches!" (N.V. Gogol, "Viy")

    Hmm ... what
    1. Curious
      Curious 22 January 2018 19: 13
      +5
      Not in the eyebrow, but in the eye !!!
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 22 January 2018 19: 29
        +4
        Helen killed me on the spot, and you, Viktor Nikolaevich, were also a gunner! fellow wink Elena - appreciated! love
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 22 January 2018 23: 51
      +4
      Lena! The direct answer to the question: All the girls are angels, where do the women-devils come from? ++++++++++++++++++
      1. kalibr
        23 January 2018 06: 51
        +2
        Amurets It has been scientifically proven that male sperm entering the female body produces this terrible transformation!
      2. long in stock.
        long in stock. 23 January 2018 07: 57
        +4
        Well, not everything is not all .. yes, and what do you need an angel in bed .. they are asexual ..
  20. Mikado
    Mikado 23 January 2018 16: 48
    +2
    marline,
    I also read about Shpagin. But the picture is not the most common! hi I mean, not the most common weapon in the pictures.
    1. marline
      marline 24 January 2018 08: 28
      +1
      Quote: Mikado
      I also read about Shpagin

      The fact is that at one time I read the book "Heroes and exploits" and there were just Yegorov’s recollections of the exploit of Wataman (in fact, I read about this exploit there for the first time) and there it was about the carbine. And yesterday, when I climbed to look for a photo in the best resolution, I came across a photo signature by Yegorov’s hand. Yesterday I even checked it. I will cite both texts.
      On photo

      It can be seen that Shpagin was signed.
      And here is a description of the feat from the book:
      1945 year. On 24 on March the city of Neisse was almost completely cleared of the enemy. Together with the infantry, self-propelled gunners, sappers, and tank destroyers took part in street battles. They fought .healthily. By dusk the fire died out. It became freer to move around the city, and quite quickly I found the command post of Lieutenant Colonel M. Komlev. The regiment he commanded was the first to break into the city. I thought that I would be able to find fresh material needed by the editors here. The calculation turned out to be correct. In one of the political disciplines, written on a piece of paper torn from a student’s notebook, among several names of well-fought fighters, I read:
      "Shooter Vataman Vasily Vasilyevich on the outskirts of the city destroyed four enemy soldiers, and then, acting as a Faustpatron, killed another fascist officer and soldier."

      The next morning, I was already in the unit in which Wataman fought. The city was quiet.
      At a small public garden stood a group of soldiers. A strong, medium-sized guy told something to his comrades. “That’s Wataman himself,” they pointed at the soldier. I walked over and heard part of the story of yesterday’s battle. The unit attacked the enemy line of defense. Unsuccessfully jumping into the trench, Wataman fell, at which time the Nazi officer who jumped out from behind a bend knocked him out of his hands carbine.
      - It would have been worse if this “Faust” hadn’t caught my eye. And then he did not have time to blink, as I typed it on his forehead. Just stepped behind the carbine, the second climbs. This, too, was enough of one bite. The lieutenant then laughed:
      "Great, you say, mastered the fascist technique." And what? This turned out to be a very convenient thing. - Vasily picked up one of the faustpatrons standing near the fence. Of course, the technique in this case was used quite peculiarly, but the case itself is unusual. I asked Wataman to raise the Faustpatron a little higher and pressed the shutter of the camera. At the next moment, realizing that he wasn’t removing the faustpatron, but himself, Vasily was embarrassed, blushed and hurried off somewhere. I failed to meet him again. The unit received a combat order and urgently left for its implementation.

      Perhaps the PCA was later replaced by a carbine, so that the description matches the photo.
      Here is such a confusion smile
      1. Mikado
        Mikado 24 January 2018 09: 53
        +1
        yes, confusion. There is even a phrase: "lying like an eyewitness." For the testimony can be confused, and the narrator’s imagination suggests something wrong.
        Well, the most important thing - he healed the Germans, and then okay! drinks