Multipurpose tactical / anti-tank missile JAGM
Behind media coverage of unpredictable and explosive events taking place in the northwestern part of Aleppo province, where Ankara plays the “Kurdish card” at a quick pace, intending to push through the FSA’s anti-terrorist formations and other “moderate” currents into the cleared territory of the canton of Afrin, sometimes not just pay attention to seemingly "dull" and rare news materials on the development and adoption of promising foreign military equipment, representing a certain degree of threat to our military units.
At the same time, some of these products can significantly influence the course of combat operations in a tactical situation. So, for example, if we talk about the FGM-148 “Javelin” ATGM, they are ways to seriously change the operational-tactical picture in favor of the operators (USA, Canada, etc.) only in the urban confrontation at a distance of 1,5-2 km, While in the field countryside, dominated by flat terrain and steppe terrain (without the standard urban infrastructure), the Javelins are becoming completely useless weapons, as their operators will be easily detected by the enemy's small-size optical-electronic reconnaissance.
We will now consider a more serious type of air-based tactical missile weapons (with the option of optional expansion for ground launch), which can create serious problems for the units of the ground forces of numerous countries of the world, including the Russian Armed Forces. This is a promising multipurpose tactical missile JAGM ("Joint Air-to-Ground Missile"), designed to deliver point attacks on numerous types of stationary and mobile targets (from armored units and surface ships of small displacement to well-protected ground strong points).
The last successful tests of the Lockheed Martin and Raytheon offspring on the suspension of the carrier were carried out on 5 on January 2018 of the year, based on the AH-1Z Viper helicopter of the US Marine Corps, which had risen from the US Navy's Patuxent River. The pilot and the operator of the Viper systems have fully tested the operability of the digital data exchange bus (apparently, MIL-STD-1760) between the helicopter armament control complex and all three modules of the 3-x range homing head, which will provide the developer with the necessary data for the missile development under its flexible application in various meteorological conditions. Next, fire field tests of JAGM should follow from the side of the rotor wing machine, which will allow the finalization of the radio channel for the correction of the JAGM flight path on the flight section, intended for the implementation of the “let me forget” concept. At the same time, JAGM will be able to receive target designation from several ground-based or airborne third-party sources — means of optoelectronic, radio engineering, or radar reconnaissance, which will also make it possible to instantly redirect the tactical missile already on the trajectory.
The previous test of a prototype JAGM, conducted by 25 in May of 2016, was in flight, where the MQ-1C “Gray Eagle” unmanned attack and reconnaissance aircraft was used as a launch vehicle platform. Then the rocket was able to destroy the moving target, which was made by a truck moving at a speed of 35 km / h. Recall that the development program for the advanced tactical missile Joint Air-to-Ground Missile was initially launched in accordance with the 125-million contract concluded between the US Land Forces and the consortium Boeing-Raytheon as early as 2008, and after 2, The White Sands test range (White Sands, New Mexico) conducted the first in-field tests from a specialized ground-based oblique launcher. The information received became the basis for the continuation of the development of the project already in the framework of the contract that was signed 8 on September 2015, as part of the Lockheed Martin-Raytheon consortium. From this information we conclude that, despite the three-year "slip" of the program, JAGM is still ready to acquire operational combat readiness by the year of 2020. The burning question for servicemen and experts automatically arises: what “critical” combat parameters that pose a threat to our ground forces, the new tactical missile of the 3 generation possesses.
For this it is necessary to consider the peculiarities of the guidance system, as well as the power plant of the perspective product. In particular, designed to replace heavy anti-tank / tactical missiles of the AGM-114 “Hellvaer”, AGM-65 “Maverick” and BGM-71F “TOW-2B” advanced JAGM is a rather complex conceptual and constructive hybrid of the AGM-114R PTG hybrid “AGM-114R” PTM “Anti-tank missile” “ "(Option for use with surface, ground and air carriers), AGM-114K" Hellfire II "(modification with PALGSN increased noise immunity), AGM-53L" Longbow Hellfire "(version with ARGSN), as well as small-size" narrow bomb "GBU -94 / B. The Raytheon and Lockheed Martin specialists selected all the best elements from the above WTO tools and then integrated them into the JAGM project. The output was a multi-purpose rocket, equipped with a three-band homing head, represented by an infrared module, an active millimeter Ka-band radar sensor with a frequency of 1 GHz and a resolution of about 2 m, and a semi-active laser-guided channel. Thus, the JAGM rocket is even ahead of the well-known “Brimstone-XNUMX” from the West-European concern MBDA in terms of flexibility in a complex jamming environment. Thus, the latter is only equipped with active radar and semi-active laser homing channels, which makes the rocket ineffective if the ground units of the enemy use powerful EW and a smoke screen, while the JAGM can switch to the infrared homing channel in such a situation.
The effectiveness of the IR channel can also be significantly reduced by equipping armored vehicles with complexes such as the “Cape” (reduces heat radiation from the engine and transmission compartment by 2–3 times), or the so-called “heat cap” recently developed by the Moscow Higher Combined Arms School (MosVOKU) leading fields with the largest infrared signature tanks, BMP or APCs beyond their physical silhouettes. Nevertheless, in a combat situation, 3 JAGM guidance channels do their job, significantly complicating the lives of the crews of armored units. To a large extent, this applies to the majority of vehicles that are not equipped with active defense systems, or operate as part of brigades covered by the standard anti-aircraft missile systems Tor-M1, Tor-M2U, Tor-M2KM, Tunguska- M1 "and" Shell-C1 ". What is the primary problem here?
Despite the fact that the JAGM multipurpose rocket has similar geometrical parameters with AGM-114L “L ongbow Hellfire” anti-tank guided missile (apart from the difference in length, which is larger by the first 170 mm and reaches 1800 mm), its single-chamber solid rocket engine from Aerojet »With reduced smoke generation (due to the absence of aluminum oxide) has a low burning rate, so that for a large segment of the JAGM trajectory it is not subject to such a phenomenon as ballistic braking. As a result, the range of the promising missile reaches 16 km when launched from the suspension of a low-flying attack helicopter and 28 km from the suspension of a medium-height UAV or carrier-based fighter F / A-18E / F Super Hornet. We will focus on the tactics of using JAGM from aboard a helicopter attack, enveloping the terrain.
Using natural terrain objects (folds, hills and lowlands), as well as some provincial and urban infrastructure, the Apache Longbow AH-64D attack helicopter can easily attack the strongholds, positions of enemy artillery batteries and armored units, while remaining inaccessible to the above modifications. Thors and Armor. For example, the range of Tor-M1 / M2KM using XUR-interceptors 9М331 / D is 12 and 15 km, respectively, while JAGM can be launched from 16 km. With the "Shell-C1" no guarantee for the destruction of such "Apache" is also not. Despite the fact that the complex is equipped with high-speed 57E6E SAM with an initial speed of 4700 km / h and a range of 20 km (due to low ballistic braking due to the small mid-section of the combat stage), the radio command of targeting the target provides for finding the object being intercepted only in the radar field of view target tracking and homing 1PC2-1E “Helmet” module or auxiliary optical-electronic complex 10EC1-Е throughout the entire ZUR flight trajectory. The slightest "jerk" of "Apache" for the "screen" of the elevated terrain or any structure will lead to the disruption of tracking and loss of the 57-61 interceptor missile.
As for the Tor-M2E / KM anti-aircraft missile systems, equipped with the latest 9М338 (RZV-MD) compact anti-aircraft missiles that have a range of 16-17 km and an initial speed of 3600 km / h, it’s not necessary to feed large illusions because the Vympel design bureau of the Tactical Missile Corporation supplied the new product with the same radio command control system that needs direct line of sight, which is extremely rare in the case of attack helicopters. What, then, can the units of the Army of Russia or our friendly armies rely on transferred to the theater plots that are within the range of the AH-64D Apache Longbow equipped with JAGM missiles?
Firstly, the presence on the helicopter direction of long-range radar detection and control airplanes (AWACS), or the Su-30CM / Su-35С fighters capable of patrolling, capable of detecting the Apache airplanes at a distance of 100 - 250 km. The presence of these machines will be a serious obstacle for the army aviation US forces in planning such missions using attack and attack reconnaissance helicopters.
Secondly, the development and adoption by the units of the military air defense of self-propelled anti-aircraft missile systems, the ammunition of which will be represented by anti-aircraft guided missiles with infrared and active radar homing heads. Such ZRSK will be able to work without difficulty on attack helicopters operating from extremely low altitudes and folds in the terrain. Targeting for the complex will be able to come from its own radar facilities, if the approaching enemy helicopter will leave for at least a couple of seconds due to the radio horizon / “terrain screen”, or from airborne radar observation and guidance equipment (HFMD); There is no urgent need for a direct view of the target. The most promising development in this direction may be an upgraded version of the 9М100 SAM, which is part of the ammunition sets of the shipboard Redut systems and the Vityaz ground C-350. "Highlights" of this missile are the ability to work on targets outside the sector of the review of the battery multifunctional RLC, as well as the ability to act on target designation of additional funds due to the presence of the receiving module of radio correction. The problem is that the range of this missile defense reaches only 15 km, which is not enough to defeat the carrier of a multi-purpose JAGM missile at a distance of 16 km. And there is no information regarding the unification of 9М100 with the existing Torahs. All the projects on the use of modified air-to-air missiles RVV-AE / SD as part of anti-aircraft missile systems, unfortunately, are also folded.
It unintelligible remains situation with active "radio broadcast" interceptor missiles medium and long range 9M96D / DM, which, judging from the complete absence of information on the receipt in videoconferencing and lack of pictures PU 5P85TE2 with corresponding "small" Structures TPK present in Ammo "Chetyrohsotok »Only as prototypes at some exercises at the Kapustin Yar training ground. In the West, in terms of large-scale production of missiles with ARGSN, more and more “chocolate”: the arrival of ERINT and Aster-30 interceptor missiles to the troops is quite stable; also within the walls of MBDA, work is actively progressing on improved modifications of the Aster-30 family of SAMs - Block 1NT / 2. Do not forget about two small small-scale missiles, integrated into the composition of anti-aircraft missile systems "Land Ceptor" and IRIS-T SLS. We are talking about a SAAM rocket with an active RGSN and a range of 25 km and an IRIS-T with an EKGSN range of about 15 - 17 km. The only drawback of these complexes is the impossibility of working on the march (without stopping), while our self-propelled air defense missile systems possess such qualities.
Thirdly, on the “Pantsira” and “Thors” abilities to intercept several small-sized air attacks simultaneously. For example, the 96K6 “Pantsir-С1” air defense system, which is unlikely to be able to destroy the Apache hiding behind the relief in 16 km, will be able to destroy several tactical JAGM missiles launched from its M299 launchers. Interception of JAGM is a fairly simple task, because these missiles do not make anti-aircraft maneuvers on the trajectory, have a maximum flight speed of no more than 1400 - 1600 km / h and an effective reflective surface around 0,08 m2 due to the radar signature of an active X-ray radar sensor. Remarkably, the extended burnout period of the solid-fuel charge will play a cruel joke with JAGM: the rocket can be easily detected not only with the 1PC1-1 X-ray detection radar and the 1PC2-1E X-ray Node-ZnumX-10-1 optical imaging channel and the X-Yn-XNumx-3E optical imaging channel and the ZNUMX-5 thermal imaging channel of the X-YN-122-9 optical imaging channel and the ZNUMX-22 X-ray imaging channel of the X-Yn-Xnumx-Xnumx thermal imaging channel of the X-YN-2017-XNUMX optical imaging channel and the X-YN-XNUMX-ZNXX-XNUMX-XNUMX-XNUMX Optical Radiometer and the Zn-XNUMX-XNUMX X-ray NUMX-XNUMX X-ray Radar . The result: the destruction of XNUMX - XNUMX JAGM will be for one BM "Shell" quite an everyday task, despite the electronic opposition from the enemy. The high potential of the Pantyreys to intercept small, high-speed objects was confirmed at the time of the destruction of two XNUMX-mm NURSs of the XNUMXМXNUMX Grad type, launched by militants at Hmeimim airbase in December XNUMX. These objects were much more difficult to detect, maintain, and “capture” than the slow and “glowing” JAGM.
However, there is also an unpleasant moment. In the case of even a temporary lack of air support from aviation to achieve superiority in air (“Drying” and “Meinstei”), the enemy can seize the moment by sending an attack “bundle” as part of a link from several Apache Longbow armed with the maximum number of JAGM (16 units on each), as well as one or a pair of Bell OH-58D Kiowa Warrior multi-purpose attack and reconnaissance helicopters. The latter are equipped with nadpultochnye MMS-optical complexes (“Mast Mounted Sted”), as well as more advanced AN / AAS-53 operating in television and infrared sight channels with the possibility of laser targeting. The use of passive TV / IR channels will allow the Kayam to secretly calculate the positions of artillery, armored vehicles, as well as mobile self-propelled air defense missile systems through the use of the subtle MMS sub-module MMS module slightly elevated above the terrain, after which, by tactical information exchange, target designation will be sent to AH-64D “flying arsenals” that can launch 16, 32, 48 and more JAGM on our units. With such a number of goals even 4 "Shell" is unlikely to cope. Consequently, an impeccable "umbrella" of military air defense from attacks by promising JAGM missiles can be installed solely by introducing anti-aircraft interceptors with infrared or active RGSN, as well as support from fighter aircraft and air defense missile complexes.
Early modification of the optical-electronic complex MMS ("Mast Mounted Sight")
At the end of our work, I would like to find out whether there are multi-purpose tactical missiles in service with the army aviation of the Russian Armed Forces, reaching or even surpassing the radically improved modification of the Hellfire. Naturally, yes. Two types of missiles can be safely attributed to them - a heavy X-38 multi-purpose missile in four versions with a range of 40 km, as well as a long-range 2 missile antitank guided missile with a radius of 15 - 18 km.
The first type (X-38) can be immediately removed from the list weapons asymmetrical response, since the rockets have a starting mass of 520 kg and a length of 4200 mm. In order to maintain proper flight performance in a difficult tactical environment, the helical rotary-winged carrier vehicle can take no more than 2-like products on board, given that the R-73RDM-2 melee combat system must also be present on the suspension for self-defense. The missiles have an impressive radar signature, flight speed in 2300 km / h, the absence of intensive anti-aircraft maneuvering modes, as well as single-channel homing heads (active RGSN, IKGSN, semi-active laser GOS or satellite radio-navigation GLONASS module), which makes the protection against interference, GHGSN, doesn’t make the jam protection, which, in the same way, it’s jamming protection, didn’t suppress fire protection, didn’t suppress fire protection, didn’t suppress protection, GLS and module, didn’t suppress protection of GLNASS module, didn’t suppress protection, but didn’t suppress protection. three-channel JAGM parameters.
Hermes-A / 1 / 2 fits much better into the category of high-precision weapons for an asymmetric response to the appearance of the JAGM in the American army. In particular, all missiles of this class have a maximum flight speed in 3600 km / h, which is 2,5 times faster than JAGM. Due to the lower aerodynamic resistance of the 130-mm combat stage, the flying speed is not 1100 - 1200 km / h, but near 2000 - 2300 km / h, which, with a small physical silhouette and an EPR comparable to the 120-mm mortar mine, makes it extremely difficult to intercept . The low weight of the missiles in the TPK (110 kg) causes the placement of the 16 “Hermes” at the same time on the four quadruple launchers of the Ka-52 or Ka-52K attack helicopter.
Long-range ATGM "Hermes-A" in the quadruple transport and launch module
Four modifications of the ATGM are provided, differing in the type of guidance system, in particular: Hermes-1 (ANN with a semi-active laser homing demanding laser targeting), Hermes-2 (ANN from ARGSN, the principle of “let-forget”), “ Hermes-A "(version with PALGSN and the possibility of radio correction), as well as the version with inertial guidance + IKGSN. The disadvantage of this architecture of the Hermes complex is the unrealizability of changing the mode (channel) of the GOS during the flight of the missile to the target, which may be necessary if the enemy suddenly uses certain countermeasures (REB or optical-electronic interference). However, the ammunition of one Ka-52 can be represented by each type of 4 ATGM, and pilots can make a choice in favor of a particular type of missile in accordance with countermeasures expected from the enemy, and this is a huge plus.
In October 2016 of the year, during the long hike of the Admiral Kuznetsov TAKR to the eastern Mediterranean, numerous Russian media quoted a source in the defense industry complex to spread information about the upcoming trials of the Hermes-A complex, which was present in the Ka-52 helicopter armament located in the wing of a heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser; but further information, as often happens here, has not followed. We will expect that the 48 of May full-scale fire tests of JAGM from AH-64D will still force our defense department to continue fine-tuning the Hermes-A project to the state of initial combat readiness.