Military Review

How to break through the blockade of Leningrad

18 January 1943 of the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts broke through the blockade of Leningrad. The largest political, economic and cultural center of the USSR, after the most difficult 16 month-long struggle, regained its land connection with the country.

Beginning of the offensive

On the morning of January 12, 1943, troops of two fronts simultaneously launched an offensive. Soviet night before aviation dealt a powerful blow to the positions of the Wehrmacht in the breakthrough strip, as well as to airfields, command posts, communications and railway junctions in the enemy rear. Tons of metal fell upon the Germans, destroying its manpower, destroying defensive structures and suppressing fighting spirit. At 9 o’clock. 30 minutes artillery preparation began: in the offensive zone of the 2nd shock army, it lasted 1 hour 45 minutes, and in the sector of the 67th army - 2 hours 20 minutes. 40 minutes before the start of the movement of infantry and armored vehicles, attack on previously explored artillery, mortar positions, strongholds and communications centers was launched by attack aircraft, in groups of 6-8 aircraft.

At 11 o’clock. 50 minutes under the cover of the “fire rampart” and the fire of the 16th fortified area of ​​the division of the first echelon of the 67th army went on the attack. Each of the four divisions - the 45th Guards, 268th, 136th, 86th Rifle Divisions, was reinforced by several artillery and mortar regiments, a fighter-anti-tank artillery regiment and one or two engineering battalions. In addition, the attack was supported by 147 lungs. tanks and armored cars whose weight could withstand the ice. The particular difficulty of the operation was that the defensive positions of the Wehrmacht went along the steep icy left river bank, which was higher than the right. The Germans' firepower was tiered and covered with multi-layer fire all the approaches to the shore. To break through to the other side, it was necessary to reliably suppress the firing points of the Germans, especially in the first line. At the same time, it was necessary to ensure that the ice on the left bank was not damaged.

How to break through the blockade of Leningrad

Baltic destroyer fleet "Experienced" is firing enemy positions in the Nevsky Forest Park. January 1943

Soviet soldiers carry boats for crossing the Neva River

The scouts of the Leningrad front during the battle at the wire barriers

The first to the other side of the Neva were the assault groups. Their fighters selflessly made passages in the barriers. Behind them crossed the river infantry and tank units. After a fierce battle, the enemy defense was hacked north of the 2-th Gorodok (268-Rifle Division and 86-th separate tank battalion) and in the Marino area (136-division and 61-th tank brigade formations). By the end of the day, Soviet troops had broken down the resistance of the 170 of the German infantry division between the 2 Township and Shlisselburg. 67-I army captured the bridgehead between 2-Gorodok and Shlisselburg, construction began crossing for medium and heavy tanks and heavy artillery (completed 14 January). On the flanks, the situation was more difficult: on the right wing, the 45-I Guards Rifle Division in the Nevsky Pyatachka area was able to capture only the first line of German fortifications; on the left wing, the 86-Infantry Division was unable to force the Neva near Shlisselburg (it was transferred to a bridgehead in the Marino area to strike Shlisselburg from the south).

In the offensive zone of the 2 shock and 8 armies, the offensive developed with great difficulty. Aviation and artillery could not suppress the main firing points of the enemy, and the swamps, even in winter, were impassable. The most fierce battles were behind the Lipka, Workers' Settlement No. 8 and Gontovaya Lipka points; these strong points were on the flanks of the bursting forces and even in full surroundings continued the battle. On the right flank and in the center - 128-I, 372-I and 256-I infantry divisions, could by the end of the day break through the defense of 227-th infantry division and advance 2-3 km. The strongholds of Lipka and Working Village No. 8 on this day could not be taken. On the left flank, only the 327-Infantry Division was able to achieve some success, which occupied most of the fortifications in the Roundwood grove. The attacks of the 376 Division and the forces of the 8 Army did not succeed.

The German command, on the first day of the battle, was forced to deploy operational reserves: the connections of the 96 Infantry Division and the 5 Mountain Division were sent to the aid of the 170 Division, two regiments of the 61 Infantry Division (Major General Hüner) were introduced into the center of the Schlesselburg-Sinyavino ledge.

Battle 13 - January 17

On the morning of January 13, the offensive continued. The Soviet command to finally turn the tide in their favor began to enter into the battle the second echelon of the advancing armies. However, the Germans, relying on strongholds and a developed defense system, put up stubborn resistance, constantly counterattacking, trying to restore their lost position. The fighting took a protracted and bitter character.

In the offensive zone of the 67 Army on the left flank, the 86 Infantry Division and the battalion of armored vehicles, supported by the 34 Ski Brigade and 55 Infantry Brigade (on the ice of the lake) from the north, stormed the approaches to Shlisselburg. By the evening of 15, the Red Army men reached the outskirts of the city, the German troops in Shlisselburg were in a critical situation, but continued to fight hard.

Soviet fighters in battle on the outskirts of Shlisselburg

Fighters of the 67 Army of the Leningrad Front are moving through the territory of the Schlusselburg Fortress

In the center of the 136-th Infantry Division and 61-I tank tank brigade developed an offensive in the direction of the workers' village number 5. To ensure the left flank of the division, the 123 Infantry Brigade was brought into battle, it had to advance in the direction of the workers' settlement No. 3. Then, to ensure the right flank, the 123 Infantry Division and the tank brigade were brought into battle, they were advancing in the direction of Workers' Settlement No.6, Sinyavino. After several days of fighting, the 123-I rifle brigade seized Working Village No. 3 and reached the outskirts of the settlements No. 1 and No. 2. The 136 Division made its way to Workers' Settlement No. 5, but could not immediately take it.

On the right wing of the 67 Army, the 45 Guards and 268 Rifle Divisions were still unsuccessful. The air force and artillery could not eliminate the firing points in the 1-m, 2-m Gorodok and 8-th GRES. In addition, German troops received reinforcements - the formations of the 96 th infantry and 5 th mountain rifle divisions. The Germans even made fierce counterattacks, using the 502 heavy tank battalion, armed with the Tiger I heavy tanks. Despite the introduction of the second echelon of the 13 th infantry division, the 102 th and 142 th infantry brigades, the Soviet troops failed to turn the tide in this sector in their favor.

In the band of the 2 shock army, the offensive continued to develop more slowly than in the 67 army. The German troops, relying on the strong points - The workers' villages No. 7 and No. 8, Lipka, continued to put up stubborn resistance. 13 January, despite the introduction into the battle of the forces of the second echelon, the troops of the 2 th shock army did not achieve any serious success in any direction. In the following days, the army command attempted to widen the breakthrough in the southern sector from the Kruglaya grove to Gaitolovo, but without visible results. The 256-Infantry Division was the most successful in this area, in January 14 it occupied Working Village No. 7, Podgornaya Station and reached the approaches to Sinyavino. On the right wing, the 128 I ski brigade was sent to the aid of the 12 Division, it had to go to the rear of the Lipka stronghold on the ice of Lake Ladoga.

On January 15, in the center of the offensive line, the 372 Rifle Division was finally able to take on the workers' villages No. 8 and No. 4, and the 17-2 went to the village No. 1. To this day, the 18-I Rifle Division and the 98-I tank tank brigade 2 UA have been fighting hard for several days on the approaches to Working Village No. 5. He was attacked from the west by units of the 67 Army. The moment of connection of the two armies was close.

Breakthrough blockade. Fights 18 - January 20

By January 18, the troops of the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts fought a fierce battle in the vicinity of Working Village No. 5, and they were only a few kilometers apart. The German command, realizing that it was no longer necessary to keep the surrounded strongholds, gave the order to the garrisons of Shlisselburg and Lipki to break through to Sinyavino. In order to facilitate the breakthrough, the forces that defended the Workers ’Settlements No. 1 and No. 5 (the Hüner Group) had to hold on as long as possible. In addition, a counterattack was organized from the area of ​​Working Village No. 5 for the 136 th Infantry Division and the 61 th separate tank brigade to overturn it and facilitate the breakthrough of the encircled troops. However, the blow was reflected, it was destroyed before 600 of the Germans, they captured up to 500 people. The Soviet soldiers, pursuing the enemy, broke into the village, where at about noon 12 hours of the day the troops of the 2 shock and the 67 army joined. The troops of the two armies met in the area of ​​the Worker settlement No. 1 - these were the 123-I separate rifle brigade of the Leningrad Front led by the deputy commander for political affairs Major Melkonian and the 372-I rifle division of the Volkhov Front led by the head of the 1 branch of the division headquarters Major Melnikov. On the same day Shlisselburg was completely cleared from the Germans, and by the end of the day the southern coast of Lake Ladoga was freed from the enemy, and its isolated groups were destroyed or captured. Lipki was also released.

“I saw,” recalled G.K. Zhukov, - with what joy the fighters of the fronts who broke through the blockade rushed towards each other. Not paying attention to the artillery shelling of the enemy from the Sinyavinsky heights, the soldiers fraternally hugged each other tightly. It was truly a joy to suffer! ”Thus, on January 18 on January 1943, the blockade of Leningrad was broken.

V. Serov, I. Silver, A. Kazantsev. Breakthrough blockade of Leningrad. 1943

However, it was impossible to say that the situation has fully stabilized. The general front of the 67 and 2 of the shock armies was not sufficiently dense, so part of the surrounded German troops (about 8 thousand people), leaving heavy weapons and dispersed, broke through the workers' settlement No. 5 in the southern direction and by January 20 to Sinyavino. The German command diverted the retreating troops to the previously prepared positions along the Gorodok line number 1 and number 2 - Workers settlement No. 6 - Sinyavino - the western part of the Round Grove. There, in advance, the SS Police Division, the 1 Infantry Division and the 5 Mountain Division infantry units were deployed. Later, the command of the 18 of the German army strengthened this line with units of the 28 th chasseurs, 11 th, 21 th and 212 th infantry divisions. The command of the 67 Army and the 2 Shock Army did not exclude the possibility of the enemy conducting a counter-offensive in order to restore the lost positions. Therefore, the troops of the two armies stopped offensive operations and began to consolidate on the achieved lines.

On January 18, as soon as Moscow received news of the blockade breaking, the State Defense Committee decided to accelerate the construction of a railway line on the liberated strip of land, which was supposed to connect Leningrad with the Volkhovsky railway junction. The railway from Polyana station to Shlisselburg should have been built in 18 days. At the same time, a temporary railway bridge was built across the Neva. The railway line was called the Victory Road. Already in the morning of February 7, Leningrad residents greeted the first train echelon with great joy, which came from the mainland and delivered 800 t. Butter. In addition, car traffic began to function along the southern shore of Lake Ladoga. The Road of Life continued to operate. Two weeks later, in Leningrad, food supply standards set for the largest industrial centers of the country began to operate: workers began to receive 700 — 600 grams of bread per day, employees — by 500, children and dependents — 400 grams. Increased rates of supply of other types of food.

True, the Victory Road operated in the most difficult conditions. German artillery shot through the narrow corridor cleared by Soviet troops, as the path passed 4 — 5 km from the front line. Compositions had to be led under bombardment and artillery fire. It happened that the splinters struck both the machinists, the stokers, and the conductors. Repair of the tracks was often done by improvised means. With the onset of summer, the trains, contrary to all existing rules, moved along the hub in the water. As a result of shelling and bombing, the railway communication was often broken. The main cargo flows still went along the Road of Life through Ladoga. In addition, there was a threat that the Germans would be able to restore the situation.

Thus, the largest political, economic, and cultural center of the USSR, after a very tough 16 month-long struggle, regained its land connection with the country. The supply of the city with food and essential goods was significantly improved, and industrial enterprises began to receive more raw materials and fuel. As early as February 1943, the generation of electricity increased dramatically in Leningrad, and the production of weapons increased markedly. The restoration of communications allowed us to continuously strengthen the troops of the Leningrad Front and the Baltic Fleet with reinforcements, armaments and ammunition. This improved the strategic position of the Soviet forces operating in the north-western direction.

Meeting of the fighters of the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts at the workers' settlement №1 during the operation to break the blockade of Leningrad

Meeting of the fighters of the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts near the workers' settlement №5 during the operation to break the blockade of Leningrad

The continuation of the offensive. 20 - January 30

After the troops of 67 and 2 of the shock army formed a common front and entrenched on the new frontiers, it was decided to continue the operation and reach the Mustolovo-Mikhailovsky line (along the Moika river), and then seize the Kirov railway. On January 20, Zhukov reported to Stalin the plan of the Mga operation, prepared jointly with Voroshilov, Meretskov and Govorov.

However, the German command had already managed to prepare well for a possible Soviet offensive. A previously prepared defensive line was defended by 9 divisions, significantly supported by artillery and aircraft. The enemy redeployed 11 and 21 infantry divisions under Sinyavino, exposing the rest of the front to the limit: from Novgorod to Pogostya, near Leningrad and Oranienbaum, Lindemann left 14 infantry divisions. But the risk paid off. In addition, the advancing Soviet armies were deprived of maneuver, and they had to attack the enemy’s positions head-on. The formations of the Soviet armies were already heavily exhausted and drained of blood by the previous brutal battles for the Schlüsselburg-Sinyavino ledge. It was difficult to count on success in such conditions.

January 20 after the artillery preparation of the army went on the offensive. The 67 Army, 46, 138 Rifle Divisions and 152 Tank Brigade, struck south-east of 1 and 2 Townships. The army was to capture Mustolovo and bypass Sinyavino from the west. The 142 Brigade of the Marine Corps, the 123 Brigade, attacked Sinyavino. The 123 Rifle Division, the 102 Rifle Division, and the 220 Tank Brigade had the task of breaking the enemy’s resistance in the 1 and 2 Township areas and reaching Arbuzovo. But the Soviet troops met with strong resistance and could not solve the tasks. Successes were insignificant. The Commander-in-Chief Govorov decided to continue the attacks and isolated from the reserve of the front 4 rifle divisions, 2 rifle divisions and 1 tank brigades. On January 25, the troops went on the offensive again, but, despite the reinforcements entering the battle, they failed to break through the German defenses. The stubborn fighting continued until the end of January, but the 67-I army could not break the German order.

Events in the area of ​​the 2 shock army developed in a similar way. The troops were forced to attack in the marshland, which deprived them of proper support for artillery and tanks. German troops, relying on strong positions, put up fierce resistance. 25 January 2-I Shock Army Pitch to seize Working Village No. 6. Until the end of the month, parts of the army fought hard for the Sinyavino heights, part of the Kruglaya grove and the Kvadratnaya grove in the area of ​​the Worker settlement No. 6. January 31 The 80-Infantry Division was even able to occupy Sinyavino, but the German troops drove it out with a strong counterattack. In other areas the army was not very successful.

By the end of the month, it became clear that the offensive had failed and the plan for the liberation of the Neva and the Kirov railway was not yet implemented. The plan needed a strong adjustment, the position of the Germans on the line: the 1 and 2 cities - Sinyavino - Gaitolovo, turned out to be too strong. In order to rule out possible attempts by the enemy to restore the blockade, the troops of the 67 and 2 attack armies of 30 in January went over to the defenses to the north and east of 2 Township, to the south of Working Village No. 6 and to the north of Sinyavino, to the west of Gonta Lipka and east of Guitolovo. The troops of the 67 Army continued to hold a small bridgehead on the left bank of the Neva near Moscow Dubrovka. The Soviet command is beginning to prepare a new operation, which will be held in February 1943.

Report of the Soviet Information Bureau on Breaking the Siege of Leningrad

Results of the operation

The Soviet troops created a “corridor” along the shore of Lake Ladoga 8 – 11 km wide, broke through a long enemy blockade that stifled Leningrad. There was an event that all Soviet people had been waiting for so long. There was a land connection between the second capital of the USSR and the Great Land. The military-strategic plans of the German military-political leadership regarding Leningrad were thwarted - the city was supposed to be “cleaned up” from the inhabitants by a long blockade, famine. The possibility of a direct connection of the German and Finnish troops east of Leningrad was disrupted. The Leningrad and Volkhov fronts received direct communication, which increased their combat capabilities and significantly improved the strategic position of the Red Army in the north-west direction. Thus, the operation "Iskra" became a turning point in the battle for Leningrad, from that moment the strategic initiative was completely transferred to the Soviet troops. The threat of storming the city on the Neva was excluded.

It should be noted that the breakthrough of the blockade of Leningrad was a serious blow to the prestige of the Third Reich in the world. It’s not for nothing that the military observer of the British agency Reuters noted that “the breakthrough of the German fortified line south of Lake Ladoga is the same blow to A. Hitler’s prestige as the crushing defeat of the German troops at Stalingrad”.

American President F. Roosevelt, on behalf of his people, sent a special diploma to Leningrad "... in memory of his valiant warriors and his faithful men, women and children, who, being isolated by the invader from the rest of his people and despite the constant bombardment and unspeakable suffering from of cold, hunger and disease, successfully defended their beloved city during the critical period from September 8 1941 to January 18 on 1943, and symbolized the fearless spirit of the peoples of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ublik and all the peoples of the world who are resisting the forces of aggression. "

The Soviet soldiers in this battle showed increased military skill, defeating the troops of the German 18. For courage and heroism shown in battles with the Nazis, 25 soldiers were awarded the high title of Hero of the Soviet Union, about 22 thousand soldiers and commanders were awarded orders and medals. Supreme Commander I.V. Stalin in the order from 25 January 1943 for successful fighting to break the blockade of Leningrad announced his gratitude to the troops of the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts, congratulated them on the victory won over the enemy. For courage and heroism of the personnel 136-I (commander Major General N. P. Simonyak) and 327-I (commander Colonel N. A. Polyakov) rifle divisions were transformed into 63 and 64 guards rifle divisions, respectively. The 61-I tank brigade (commander Col. V. V. Khrustitsky) was transformed into the 30-th Guards Tank Brigade, and the 122-nd Tank Brigade was awarded the Order of the Red Banner.

The fact of the difficult conditions under which the operation took place and the losses of the German defense on this sector of the front speak well of. Soviet troops lost 12-30 in January (Operation Iskra) to 115 082 people (33 940 lost them). The losses of the Leningrad Front are 41264 people (12320 are dead), and the Volkhovsky are 73818 people (21620 is irrevocable). During the same period, the 41 tank (according to other sources, more than 200), 417 guns and mortars and the 41 aircraft were lost. The Germans have reported on the destruction of 847 tanks and 693 aircraft (for the period of January 12 - April 4). Soviet sources report that over the period 12 - 30 of January, the Germans lost more than 20 thousand people killed, wounded and captured. Soviet troops 7 enemy divisions.

At the same time, the Soviet troops could not complete the operation victoriously. Army Group North was still a serious adversary, and the German command responded promptly to the loss of the Schlisselburg-Sinyavino overhang. The Soviet strike groups were weakened by fierce battles for a heavily fortified area and could not break into the new German defensive line. The defeat of the German-Sinyavin German group had to be postponed until February 1943. Leningrad, after breaking the blockade, another year was under siege. The only way to completely free the city on the Neva from the German blockade was in January 1944 during the operation “January Thunder”.

Monument "Broken Ring" of the Green Belt of Fame defenders of Leningrad. The authors of the memorial: the author of the monument to sculptor K.M. Simun, architect V.G. Filippov, design engineer I.A. Rybin Opened 29 October 1966
Articles from this series:
1943 year

How the army of Paulus died. Operation "Ring"
Operation "Spark". To the 75 anniversary of the breakthrough of the blockade of Leningrad
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 18 January 2018 07: 24
    My cousin uncle, participated in this operation on December 28, 2017, he turned 90 ...
  2. BAI
    BAI 18 January 2018 09: 22
    500 employees

    The same amount of bread was received by German prisoners in Soviet camps at the same time.
  3. Lexus
    Lexus 18 January 2018 11: 14
    There were PEOPLE at that time. Taking off my hat hi
  4. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 18 January 2018 13: 35
    Rarely, friends, we have to meet,
    But when it happened,
    Recall what happened, and drink, as usual,
    How it happened in Russia!

    Let the Leningrad family be with us
    Sitting next to the table.
    Recall how Russian soldier power
    I drove the German for Tikhvin!

    Let's drink to those who spend weeks long
    In the frozen dugouts lay
    Fought in Ladoga, fought in Volkhov,
    Not a step back.

    Let's drink to those who commanded the companies
    Who was dying in the snow,
    Who made their way to Leningrad swamps
    Throat breaking the enemy.

    They will be forever glorified in tradition
    Under the machine-gun blizzard
    Our bayonets at the heights of Sinyavin,
    Our shelves under Mgoy.

    We get up and clink glasses, standing, we,
    Brotherhood of friends fighting
    Let's drink for the courage of the fallen heroes
    Let's drink to a meeting of the living!
    © Volkhovskaya table
  5. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 18 January 2018 14: 30
    Another copywriting of long-known materials.
    1. Dazdranagon
      Dazdranagon 19 January 2018 05: 52
      Quote: DimerVladimer
      Another copywriting of long-known materials.
      - It's okay, who are not interested - move on, and someone read and discovered something new.
      1. Serg koma
        Serg koma 19 January 2018 23: 13
        Quote: Dazdranagon
        Quote: DimerVladimer
        Another copywriting of long-known materials.
        - It's okay, who are not interested - move on, and someone read and discovered something new.
        And someone again re-read!
      2. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer 22 January 2018 11: 34
        Quote: Dazdranagon
        - It's okay, who are not interested - move on, and someone read and discovered something new.

        What did you discover - common phrases? go yourself.

        The author cited an encyclopedia of 40 years ago.
        What is hidden behind the general phrase:
        Soviet soldiers in this battle showed increased military skill, defeating the troops of the 18th German army.

        Operation Spark - the fiercest meat grinder - an uncontested frontal attack on a prepared defense in defense - ready to attack in this place.
        Losses for more than two weeks of fighting are enormous. And it's so easy to write about it - it's just a disregard for the memory of the fallen soldiers!

        If we compare the losses for half a month of the initial stage battles, the total losses of the Soviet troops during Operation Iskra (January 12–30, 1943) amounted to 115 (082 - irretrievably), while:
        Think it over! On the day of 6400 fighters killed, maimed, wounded ...
        The result of frontal attacks.

        According to German data (summary reports of the army headquarters on losses) for January 1943, the 18th Army lost 22619 people. For the first half of the month, the total losses of the army (taking into account losses of divisions that did not take part directly in the battle) amounted to 6406 people (of which 1543 were killed and missing), and from January 16 to January 31, 16213 people (of which 4569 - irrevocably).

        Just imagine - almost 115082 people of the first stage of the fighting - in 18 days, for an isthmus 36 km long and 8-11 km wide.

        Loss ratio 115082/16213 = 7/1 in the initial stage.
        1. DimerVladimer
          DimerVladimer 22 January 2018 11: 35
          ... the interpretation of events has changed somewhat in the official publications of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. So, in the third volume of the encyclopedia “The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945” of the 2012 edition, the time frame for Operation Iskra was expanded. The whole operation is conditionally divided into three phases: the first - until January 20, the second - until January 30, the third - until the end of February. The operation "Spark" as before includes only military operations of the 2nd shock, 8th and 67th armies, but now in January and February 1943. Moreover, operations to encircle the enemy's Minsko-Sinyavinsky group in February and March-April are considered separate operations (the first is designated as Tosnensko-Mginskaya, the second is not named at all), which were an integral part of the Polar Star strategic plan

          Even more bloody, was the second and to no avail - the third stage of the fighting.
          During the continuation of Operation Iskra in February, the 67th Army and the 2nd Shock Army cut off a small ledge in the front in the area. In total, units of the 67th Army managed to advance 5 kilometers.
          In late January, the 2nd shock army launched an offensive with the goal of capturing the Sinyavinsky Heights.
          Heights changed hands several times, but in the end, units of the 21st German Infantry Division and the 540th Penal Battalion, supported by several Tiger tanks, managed to hold them in their hands.
          On February 12-13, attacks of units of the 2nd shock army on the Sinyavino heights resumed and continued until the end of February, but again did not achieve success
          On March 6, units of the German 212nd Infantry Division, with the support of the 502nd Heavy Tank Battalion, conducted a local offensive operation and eliminated the wedge penetration between Sinyavino and Workers' Village No. 7. As a result, the units of the 128th, 18th, and 11th Soviet rifle divisions were surrounded and suffered heavy losses ...

          In directive No. 30057 dated February 27, the Supreme Command stated "the operations of the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts did not give the expected results," and the inept actions of the 67th Army and the 2nd Shock Army led to "aimless big casualties in manpower and equipment"

          There is no official data on the losses of the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts in the operations of February-April, the losses of Soviet troops during this period can only be estimated approximately.

          According to the historian G. A. Shigin, the total losses of the Soviet troops during this period amounted to more than 150 people (the losses of the 000th and 67nd shock armies in February - 2 - 55, the losses of the 000th and 57th armies in February - 000 - 55, losses of the 54th and 38th armies in March - early April 000 - 40).
          Losses of the 18th Wehrmacht Army in February 1943 - 29448 people (of which 9632 - irretrievable losses)
  6. Romka47
    Romka47 18 January 2018 15: 29
    The kingdom of heaven, to the fallen liberators, and to the dead inhabitants of the great city!
    1. KVU-NSVD
      KVU-NSVD 18 January 2018 16: 07
      And how many dead have not yet been honored
  7. AnpeL
    AnpeL 18 January 2018 16: 13
    in light of all the last actions of the Ministry of Culture, I hope a new monument to some dead finals does not appear in the region or to expect from these cultural
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 18 January 2018 18: 06
      Can. I argued like that with one type. So he explained to me that what for such defenders of Leningrad were not needed, since in the city itself the people were dying from hunger every day by the thousands, and the army was gaining weight in the trenches of the type. And there are more and more such nerds. Nothing, they say it was to keep the city. The Germans would at least feed the inhabitants.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 18 January 2018 18: 34
        Quote: Mordvin 3
        And there are more and more such nerds. Nothing, they say it was to keep the city. The Germans would at least feed the inhabitants.

        Nose of these must be poked into documents.
        Directive of the chief of staff of the naval forces of Germany on the destruction of Leningrad
        22 September 1941 of
        The future of the city of St. Petersburg
        1. In order to have clarity about the activities of the navy in the event of the capture or surrender of St. Petersburg, the chief of staff of the naval forces raised a question before the Supreme High Command of the armed forces about further military measures against this city.
        The results are hereby notified.
        2. The Fuhrer decided to erase the city of Petersburg from the face of the earth. After the defeat of Soviet Russia, the continued existence of this largest settlement is of no interest. Finland likewise declared its disinterest in the existence of this city directly at its new borders.
        3. The previous requirements of the Navy for the preservation of shipbuilding, port and other structures important for the Navy are known to the Supreme High Command of the Armed Forces, but their satisfaction is not possible due to the general line adopted in relation to St. Petersburg.
        4. It is supposed to surround the city with a tight ring and, by shelling with artillery of all calibers and continuous bombing from the air, to level it.
        If, as a result of the situation created in the city, requests for surrender are made, they will be rejected, since the problems associated with the stay of the population in the city and its food supply cannot and should not be solved by us. In this war, waged for the right to exist, we are not interested in preserving at least part of the population.

        5. The main command of the naval forces will soon develop and issue a directive on changes related to the upcoming destruction of St. Petersburg in organizational or ongoing organizational and personnel events.
        If the command of the army group has any suggestions in this regard, they should be sent to the headquarters of the naval forces as soon as possible.
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 18 January 2018 18: 46
          They do not believe the documents. And they don’t believe in Babi Yar. I won’t know how to reach them. request
          1. AnpeL
            AnpeL 18 January 2018 19: 45
            Mordvin, you are most likely talking about youth, but I paid attention to people from the ministry who are not very young, but behave like teenage hipsters from the gateway
            1. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 18 January 2018 19: 51
              I do not see the difference between a young fool and an old one. And on the Internet all the more you will not understand.
          2. sd68
            sd68 18 January 2018 22: 08
            This is not a document. on the document signature and stamp must be
        2. sd68
          sd68 18 January 2018 22: 07
          Nose of these must be poked into documents.
          Directive of the Chief of Staff of the German Navy

          Kriegsmarine did not have a headquarters .... There was another management structure.
          and the ground forces of the Wehrmacht, in any case, did not obey the Kriegsmarine and could not receive orders about the encirclement of the city from them.
          4. It is supposed to surround the city with a tight ring and, by shelling with artillery of all calibers and continuous bombing from the air, to level it.

          This is a particularly strong move. The imagination is drawn by German beater and flak 38, wiping the city off the face of the earth. and what, all calibers are the same ....
          Can you bring a scan of this document with the signature of the non-existent mysterious chief of staff of the German Navy? terribly curious to see ....
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 19 January 2018 10: 51
            Quote: sd68
            and the ground forces of the Wehrmacht, in any case, did not obey the Kriegsmarine and could not receive orders about the encirclement of the city from them.

            And where does the Directive say that Kriegsmarine commands the army? In the document, information received "from above" is communicated to subordinates: our requirements above are received and rejected; at the Leningrad shipyard you can not lick your lips - according to the already adopted decision, the city will be surrounded and destroyed.
            Relations with CSKA - only notification (see the last paragraph):
            If the command of the army group has any suggestions in this regard, they should be sent to the headquarters of the naval forces as soon as possible.

            Regarding the wording, during interrogation during the Nuremberg trials, Admiral Raeder explained that since the document was informational, it retained the very wording in which the Fuhrer described the planned fate of Leningrad:
            Shortly before the date you mentioned, Admiral Fricke was at the headquarters of the Führer — I don’t know for what reason — and there he spoke with the Führer in my absence. The Führer explained to him that they were planning to shell Leningrad, especially from airplanes, and he used these very exaggerated words, which were then written in the document. The Navy had absolutely nothing to do with the shelling of Leningrad. We did not receive orders for this. We were interested in only one thing that shipyards and port facilities should be preserved.
            The Führer informed Fricke that, unfortunately, he was not able to do this, because hits, especially if from an airplane, could not be directed so accurately. All we could do was inform General Admiral Karls that Leningrad, in the event of a capture, could not be used as a base and General Admiral Karls would have to stop preparations that he had already begun: the allocation of German workers and, probably, equipment that was intended for use in Leningrad later. Karls should have known about this, and the so-called Navy Command of Command should have known about this, and that is why Admiral Fricke wrote this paper. Unfortunately, he included in this document the expressions used by Hitler, which are in no way related to the case, since we were worried because nothing was being done with the shelling. Thus, he does not assume responsibility in any case, in the sense that he approved it. He only believed that he should have included Hitler’s wording in the document. The navy had nothing to do with this issue. It would not have been necessary to publish it, and, unfortunately, and very awkwardly, the expression used by Hitler was introduced into this document.
            1. sd68
              sd68 19 January 2018 11: 42
              the text, which is used as evidence of the crimes of the Nazis, is openly stupid, and is attributed to an official that did not exist in nature.
              What does it mean, either a document is a fake or a false translation.
              as an option, the document existed, but was not communicated to the troops, or did not sign at all, everyone would make fun of the author - and the translation itself does not correspond to the original, in any case, there was no headquarters in Krigmarin.
              and this text contradicts other, obviously reliable orders of the Germans regarding Leningrad, undoubtedly criminal, but different in meaning.
              Nevertheless, they manage to bring him along with others that contradict him in content, which only discredits evidence of Nazi crimes.
      2. bubalik
        bubalik 18 January 2018 23: 18
        The Germans would at least feed the inhabitants.

        ,, would feed lead ,, A memo on the trip of the first officer of the General Staff (Ia) to the location of the 18 army
        2) In all the units visited, the question was asked how to behave if the city of Leningrad offers its change and how to behave in relation to the flow of the hungry population that rushes out of the city. It seemed that the troops were very concerned about this issue. The commander of the 58 infantry division emphasized that he had given his division the order that he had received from above and which was consistent with the existing instructions that such breakthrough attempts should open fire to strangle them in the bud. From his point of view, the division will fulfill this order. But whether she succeeds not to lose her temper when, with repeated breakthroughs, she has to shoot women, children and defenseless old people, he doubts. It should be noted his remark that the general situation on the front sector, which is precisely on its flank in Uritsk, is becoming more acute, he fears less than the situation with the civilian population. Such is the mood not only of him, but also of his subordinates. The troops are fully aware that we cannot provide food to the millions of people surrounded in Leningrad without this worsening the food situation in our own country. For this reason, a German soldier must prevent such breakthroughs, including with the use of weapons. Well, this can easily lead to the fact that the German soldier ceases to control himself, i.e. and after the war, such acts of violence will not be intimidated.
        The command and the troops are trying in every way to find a different solution to the issue, but no suitable option has yet been found.
        1. sd68
          sd68 18 January 2018 23: 59
          That's right, the Germans had such an order 123.
          It stipulated that Leningraders should not be allowed into the territory already occupied by the Wehrmacht, the hungry residents of Leningrad should have been squeezed out as much as possible into the territory controlled by the Soviet troops in order to create panic and chaos in the rear of the Soviet troops.
          PS And how do you imagine the passage of crowds of Leningrad through the positions of Soviet troops towards the territory occupied by the Germans?
          1. bubalik
            bubalik 19 January 2018 00: 16
            ,,, was there such a thought at that time in the minds of Leningraders?

            The civilians still living there are evacuated from the battle areas both on the ring around Leningrad and on the coast south of Kronstadt. This is necessary, since the population there cannot be provided with food. The conclusion is that the civilian population groups move to the rear area and there is distributed among the villages. Despite this, a large part of the civilian population independently went south to find new homes and livelihoods. Along the highway from Krasnogvardeisk to Pskov, a stream of thousands of refugees is moving, mainly women, children and the elderly. Where they move, what they eat, it is impossible to establish. It seems that these people must die of hunger sooner or later. And this picture makes a depressing impression on [/ [i] i] German soldiers conducting construction work on this road.
  8. sd68
    sd68 18 January 2018 22: 32
    but what was said in reality in Leningrad.
    Small unguarded passages that make it possible for the population to go out one by one to evacuate to the internal regions of Russia should be welcomed. The population must be forced to flee the city with artillery shelling and aerial bombardment. The larger the urban population fleeing deep into Russia, the more chaos the enemy will have and the easier it will be for us to manage and use the occupied regions. All senior officers must be aware of this desire of the Fuhrer.

    The order, of course, is criminal, just like the Nazis have a lot, but the difference with the "chief of staff of the Navy" is obvious.
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 18 January 2018 22: 36
      And where is the signature with the seal? And where were the passages?
      1. sd68
        sd68 18 January 2018 23: 30
        excerpt from the famous order given at the Nuremberg Tribunal regarding the fact that Hitler forbade the reception of refugees from Leningrad at the positions of the German troops, the Nazis are there, I won’t search for a scan, do not want to, don’t believe it.
        The order is obviously criminal, but logically clear.
        In contrast to the above, which has been repeatedly disseminated in the media for a long time already.
        Only the non-existent in nature “chief of staff of the Navy” will not appear from this with a completely stupid and obviously impracticable “directive”, which does not even indicate to whom it is addressed, absurd in content.
  9. bubalik
    bubalik 18 January 2018 23: 08
    OKH General Staff - Operations Division
    40996 / 41 No. Secret
    Newsletter: 20 copies
    Instance Number: 4
    28 August 1941 year
    Ref: blocking the city of Leningrad
    Army Group North
    Based on the directive of the High Command, it is ordered:
    1. The city of Leningrad should be taken in as close as possible to the city ring of the blockade, which will save energy. The surrender of the city is not required.
    2. In order to achieve the earliest possible destruction of the city as the last center of red resistance in the Baltic without much blood from our side, an infantry assault is ruled out. On the contrary, after the destruction of air defense and enemy fighters, the city should be deprived of value for life and defense by destroying water stations, warehouses, sources of electricity and light. Any disobedience of the civilian population to the troops blocking the city should - if necessary - be prevented by force of arms.
    3. Through the communications headquarters “Sever” *, the Finnish High Command will further demand that the Finnish forces on the Karelian Isthmus take over the blockade of the city from the north and northeast together with German troops crossing the Neva to this area, and that the blockade from the aforementioned point The view was successful.
    The direct contact of the Headquarters of the Army Group “North” and the Headquarters of the Communications “North” to coordinate the interaction of units of the OKH will issue an order in a timely manner.

    * North Headquarters (Verbindungsstab Nord). German auxiliary headquarters, created to organize the interaction of Finnish and German troops. It was located in Mikkeli, where the Headquarters of the High Command of the Finnish Army was also located.
    1. sd68
      sd68 19 January 2018 00: 02
      The order is cruel, criminal, but logically clear.
      and note, not a word about the senseless complete destruction of the city and its inhabitants with a frantic huge expenditure of ammunition, so necessary for military operations on the front, all the more so "all calibers".
      and note that the order is strictly subordinate - the High Command of the OKH (Oberkommando des Heeres - the High Command of the Wehrmacht's land forces) orders its subordinates to indecently sounding in Russian (which is rarely used literally by name) ground troops. And not the order of the sailors to the ground forces, which would simply be sent in German ...
  10. Veteran
    Veteran 19 January 2018 00: 27
    Losses of the Leningrad Front - 41264 people (12320 - dead)

    The author has one error here, which is quite common. 12320 people here - all the irretrievable losses of the front, and not just the dead, these are two different things. Irrevocable losses include dead, wounded, who died within 24 hours in field hospitals (not evacuated to hospitals), prisoners, missing.