Military Review

Table Tanks

14



The museum of the company “CTZ-Uraltrak” celebrated the centenary of the chief designer of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant, the winner of the Lenin Prize, the developer of the world's first fundamentally new combat vehicle of the infantry, Pavel Pavlovich Isakov.

It is not without reason that the Southern Urals is considered the place where the country's nuclear shield was forged. But even earlier, armored powers were created here, for which Chelyabinsk received a second name - Tankograd.

Stories Many books are devoted to the city, but the “Tankograd in Faces” itself has not been sufficiently studied. Even in Chelyabinsk, few people now call at least five names of people who worked at that time at CTZ. Is that the director Salzman remember. Among the almost forgotten and designer by the grace of God is Pavel Isakov.

In January, his name was returned to the public history of tank construction and CTZ in the factory museum. Veterans of the enterprise, who worked with Pavel Isakov in different years, gathered there. And the reason for this was the centenary of the designer.

Thirty-three years, he gave the CTZ, where he came to work twice: in the war - a young engineer, then at the beginning of 50's. Under the leadership of Isakov, SKB-2 ChTZ created dozens of armored vehicles: heavy KV, DV-1, ruler from EC-1 to EC-6, T-10, BMP and several of its modifications. All machines are serial, many are still in service with the Russian army.

From the beginning of World War II, a young Leningrad engineer took part in the creation of HF and self-propelled guns. At 23, he found a solution how to place in tank KV-1S ammunition from 114 rounds of caliber 85 mm instead of 90 standard. This gave the tankers the opportunity to fire longer on the enemy.

In all modifications of heavy tanks and self-propelled guns, which were created and produced at ChTZ during the war years, was the contribution of a young engineer.

In 1946, the tank design bureau of Joseph Kotin returned to Leningrad. At the same time, Pavel Isakov also returned to his native city as deputy chief designer of the Kirov factory.

But in 1953, he again comes to Chelyabinsk as the chief designer of SKB. For two decades, under the leadership of Isakov, about ten samples of armored vehicles that have no world analogues were created and transferred into mass production. Including PT-76 (amphibious tank) and BMP-1.

At the meeting at the CTZ Museum, veterans of SKB-2 noted that if Isakov’s name says little even to most compatriots, then in reports from hot spots for several decades his offspring is regularly mentioned - BMP. In this sense, the Soviet infantry fighting vehicle and its creator are no less famous than the Kalashnikov assault rifle and Mikhail Timofeevich, who created it.

A veteran of the plant, deputy chief designer of GSKB-2 ChTZ Eric Yarovoy told how, together with Isakov, he participated in the development, testing and production of the world's first BMP: “In 1958, when I started my way at the plant, we were working on the heaviest tank in the world - weight 56 tons. This was the so-called 750 object. Engine power was a thousand horsepower. The tank was installed the largest rifled gun caliber 130 millimeters. No one else has installed them. But after the arrival of Khrushchev, the attitude towards the industry changed, the development of heavy tanks was transferred to Nizhny Tagil. We have a new theme: put the infantry on the wheels. It was necessary to create a tracked vehicle for maneuverability in all conditions — in snow, mud, slopes and marshes. The BMP must be floating, tracked, protected by armor and capable of carrying one compartment - the 11 man. The task was to create a vehicle for the transfer of troops with a cruising range of at least 500 – 600 kilometers.

At the same time, she had to protect herself: an 73-2В “Thunder” 2-mm gun was installed, firing cumulative projectiles that pierced tank armor. In the world of these machines have not yet created. The trials began in Chebarkul, continued in the Moscow region, Belarus, with their own power, the BMP-1 returned to Moscow to show Khrushchev. But by the time it was removed and the miracle of technology showed Leonid Brezhnev at the parade in Moscow in 1965 ... "

It is worth noting that the emergence of an infantry combat vehicle of a fundamentally new class has revolutionized the strategy and tactics of the Armed Forces of the USSR. Up to change of charters. After the demonstration of the Dnepr and Dvina maneuvers, the production of infantry fighting vehicles in addition to the USSR was established in Czechoslovakia and Poland, which were then members of the Warsaw Pact.

For the creation of an infantry fighting vehicle Pavel Isakov was awarded the Order of Lenin. His many years of work on the creation of the country's armor shield was crowned with the Lenin Prize, the title of Hero of Socialist Labor. Under his leadership, published a ten-volume "Theory of Tanks", which still serves as a reference book for students of specialized universities and students of military academies. Pavel Pavlovich died in 1999, he was buried in St. Petersburg - he lived in his native city from the middle of 70's.
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  1. eugraphus
    eugraphus 21 January 2018 07: 06
    +4
    To perpetuate the memory of the first director of the plant, honored designers and any heroic workers of the labor front, there is a good tradition - to call streets, avenues and squares by their names.
  2. Curious
    Curious 21 January 2018 07: 09
    16
    With all the desire, I can not thank the author. About such people you can’t write something like that. Firstly, P.P. Isakov does not need other people's merits, he has a lot of his own, therefore, it is not worth attributing to him the leadership of the development of the PT - 76 tank. Yes, he took part with many in its development. But the chief designer of the PT-76 was L.S. Troyanov.
    But the author did not say a word about such unique machines created under Isakov’s leadership as Klin-1 and Klin-2 - a robotic complex designed and manufactured specifically to deal with the consequences of the Chernobyl accident.
    The complex was created in 1986 in just 44 days, when at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant there was an urgent need to create automated equipment to deal with the consequences of the accident and perform ground tasks.
    The machine "Object 032", created on the basis of the IMR-2 engineering barrage machine, was used as a worker.

    To control a crewless machine, the Object 033 control machine was manufactured. The main tank T-72A was taken as a base. In a special department housed the crew of the machine, consisting of a driver and operator, as well as all the necessary equipment for monitoring and controlling the machine. The car body was completely sealed and finished with lead sheets to enhance radiation protection.
    1. Serg koma
      Serg koma 21 January 2018 09: 23
      +3
      Quote: Curious
      With all the desire, I can not thank the author
      drinks
      Reprinting an article - at least READ !!! Doesn't it hurt the ear -
      dozens of armored vehicles: heavy KV, DV-1s,

      Or are you familiar with the super-unknown DV-1s ??? Or didn’t bother to EVEN superficially look into the material posted on the VO!
      1. Serg koma
        Serg koma 21 January 2018 09: 32
        +6
        Heroes need to know in person

        Pavel Pavlovich Isakov (January 11, 1918, Petrograd - February 22, 1999, St. Petersburg)
        With the advent of P.P. Isakov at Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant under his leadership begins a turbulent creative phase of creating and developing fundamentally new objects of armored and artillery equipment in world practice. Among them: a new type of weapon - BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicle. This machine has become a new word in domestic tank building, far ahead of the development of leading foreign countries. On its base, mobile reconnaissance points PRP-3, PRP-4, command and control vehicles BMP-1K (command) and BMP-1KS (command and staff) were also first created and adopted for service. In GSKB-2 prototypes of fundamentally new products were created: a low-silhouette rocket-cannon tank with a gas turbine engine GTD-700 (product 775T), an infantry fighting vehicle with a gas turbine engine GTD-400 (product 764), and the development of prototype combat models began tank support vehicles (item 776). At the same time, the GSKB-2 team is working on the creation of peaceful technology for various sectors of the national economy. Using a number of tank units and systems, the DET-250, the most powerful and reliable diesel-electric tractor in our country, was created, which received three gold medals at exhibitions in Russia and abroad in 1960, 1965, 1966. In January 1961, it was launched into mass production. At the factory, the S-100 tractor was mass-produced. In October 1963, its modernized version came off the main conveyor - the T-100M tractor with a capacity of 108 horsepower. In 1968, he was awarded a gold medal at an international exhibition. To increase labor productivity, increase the reliability and durability of tractors when working in various climatic conditions (swamps, sands, permafrost, etc.), modifications of the base model were developed and introduced into serial production. So in 1964, the plant produced 22 variants of the T-100M tractor. In the late 1960s, under the conditions of the current production of industrial T-100M tractors, a radical reconstruction and technical re-equipment was launched to begin production of T-130 tractors. The GSKB-2 team led by P.P. Isakov made a significant contribution to the development of progress in domestic engineering, he was always distinguished by the innovation and courage of technical thought. By a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of April 5, 1971, for special merits in fulfilling the tasks of the five-year plan for the development of tractor and agricultural engineering and achieving high production indicators, Pavel Pavlovich Isakov was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor with the award of the Order of Lenin and the Gold Medal "Hammer and Sickle." In June 1974 he was appointed Director of VNIItransmash (VNII-100, now OJSC VNIItransmash). Here he paid much attention to the development of the scientific and technical base of the institute, new areas of scientific research, and the use of computer technology. With his active participation, a computer center is being created, methods of full-scale mathematical modeling, automatic design, and automation of object tests are being introduced. To test promising systems and military tracked vehicles as a whole, P.P. Isakov, as an experienced designer and head of the institute, took part in the development of navigational models with a rigidly mounted gun, hydromechanical transmission, 7-way chassis, gas turbine engine, constant power diesel engine, underwater equipment driving, with a different crew landing, with stabilization of the hull, 8-wheel chassis, duplicated controls, with remote control, etc. Under the scientific supervision of P.P. Isakov, VNIItransmash, together with research institutes, design bureaus and factories of the industry, took an active part in the development and testing of new VGM: T-64A, T-72A, T-80 and BMP-2. Another area of ​​work was the creation of equipment for space research. In particular, instruments for determining the physical and mathematical properties of the surface of the planet Venus, installed at the stations “Venus-13” and “Venus-14” and “Vega”, an automatic moving vehicle with a “jumping” propulsion for studying the surface of Phobos, which was part of Phobos-2 station. In 1986, he led the development of the Klin-1 and Klin-2 robotic complexes, which have no analogues in world practice, which took part in the liquidation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. "Klin-1" is a heavy robotic complex based on the IMR-2 engineering demolition vehicle for operation on the territory of a nuclear power plant, consisting of a robot machine and a control machine. "Klin-2" is a light specialized transport robot STR-1 for operation on the roofs of nuclear power plants. He attached great importance to the training of scientific personnel. While in Chelyabinsk, he combined work at the plant with teaching, was a professor in the department of automatic installations of the aerospace faculty of the Chelyabinsk Polytechnic Institute. In Leningrad, with his direct participation, the dissertation for the doctoral council at VNIItransmash was organized and branches of departments of the Leningrad Polytechnic and Leningrad Mechanical Institutes were created. He is the author of more than 60 scientific papers and 39 inventions. Doctor of Technical Sciences (1971), Honored Worker of Science and Technology of the Russian Federation. He worked at VNIItransmash until his retirement in 1987. He lived in the city of St. Petersburg.
        http://www.liveinternet.ru/users/kakula/post34958
        1968 /? Aid_refresh = yes
      2. Curious
        Curious 21 January 2018 09: 57
        +2
        The author obviously meant KV-1s, although the letters "k" and "d" on the keyboard are quite far away.
        1. Serg koma
          Serg koma 21 January 2018 15: 19
          +2
          Quote: Curious
          The author obviously meant KV-1s,

          I typed DV-1s in the search .... All reprints (with an error) got out including and in laughing
          You must have the article before you reprint it, at least read it! I think that on this site, you need to work hard in search of a person who in the HF line will manage to make such a mistake.
          1. Svarog51
            Svarog51 23 January 2018 09: 49
            0
            Well, how is it?
            At 23, he found a solution on how to place ammunition from 1 caliber shells in the KV-114C tank 85 millimeters instead of 90 full-time.

            The KV-1C tank had a 76 mm gun, this KV-85 had a 85 mm gun.
            "Careful!"
            1. Serg koma
              Serg koma 23 January 2018 18: 28
              0
              Quote: Svarog51
              The KV-1C tank had a 76 mm gun, this KV-85 had a 85 mm gun.
              drinks
              Horses mixed in a bunch, people ... laughing
              And here is the complete "non-confusion" in caliber and pieces .... 114 shells of 85 mm, even on an experimental / transitional (if the author meant it) sample, were hardly "stuffed"))) Tank KV-1C 114 shells of caliber 76
              But is it not from here that “ears grow”?
              The main armament of the KV-1C tank is a 76,2 mm ZiS-5 cannon. The gun was mounted in the tower on the pins and was fully balanced. The tower itself and gun D-5T They were also balanced: the center of mass of the tower was located on the geometric axis of rotation. The vertical aiming angles of the ZiS-5 gun ranged from −5 to + 25 °. The shot was fired using manual mechanical descent ..
              KV-1C heavy tank https://topwar.ru/15501-tyazhelyy-tank-kv-1s.html
              1. Svarog51
                Svarog51 23 January 2018 19: 47
                0
                Well, in the KV-1 76mm shells in the amount of 114 pieces were stuffed, but the same amount in the KV-85 is unlikely. KV-1C differed little in internal volume from KV-1. Lousy the author knows the topic. negative
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 21 January 2018 08: 03
    +3
    I agree, with Curious, you can’t write something like ... Article is superficial.
  4. Tima62
    Tima62 21 January 2018 11: 25
    +4
    In 1958, when he began his career at the plant, work was underway on the world's heaviest tank - weighing 56 tons.
    And what? Tiger 1 and Tiger 2 are no longer tanks? They did not reach 56 tons, lightweights?
    1. beeper
      beeper 21 January 2018 14: 36
      +4
      About the "heaviest tank in the WORLD" also smiled!
      More than an article, I liked the much more informative comments of respected Serg Koma and Curious!
      hi
    2. BAI
      BAI 22 January 2018 10: 00
      +1
      And Maus was still a modest 190 tons. He stands in Kubinka.
  5. Albatroz
    Albatroz 23 January 2018 17: 15
    0
    ChTZ - power!
    We have one factory producing more tanks in WWII than all of Germany