A famous designer made a memorable review in his memoirs tanks Leonid Kartsev about his equally famous colleague - Joseph Kotin: “He was a talented organizer and an outstanding politician. Further, the names of the heavy tanks created by the Design Bureau had a political connotation: SMK (Sergey Mironovich Kirov), KV (Klim Voroshilov), IS (Joseph Stalin). This psychologically acted, first of all, on customers, and on other officials. ”
Indeed, it is impossible not to notice the politically "correct" names of some of the creatures of Kotin. But it must be admitted that the tanks created by him did not disgrace the names with which they were given. The QMS, however, did not become serial, although it was recommended for adoption by the Red Army. The era of multi-tank tanks is over ...
But the EC-2 is deservedly considered the most powerful and formidable tank of the Second World War. KV-1, with all the problems with its chassis, made it possible for trained crews in the defensive battles of 1941, to arrange for the Germans a "happy life" and badly spoil the triumph of the blitzkrieg. Suffice it to recall at least what the crew of the KV-1 under the command of Zinoviy Kolobanov (22: 0 in favor of the Soviet tank crews. The fantastic result, skill and luck, military-industrial complex, 11 January 2016 g.).
In 1942, the high-speed version of the KV-1 - KV-1 made it possible to win in the changed conditions of the tank war (KV-1 with the eyes of its commander: Successful duel with T-IV, military industrial complex, 5 January 2018).
A tank KV-2, it seems, just did not have time to "his" war - Finnish, which could become his triumph. Samples of the KV tank, both with the 76-mm and with the 152-mm gun, were tested on it, but in small quantities and at the very end of the war.
Tank KV was "unbreakable"
An employee of the Kirov factory Estratov A.I. participated in these tests. Together with the HF, prototypes of QMS and T-100 participated in them.
(cited from the book of Maxim Kolomiets - Winter War: "The tanks break wide sweeps").
This is how the KV battles with the Finns were remembered by their participant: “In the evening, the head of the armored command Comrade Pavlov came to us. “Now,” he says, “comrades,” I will acquaint you with the pillboxes of the Baboshino fortified area. T-28 can not pass - they are burning, we hope for you. Tomorrow morning we will let you into battle, you need to urgently test cars. ”
Upon arrival at the initial position, we were explained the task set before us: after the artillery preparation, we go with the 20 tank tank brigade to attack. Having passed a small part of the forest, a vast glade opened in front of us, tanks were burning on our left and right. Ahead of the going T-28 caught fire, it prevents us from moving forward. Turn off the road - we are afraid to run into mines. Ahead of the anti-tank ditch, planks, wire barriers. We tried to get close to the burning tank and push it off the road. The crew of the T-28 left the tank through the landing hatch and did not turn off the gearbox, we were unable to move the car. An order was received on the radio - turn off the road to the left and move along the anti-tank ditch. The enemy beats shells on the right side of our car, blow by blow, as if they were beating a strong sledgehammer on the board. True frost or trembling leg goes. Another blow by blow - we move. Our commander Kachikhin spoke, nervous. They beat us, the enemy is nowhere to be seen. We remembered the instruction Comrade. Pavlova. The commander of the tank Kachikhin gives the command to look at all the observation devices and look for disguised pillboxes. Suddenly, Bucket shouts: “There is a bump ahead. Look, a pipe came out of it and hid ”. Kachikhin's voice: “This is probably a pillbox. The sight of the pipe is fire! ” I noticed a hillock. On the hill formed poles. Smoke appears from them. The command of the commander followed - “fire on the poles!” I load the gun, me and the mechanic and the loader. We noticed enemy firing points in several places. A strong blow to the projectile on the front of the tank, the tank spattered sparks, another blow. Our gun shook, we stopped the tank. What happened is unknown. They started the engine, tried to move - everything is in order. I say to Kachikhin: “I would have had a bite to eat breakfast, dinner was long over. I am sure that we are not breaking through our tank. ” From the bite refused.
They received an order on the radio: “To our left, a downed T-28. Inspect it and, if possible, tow it to the rear. ” We approached the T-28 closely, despite the heavy shelling of the enemy. I got out of the car - being between the tanks, it was possible to inspect the T-28 and tow it in tow. Towed tank to the rear. Early in the morning Voroshilov PK arrived to us. and with him five commanders in "Romanov" fur coats. Among them was Pavlov D.G. After inspecting the KV machine, they found: a cannon was shot through, some rollers in the chassis were shot, some trucks were beaten, but not completely, the towing cable was broken, there were many hits in the left and right sides - the tank remained intact and unharmed. Now it was clear to us why our gun was trembling, why we were showered with flames of sparks. The military commission was pleased. We shook hands, congratulated on the task. Pavlov ordered Voroshilov to urgently go to the factory and as soon as possible to give the front KV tanks.
An 76-mm gun barrel was brought from the factory. There was no crane - a strong pine tree with a good strong bitch was picked up, the trunk was lifted by a hoist, the tank was driven in manually, under the guidance of artilleryman Voinov I.A., the gun was mounted.
The second time went to battle the QMS and "weaving." In this battle, the QMS was blown up by land mines and remained on the territory of the White Finns. The crew of our car was ordered to return to the factory. New turrets with 152-mm howitzer-gun were prepared at the plant for firing at reinforced concrete structures.
By this time the second HF was ready. Two cars were sent to the front: on one driver Bucket, Commander Komarov, on the other driver Lyashko, Commander Petin. I began to work on preparing the machines for the next battle: refueling with ammunition, fuel, and most importantly, to eliminate the shortcomings of the identified defects. In the Finnish war, the KV tank was unaffected. Of course, there were defects. One day, due to the failure of small 8 mm bolts, the machine almost fell to the enemy. This happened to us in two cars. During the battle, it was already evening, on the Bucket machine, two 8 mm bolts were cut off, which fix the fuel pump with the B-2 engine. Motor stalled, will not start. I worked on another machine with Kolotushkin I.I. We crawled to the Bucket car, crawled into the car through the landing hatch, and discussed the plan for restoring the car. There is a battle, machine-gun bursts, and we need to get out of the car and open the engine hatch, which is located on top of the car. I got out of the tank, opened the engine hatch, then Kolotushkin II got out. and covered me with a tarpaulin, folded in several rows. I am lying on the engine, Kolotushkin climbed into the tank. Lighted electrolight portable lamp. All this was done so that the enemy could not see the light of the portable lamp with which I should work. The bucket turns the engine of the car from the inside, and you need to find the top dead center in the first cylinder of the motor and connect the fuel pump to the engine with two 8 mm bolts at a certain angle. Finally everything is ready, start, the motor is working. We left the battlefield to check the car. ”
Projectiles were not affected by the normal operation of the crew.
The question immediately arises - how true is the author's statement of the recollection that “in the Finnish war the KV tank was unaffected”?
Does this documentary evidence? Yes there is.
On the testing of HF and T-100 on the Karelian Isthmus, February-March 1940.
To test the combat qualities of prototypes of heavy tanks, the following were sent to the acting Army for testing:
1. Tank KV with 152-mm howitzer - 2 units, arrived 16 February;
2. T-100 tank with normal weapons - 1 units, arrived 21 February;
3. Tank KV with normal weapons - 1 units, arrived 26 February;
4. Tank KV with 152 mm howitzer - 1 units, arrived 2 March.
This group of 5 units took part in combat operations from February 22 to March 6 from the 20 Tank Brigade, and from March 7 to 13 from the 1 Tank Brigade. Basically, this type of tank is designed to combat DOT, for which 152-mm howitzers were installed on three KVs.
Due to the fact that the fortification in the direction of the 20 tank tank brigade was broken before the arrival of the heavy tanks, and the brigade did not meet in the subsequent direction of the fighting, it was not possible to check the real power of the fire of this weapon ...
The result of the application revealed that:
1. With the appearance of heavy tanks in the sectors of the enemy’s anti-tank weapons, the latter sought to disable the tank. But making sure that the tanks were invulnerable for anti-tank artillery, the enemy stopped firing at them. When the T-28 and BT appeared, the enemy with their fire took them out of action. According to the observation of tank commanders, they destroyed 14 anti-tank guns.
2. During this same time, 11 firing points located in earthen shelters were destroyed by fire and cannon fire.
3. In the process of fighting, 152-mm howitzers were used to destroy the canine.
Nadolby installed on the surface of the highway in the form of granite boulders. The destruction of their 152-mm projectiles did not give the desired effect, since when it hit the granite nadiba turned over or cracked into several pieces (2 – 3), which did not give complete destruction. Released 18 shells on tank canals for the passage could not be done, which led to the need to organize the undermining of four stones with the help of sappers.
Nadolby (granite), located off-road, but dug into the ground, easily broken shells. The shell, caught in the head, destroyed it to the ground. The four-row 15 projectiles on the rabbis made a fairly good pass (about 6 meters) for all types of tanks ...
The enemy, getting under fire 152-mm howitzers, stopped shelling the advancing tanks ...
The completed mileage: ... KV number 0 - 205 km, KV number 1U - 132 km, KV number 2U - 336 km, KV № ZU - 139 km.
… Tank KV No. 0 (14 hits from 37 and 47-mm guns): front square at the junction of inclined sheets - 1, upper inclined sheet (front) - 3, lower inclined sheet (front) - 2, feed - 1, right side hulls - 3, port side - 1, right sloth to the hub - 1, top roller - 1, bottom roller to the hub - 1.
Tank KV No. 1U has no combat hits.
Tank KV No. 2U: combat hit of a projectile from an 37-mm cannon into the square of the front sheets - 1.
Tank SQ No. ZU (12 hits from 37 and 47-mm guns): upper inclined sheet - 1, lower inclined sheet - 1, starboard - 4, body feed - 1, tower - 1, buffer limiter - 1, lower rollers - 2, caterpillar - 1.
All hits in armor made indentations from 10 to 40 mm. Shots of shells on the reservation in no way affected the normal operation of the crew.
The commander of the group of heavy tanks, captain Kolotushkin.
Captain Kolotushkin writes: “having made sure that the tanks were invulnerable, for the anti-tank artillery, the enemy stopped firing at them ... strikes of shells on the reservation (as in the document - M.K.) did not in any way affect the normal operation of the crew”. Awesome results.
Without nuclear weapons is it impossible?
Victor Rezun (who calls himself Suvorov) claims that he tried to get an answer from the British military computer to the question: “How could the Red Army break the Mannerheim line:
“The computer responded quickly and decisively: the direction of the main attack of Lintul - Viipuri; before the attack - fire preparation: the first air explosion, the epicenter - Kanneljärvi, the equivalent of 50 kilotons, the height of 300; the second air blast, the epicenter is Lounatejoki, the equivalent ... the third blast ... the fourth ...
I to operators: stop, car, full back!
- Without nuclear weapons you can not?
- It is impossible, - the computer answers.
I approached him with affection and threats, but the computer stubborn got caught: WITHOUT NUCLEAR WEAPONS IS IMPOSSIBLE. Even if you have eight spans in your forehead, even though the computer has the most unimaginable power, the answer is the same: without nuclear weapons, it will not work. NO ONE WILL HAVE ANYTHING! ”
The Red Army, as you know, was able to solve this problem without nuclear weapons, but at the cost of heavy losses, with a delay of several months.
Let us imagine that the HF with 76 - mm and 152 - mm tools would have been created a few months earlier. And not a few pieces of such machines in February - March 1940 of the year, but a few dozen or even hundreds would have begun to destroy the fortifications of the Mannerheim line in December of 1939.
The anti-tank artillery of the Finns ceases, making sure that “tanks are invulnerable”, or dies heroically and senselessly. There are no other options. After all, HF firing is not reflected in the normal operation of their crews. And protected by reliable armor 152 - mm guns are beating at the bunkers of meters that way from twenty. Nuclear weapons would not be needed here. And Marshal Mannerheim’s reputation as a commander would now look very different ...