Military Review

Pupil with growing autonomy


Having accumulated experience in the design, production and operation of non-nuclear submarines, China began their promotion on the world market of naval equipment. Germany, the Netherlands, Russia, France, previously considered world leaders in submarine-shipbuilding, have already felt a certain discomfort from the appearance of a new player.

And the fact that he is very gifted and initiative, it became clear after Pakistan and Thailand chose the export Chinese submarines of the S20 family to arm their navy. And this is just the beginning. Continued to be sure to follow.

Competitors in mourning

China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation - CSIC - “At the origins of the great expeditions”), concluding contracts for the supply of non-nuclear submarines to Pakistan and Thailand, intends to consolidate its positions and bring to the world market the naval equipment of diesel-electric submarines of other 200 displacement projects, 600 and 1100 tons. The corporation, based on the experience gained in recent decades in the design and production of diesel-electric submarines for the PLA Navy, is convinced of the attainability of the goal.

The first buyer was Pakistan, which has close ties with the Middle Kingdom through the MTC. Eight S20 diesel-electric submarines created on the basis of the 041 Yuan project, which in turn is an improved 039A, to some extent counter the advantage that the Indian Navy had in the recent past in terms of the number of underwater fleet. The first four boats will be built in China and will begin to be delivered in 2022. The remaining four will be laid at the facilities of the Pakistani company KSEW (Karachi Shipbuilding and Engineering Works) in Karachi.

And then we will see what India will do with the P-75I program for the creation of promising submarines, which has been a bit over the edge, which has not yet been finalized. Islamabad, presumably, will act depending on the further steps of New Delhi, which has prodinamised the Russian Amours and staked on the French Scorps.

Another customer was the Thai Navy who signed with the Chinese Shipbuilding and Offshore International Company (CSOC), an international trading division of CSIC, a contract worth 13,5 billion Thai baht (390 million) for supply to 2023- m diesel-electric submarines project S26T. This is also an export version of 039B / 041 projects. Over the next few years, the Thai Navy plans to order two more S26T submarines in order to have three boats of this type as part of 2026. With the implementation of the plan, their total value will be 36 billion Thai baht.

Learned and do

After 60 years of designing and building submarines such as Romeo, Ming, Song and Yuan (Romeo, Ming, Song, Yuan), a CSOC spokesman said China is ready for independent R & D in this area, including and the production of the full range of necessary equipment, sensors and weapons.

The CSIC claims that the S20 and S26T platforms are entirely national projects based on the experience of creating Yuan-type submarines, the first of which was launched at the shipyard in Wuhan in May 2004. As for the general appearance, the boat repeats some of the design features of Russian Kilo-class diesel-electric substations, including a drop-shaped hull with a characteristic hump and a large vertical rudder, although the stern part resembles a configuration of a Song submarine (039 project). Later samples are equipped with side sonar antennas and, possibly, towed. 13 and 14-I boats, images of which are in open sources, have modified hull contours to improve acoustic characteristics.

Export submarines can be equipped with an air-independent power plant (VNEU) of Chinese design, based on the technologies used in the project "Yuan" for the PLA Navy, said a representative of CSOC. However, he refused to specify the features of the installation. Experts believe that the modern technology of the Chinese VNEU is based on the closed Stirling cycle using liquid oxygen and diesel fuel, and was developed at the CSIC 711 research institute.

Due to the closed nature of new developments carried out by our eastern strategic partner, it is difficult to assess the technological level of VNEU. Western naval experts believe that it still falls short of the requirements of the TK. This may be evidenced by the ongoing national program to stimulate scientific and technological innovations, including in the field of propulsion systems for aviation and offshore platforms. It is also possible that the Chinese are experimenting with fuel cell technologies and may develop lithium ion batteries for a new generation of submarines.

Sectional projects

According to official data S26T has a displacement of 2550 tons, length - 77,7 meters, width - 8,6 meters, height - 9,2 meters, crew - 38 sailors, although the internal volume of the boat can accommodate up to 46 people. The maximum submerged speed is 17 nodes, the maximum immersion depth is 300 meters. When the batteries are operated, the range exceeds 260 nautical miles (460 km), and with VNEU - 768 miles. With combined surface and scuba diving, the range reaches 8000 nautical miles. The maximum duration of stay at sea is 65 days.

The durable S26T case is divided into six compartments. In the first are ammunition and torpedo tubes, as well as a nasal rechargeable battery. In the second - the system of command and control, console weapons. In the third compartment are the crew quarters and the aft battery pack. Diesel generators, electronics power supplies, auxiliary mechanical systems are located in the fourth. VNEU with the Stirling cycle and the tank with liquid oxygen - in the fifth compartment. The main motor and power drives are in the sixth.

In the event of an emergency or failure resulting in flooding, the crew can be saved using special systems. If the submarine lies in shallow water, it leaves through torpedo tubes or rescue chambers. The emergency boat can be reached using deep-water vehicles or cameras that dock to two dock chambers, one of which is in the front of the first compartment, and the other in the stern of the sixth. There are also two radio frequency emergency buoys.

The company CSOC is promoting the market three more export versions of diesel-electric submarines. These are small 200-tonne MS200 and 600-tonne boats, 1100-tonne average. All of them have a single-case droplet-shaped design and a planned life of 25 years. The main customers, believe in the company CSOC, just in the Asia-Pacific region, which has always been a priority for the major players in the market of naval equipment.

According to the CSOC, the MS200 boat was designed for its use by special operations forces. It has a length of 30 meters, a width of 3,6 meters, a height of 4,4 meters. It can be serviced by a crew of six and carry eight fully equipped MTR fighters, as well as their special equipment. The maximum speed is eight knots, the range in a submerged position is 120 nautical miles, in the surface position 1500 miles. Autonomy - 15 days. Extreme depth of immersion - 200 meters. On the submarine there are two torpedo tubes of caliber 533 millimeter. There are sets of active and passive sonar sensors. The durable case is made of 921A steel, equivalent to the French 60HLES and the Russian AK-25 48-OT3. It is divided into three compartments.

Cabins are located on the upper deck of the first compartment. One hundred cells of a lead-acid battery and a ballast tank are located on the bottom. In the second compartment is the command module, which is also divided into two decks with three multifunctional consoles, five integral centralized racks, a laser inertial navigation system and a gyroscope, other devices (on the top) and equalizing tanks (on the bottom).

The main power plant (GEM), located in the third compartment, includes diesel generator units, an electric motor, control devices and auxiliary systems such as compressors, refrigerators with air conditioning, hydraulic devices, drainage pumps.

The boat 600T is designed for regional naval forces, which have little or no experience with submarines. With the length of 50 meters, the width of the 4,6 meter and the height of the 5,6 meter, it can perform a wide range of tasks, including patrolling, reconnaissance, conducting anti-ship and anti-submarine wars, that is, it is multipurpose. Operated by a crew of 15 people. Armed with four nasal TA caliber 533 millimeter and 10 ammunition heavy torpedoes, wire-guided, or other weapons.

600T has a maximum immersion depth of 200 meters, travel speed in the submerged and surface positions of 15 and 9 nodes, respectively. The submarine's maximum cruising range is 400 nautical miles, with a duration of up to 20 days (from VNEU).

The robust housing is divided into four compartments. The first one contains the main battery, the crew cabins, the saloon and the galley. In the second - two systems: command and control and combat control. Diesel generators and auxiliary mechanisms are installed in the third compartment. VNEU, electric motor, shaft, gearbox are placed in the fourth.

The multipurpose S1100T is an enlarged version of the boat 600T. Length - 60 meters, width - 5,6 meters, height - 6,8 meters. The immersion depth is 200 meters. Maximum speed underwater - 15 nodes. Submerged sailing range increased to 800 nautical miles, submerged / surfaced - 3000 nautical miles. The autonomy of the boat with the VNEU reaches 30 days. Crew - 18 man. Four 533-mm torpedo tubes are on the submarine. It can perform various combat missions, strike with anti-ship missiles, attack enemy submarines, conduct patrols and reconnaissance.

The robust S1100T is also divided into four compartments. In the first, the crew and front battery are placed. Command and control system is in the second. Diesel generators and auxiliary mechanisms are located in the third compartment, while the fourth is placed under the VNEU, electric motor and auxiliary devices.

Regional monopolist

In a Thai tender, CSIC won a victory over well-known foreign participants, including the South Korean Hyundai Heavy Industries with a HDS-500RTN boat, Rosoboronexport with Varshavyanka, and the German Thyssen Krupp meerin system. Krupp Marine Systems with samples 209 / 1400mod and 210mod, the Swedish "Saab" with the latest A26. Western experts note that with a growing portfolio of submarine projects focused on a wide range of tasks, CSOC is well positioned to meet the demands of regional customers, especially those who cannot accept Western offers due to high costs or for political reasons. The company is also ready to offer training, infrastructure support and technology transfer to potential customers. For example, Thailand is promised assistance in strengthening the national shipbuilding industry, as the country's Navy plans to expand the Mahidol Adulyadej shipyard in Sattahip province for SEPNXXXT type SSD operations in the Gulf of Thailand. It is expected that another shipyard will be deployed on the southwest coast of Thailand with the assistance of a Chinese company, but in the Andaman Sea.

Victory in the tender increased the confidence of the Chinese shipbuilders in promoting their submarines on the world market. Moreover, CSIC states that at least eight countries of the world - Algeria, Bangladesh, Venezuela, Egypt, Cuba, Libya, Myanmar, and the United Arab Emirates are interested in Chinese submarines. But all these countries are Russia's partners in the field of military-technical cooperation.
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  1. Lexus
    Lexus 21 January 2018 06: 49
    To what end they themselves were underpopulated, bought "with giblets", or stole. The Chinese have already worked out this scheme. Although 50 years ago, the very phrase "Chinese submarine" was from the category of puns.
    1. dauria
      dauria 21 January 2018 12: 29
      Up to what they themselves were underpopulated, they’ll buy "with offal", or they will steal

      But history does not forgive such arrogance. Hitler also treated us with his “blitzkrieg”. A new nation has grown up - the Chinese are educated, stubborn in work and study. They know how to fight - for some reason, everyone forgets Korea 53rd and 120 thousand dead Chinese soldiers. Their industry is advanced, science is developed. Their children win at mathematical olympiads and in sports. Their morality in everyday life and family is not an example of Europe. They even have the movie "Dawns Here Are Quiet" - a favorite. The top will not catch fire - so they will put the planet in a pose. I won’t be surprised if they celebrate the 150th anniversary of the October Revolution in Beijing, but we don’t remember.
      1. faiver
        faiver 21 January 2018 18: 40
        Well, they know how to fight - 120tys. dead soldiers is not an indicator, in contrast, you can recall about Vietnam 79goda ...
        1. dauria
          dauria 21 January 2018 19: 03
          in contrast, you can recall Vietnam 79goda ...

          We can also remember the 89th Afghanistan, or the states of Vietnam. Do not confuse political reasons with the combat readiness of the army. And the army they now be healthy in quality and motivation. And in reserve with this army is a huge people with huge industry.
      2. Lexus
        Lexus 22 January 2018 00: 10
        But history does not forgive such arrogance.

        And where is arrogance? The Chinese are working very seriously on technology - no one argues. And with the missing, they do exactly as I wrote.
  2. tlauicol
    tlauicol 21 January 2018 07: 14
    not far off is the day when China will provide demand among our partners by selling them air defense systems, MBT and aircraft
  3. bald
    bald 21 January 2018 07: 14
    It's all about the price. Hence the victory in the tender. China lowered the price of household appliances, albeit with filthy quality. Now in the defense industry, and the quality is constantly improving.
    1. seos
      seos 21 January 2018 13: 20
      The filthy qualities of the consumer goods (with an already established life span), of military equipment are of good quality, because the engineers take into account the service life of the equipment, there is nothing complicated, especially for 1 planet's economy ...
      1. bald
        bald 21 January 2018 14: 46
        So it seems like this - I agree, only they still have a strange thing to do, it can even bring them another pig. It was a long time ago, in the struggle for the crop and the first place in the world, they ruined all the sparrows - for a long time later they were restored. Then they decided to be the first in metallurgy - they made furnaces in each yard and surfaced more than anyone else, but the result was not going into any framework. And how our AKM was copied !!! I saw the video and the flight at the recoil. Do not list everything. It is clear that there is progress. Time will tell.
        1. jjj
          jjj 21 January 2018 16: 34
          Every year I look at a biathlon at a Chinese tank. How many years they saw, but they can’t finish it
          1. bald
            bald 21 January 2018 17: 02
            It’s in the blood, at the level of instinct, from somewhere it’s tearing off and remaking to fit yours, it works for them, though it’s not entirely successful. I remember when the USSR there was a magazine, such a small format, the Young Technician was called, there such a huge number of inventions passed, only empty, everything remained on paper. And here (I’ll switch a little for an example) The Japanese studied this magazine well and implemented it. The result is still visible. And the "Technique of Youth", "Chemistry and Life", etc. .. Not in one state of the World, there were not so many technical inventions and everyone used it.
  4. Paul zewike
    Paul zewike 21 January 2018 09: 51
    China uses its economic influence in a number of countries. The quality of these boats is the third. They sell goods that have not yet proved themselves anywhere and that in reality do not exist.
    1. seos
      seos 21 January 2018 13: 21
      Do you hear that these boats break or sink? No, then what are the claims to quality?
      1. Paul zewike
        Paul zewike 21 January 2018 16: 21
        Nothing is known about their quality, Mr. Reason. Is it clear now?
      2. faiver
        faiver 21 January 2018 18: 42
        Well, in principle, the Chinese are worthless and hide the accident rate of their boats ...
  5. Cat Marquis
    Cat Marquis 21 January 2018 10: 32
    For many years, Soviet and Russian naval literature talked about "anaerobic" propulsion systems only as a "dead end" development path, saying that nuclear installations are "our everything." Like, we at one time “played enough” with anaerobes in the 50-60s and realized their futility. As it turned out, it was a fundamentally wrong opinion, now I have to catch up ....
    1. jjj
      jjj 21 January 2018 16: 36
      There are no good, economically viable, reliable air-independent boat machines in the world. All that is said is fantastic.
      1. Boa kaa
        Boa kaa 21 January 2018 18: 22
        Quote: jjj
        There are no good, economically viable, reliable air-independent boat machines in the world.

        Colleague, you forgot to add - "non-atomic". For a nuclear power plant is essentially an aerobic machine.
        Yours faithfully, hi
        1. jjj
          jjj 22 January 2018 23: 07
          Yes, it is as if implied by itself. Although for the majority, indeed, it is necessary to clarify, including the depth of the concept of "diesel engine"
          Have a nice one you too!
  6. sevtrash
    sevtrash 21 January 2018 11: 46
    Everything is simple - a working economy gives money, corrupt officials are held back / shot, and money goes where it is needed - for quality education, science, R&D, production. The effect is natural. And, at the same time, China is not prerogative of the United States, since this is not reasonable. For the same economy.
    1. seos
      seos 21 January 2018 13: 23
      It’s just that the United States does not associate with China ... and with the pressure from the Chinese side, the United States retreats ... in the 90s, Clinton even publicly apologized on behalf of the United States to the Chinese people ...
  7. seos
    seos 21 January 2018 13: 24
    The point is that we can make such submarines, and there would be a lot of buyers if they did ...
    1. Boa kaa
      Boa kaa 21 January 2018 18: 29
      Quote: seos
      The point is that we can make such submarines,

      Well, where are they then? 677 still walks without the VNEU promised at the end of the 90's.
      Quote: seos
      there would be a bunch of buyers if they did ...
      If they did, then India would have already received a unit on its 75i ... An - "a stone flower does not come out!"
      So, "wait, sir!"
  8. sd68
    sd68 21 January 2018 14: 10
    China makes low-cost weapons, and in this sense, it is a growing competitor primarily to Russia.
  9. andrewkor
    andrewkor 21 January 2018 16: 43
    I want to note dear dauria that the restructuring in China began after their multimillion-strong, able to fight, armed forces in February 1969. received by face from Vietnam. Since then, something to not hear about any successful application.
    1. faiver
      faiver 21 January 2018 18: 46
      I will correct 79year ..., well, for the sake of justice, it should be noted that the conflict was paid off by the USSR, but the Chinese received Liule from Vietnam hi
  10. Comrade
    Comrade 21 January 2018 17: 28
    The reputation of the Chinese manufacturer is solid, everything Chinese breaks a little earlier than immediately. Perhaps that is why a German car made in Germany costs two to three times more than the same car made in China.
  11. Comrade Kim
    Comrade Kim 22 January 2018 16: 48
    Quote: dauria
    The top will not catch fire - so they will put the planet in a pose.

    Yes, they have it strictly there, if the official stole the public execution, and the authorities (if they are still in good condition from a full life) will be removed and transplanted to those in need.
    Our situation is different, at best - house arrest and a new feeding trough after “reforging”.
    Alexander Davydov was detained on suspicion of embezzlement of more than 460 million rubles. on supplies for the Ministry of Defense
    Searches in the office, and then in the car of the Director General of Voentelecom JSC Alexander Davydov with the participation of witnesses, officers of the Main Military Investigation Department (GVSU) of the Investigative Committee and FSB operatives conducted on Monday morning. After that, Mr. Davydov was presented with a decision to detain him for 48 hours as a suspect and taken to the GVSU building for interrogation. All these measures were carried out in the framework of the investigation of a criminal case of fraud on a particularly large scale (part 4 of article 159 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation), instituted back in 2013 on the basis of verification materials obtained from the Main Military Prosecutor's Office (GWP).