Military Review

Russian storm


Exactly 205 years ago, January 13, 1813, the Russian army, on the orders of Field Marshal Kutuzov, forced the Neman into Europe, which ended a year later with the capture of Paris and the fall of the Napoleonic empire. And on the same day, a Russian detachment under the command of General Pyotr Kotlyarevsky stormed the Persian fortress Lenkoran, located on the banks of the river of the same name off the south-west coast of the Caspian Sea. The fall of Lankaran forced the ruler of Persia, Feth-Ali Shah, to begin peace negotiations that ended the nine-year Russian-Persian war. Following the results of this war, Azerbaijan entered the Russian Empire, and Lankaran became the extreme point of Russia's advance to the South in the South Caucasus.

Kotlyarevsky's detachment numbered only 1760 soldiers and officers with several field guns and one three-pounder mortar removed from the gunboat. And the Lenkoran garrison consisted of approximately 4000 regular sarbaz soldiers and militias under the command of voivode Sadikh Khan. The fortress was surrounded by a stone wall with towers, additionally reinforced from the back by earthen dusting, and outside it was girded by a moat up to four meters deep, partially filled with water. Despite such a disposition, Kotlyarevsky was confident that he would manage to seize the fortification.

But first he sent Sadih Khan a letter with an offer to surrender, to which he received an arrogant refusal. Then the Russians began an artillery bombardment that lasted two days, but gave almost no results. The cores of the field guns did not penetrate the fortress walls, and the mortar quickly ran out of ammunition. Since the walls could not be destroyed, Kotlyarevsky ordered Lankaran to attack in the “classical” way - with the help of assault ladders.

Knowing that the enemy has a significant numerical superiority, the general threw all his forces onto the assault — the 14-th Georgian Grenadier, Trinity Infantry and 17-th Jäger regiments, which attacked simultaneously from three directions. From the fourth the fortress was covered by the river. Only 80 non-combatant men and artillery servants remained in reserve. Kotlyarevsky announced that under no circumstances would there be a last-minute signal, and anyone departing without an order would be immediately shot on the spot, "regardless of rank or rank."

At five o'clock in the morning, under the cover of the night darkness, the assault columns began to attack. Having filled the ditch, the soldiers climbed the walls, despite the frequent firing and hand grenades flying from above. When the commander of the Georgian regiment was killed, Lieutenant Colonel Ushakov, Kotlyarevsky, who personally participated in the assault, began to climb the stairs himself, inspiring the soldiers with his example. According to the Azerbaijani historian Timur-Bek Bayram-Alibekov, "the soldiers climbed the walls, as if unaware of the danger threatening them, clutching at the muzzle of enemy guns and either died at point-blank shots or were dragged by the enemies themselves onto the crest and died there in an unequal melee. "

Rising to the wall with a saber in his hand, Kotlyarevsky almost immediately got a bullet in the leg, and then two more - in the face, one of which knocked out his right eye, and the second crushed his jaw. The general was considered dead, but that did not stop his fighters. The turning point in the battle came when the grenadiers managed to clean up a section of the wall and seize the guns standing on it, which they immediately turned and opened fire on the Persians with a canister. Soon all three forkov walls were captured, and melee moved to the fortress courtyard.

In this battle, the Russians prevailed. Sarbazov pushed aside to the wall adjacent to the river. Most of the defenders of Lenkoran died there, because the Russians, infuriated by the heavy losses and death of the commander, did not take prisoners, but finished off the wounded. Part of the Sarbazov tried to escape, jumping from the wall and swimming across the river, but they all drowned in icy water or froze on the opposite bank. After six hours, the battle for Lankaran ended. The garrison died in full force, including Sadih Khan. 3737 corpses of its defenders were found in and around the fortress, the number of drowned bodies is unknown. The winners got eight English-made cannons and two banners.

Their own losses were 341 killed and 609 injured, that is, more than half of the original composition. And Kotlyarevsky miraculously survived and recovered, despite the primitiveness of the then medicine. Because of the consequences of severe injuries, he had to retire, but after that he lived in retirement for another 37 years. For the capture of Lenkoran he was awarded the Order of St. George of the second degree with a star.

On the screen saver - a picture of the artist FA. Rubo "Storming Lenkoran".

Feth Ali Shah, Persian sarbazy and militia of the Russian-Persian war 1804-1813.

The plan of the Lenkoran fortress at the time of the assault and the portrait of General Kotlyarevsky after injury.
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  1. Olgovich
    Olgovich 20 January 2018 07: 44
    Having entered the Talysh Khanate (where Lankaran was), Kotlyarevsky announced to the residents:

    « “The peoples of Talyshinsky. The troops of the great and omnipotent in the world Russian All-Russian Emperor came here to free you from the hands of the Persians - your destroyers. Stay in your homes and be sure that your property is inviolable. The Russians are not Persians or robbers: they will not rob you. I demand from you only that anyone who can carry a weapon will turn it against your oppressors - the Persians, who will soon be punished by the troops of my all-sovereign emperor, I demand that you finish off the remains of these savages and cross their paths to escape when our victorious weapon. I promise with him the forgiveness of those of you who were involved by deceit and promises by the Persians to surrender to them voluntarily. Such persons must appear to me, or to their legal khan, without fear of punishment, for the Russian word is not the Persian word: Russian knows no deceit and has no need for deceit ”\
    After the assault, Kotlyarevsky himself was found in a ditch, under the bodies of the dead.
    The capture of the fortress — surprisingly — without artillery, with less force, and the Persians fought bravely. But courage broke even greater courage ...
    1. Cat
      Cat 20 January 2018 08: 04
      The article correctly observes the personal example of General Kolyarevsky. Climb the walls, in the first rows of columns? Perhaps one of the last examples in the history of the Russian army.
      1. XII Legion
        XII Legion 20 January 2018 10: 02
        As for the walls - maybe.
        A "general" attack occurred 100 years later
        1. Cat
          Cat 20 January 2018 11: 28
          Maybe I'm wrong, but at the head of the column on the walls of the enemy fortress Kotlyarevsky of the Russian generals ascended last. Especially so captivating soldiers with their example. I emphasize it on the wall!
          If I'm wrong, give examples.
          1. XII Legion
            XII Legion 20 January 2018 12: 12
            No, on the contrary Kotische - you are right. I say - if about the fortress walls, then this is absolutely accurate.
            And then he wrote that the attacks, where the generals showed personal initiative, were later
            1. Cat
              Cat 20 January 2018 13: 07
              Although this has a good argument. By the middle of the century before last, the structure of fortifications had changed. The walls of the city went into oblivion.
              Although, if I honestly hoped that you would angrily throw at me a dozen examples from the capture of Kars, Erivani. In other matters, to my pleasure.
              1. XII Legion
                XII Legion 20 January 2018 13: 34
                Of course, the system has changed - but the feat of any era is submissive.
                I hoped that you would angrily throw at me a dozen examples from the capture of Kars, Erivani.

                For me, this is one era - the first half of the XNUMXth century, so I won’t leave angrily. Moreover, the system of fortifications at that time was approximately the same. Although, in principle, no one has canceled the old fortresses - they were used to the best of their ability (of course, in a reformed form) in later periods.
          2. Vladislav 73
            Vladislav 73 21 January 2018 00: 53
            Quote: Kotischa
            If I'm wrong, give examples.

            I do not know how indicative these two examples will be for you, although you mentioned the assault on Kars in your conversation with the XII Legion belayBesides, if you know about them, maybe others will be interested? In general, during the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878. on the night of November 5 (17) to November 6 (18), 1877, the Russian troops stormed the strongest Kars fortress. It should be noted that during the numerous wars the Russians stormed Kars 4 times - in 1807,1828,1855 and 1877! And accordingly, each time the Turks strengthened it, so that in 1877 a first-class fortress appeared before the Russian troops and even strengthened by a mountainous terrain. The main defense of Kars was a group of forts in the northeast, with the fall of these forts the defense system would be cracked, and the resistance would meaningless. During a violent assault, the commander of the 40th Infantry Division Al-Lieutenant P.N. Shatilov personally led the soldiers to storm the Arab-Tabiya fort, which strengthened the entire defense system. The fort was taken, the surviving Turks fled. At the same time, on the south side, during the storming of Kanla Fort, Major General was killed Count M.P. Grabbe, commander of the 2nd Brigade of the 1st Grenadier Division. The General led his convoy and personally led the soldiers to storm, at the beginning of which he was killed by a gun bullet. hi
          3. Vladislav 73
            Vladislav 73 21 January 2018 01: 11
            Quote: Kotischa
            I emphasize it on the wall!
            If I'm wrong, give examples.

            I don’t know if Shatilov ran up the ladder, or burst into the fort at the head of the column through some kind of breach (I didn’t find any specific information), but does this diminish his merits in comparison with Kotlyarevsky? ? Isn’t it? However, I went aside here. The question was about the walls, but I don’t have any specific information. If you know, share it, I'll be glad! hi
            1. Cat
              Cat 21 January 2018 07: 07
              Dear namesake!
              To my deep regret, I do not know either - our commanders climbed the wall, in the examples you cited!
              I was remembered by Kars as a whip to the sky - no more. Thank you for the events!
              Well, at least how M.I. Kutuzov, when taking Ishmael, who climbed the wall, sat on the drum and lamented "You really try to be my friend!"
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 20 January 2018 08: 13
  3. XII Legion
    XII Legion 20 January 2018 10: 02
    The feat is outstanding!
    1. Cat
      Cat 20 January 2018 11: 57
      I want to draw your attention to an interesting phenomenon. The history of our Fatherland during its more than one thousand history has been interspersed with so many exploits on the battlefield that our attitude to understanding the event itself is commonplace.
      Talked six months ago with the Mongols, the guys struck me with their knowledge about the volunteers of fellow countrymen who participated in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. After emotional communication came to our Russian groups. I don’t even know how to describe my disappointment. Common words, phrases, indifference - sadly. I barely jumped the guys to the end of the pair.
      Today I am convinced that somewhere there is a puncture in the education of our young generation. Is it difficult or impossible under the auspices of the state to start publishing encyclopedias, collections of essays, multimedia materials such as Maresyev, Kotlyarovsky, Karbyshev, Kutuzov and many others. Various formats, language accessibility, with illustrations ....
      What can I say, my daughter is taught OBZH a teacher of labor - a woman!
      Orienteering class began with the fact that she explained to the class that there is summer and winter time! And this is in 2016! Next year, topics on military topics will begin - I don’t know what my daughter can be taught. Only one thing pleases me is that I have a daughter!
      1. XII Legion
        XII Legion 20 January 2018 12: 15
        And here you are right!
        Confuses youth even war.
        It’s necessary to tighten.
        And I believe that the great merit of VO and its authors is the popularization of history. A reminder of her glorious pages. Those. without exaggeration - a civilizational mission.
        1. Cat
          Cat 20 January 2018 12: 55
          Dear Legat! I apologize if that is not so. I just don’t know your name.
          In VO, I read only two headings: history and weapons. Until a certain point, I completely agree with you, but since the latest trends on the formation of a falk story, I honestly dropped my hands, that is, tail, mustache and paws.
          In order to correctly accept some articles of the site, you need to have a solid basic knowledge of the works of Karamzin, Klyuchevsky, Solovyov, Kostomarov, etc. I will say more. I even agree to mythologize a number of events in order to popularize our history. Frankly, I think, let my child go to Varyag, 28 Panfilovites, watch cartoons about three rich men. What will go look Marvel products. I’m sure if it’s possible to cling at least to the child’s consciousness, then we have already won. So it is vitally necessary to have more books, films, comics and computer games, etc. about us and our history. Let the ravings, like the last hero, ours and about us, and there they will get it and sort it out, tea is not dumber than you and me.
          1. XII Legion
            XII Legion 20 January 2018 13: 39
            Well, do not lower your tail and paws - this is me shaping a falk story.
            To the best of strength, because somehow we are opposed to something.
            So it is vitally necessary to have more books, films, comics and computer games, etc. about us and our history.
            I agree.
            Let the ravings, like the last hero, ours and about us, and there they will get it and sort it out, tea is not dumber than you and me.
            In the absence of normal knowledge and the basic Soviet education that we have with you, it will be hard for them. But I hope they’ll figure it out. V. incl. with our help
  4. Sanya Terek
    Sanya Terek 20 January 2018 12: 46
    In 1840, a military settlement was founded on the Georgian Military Highway, named after General P.S. Kotlyarevsky. In 1841, a military settlement received the status of a village of the Terek Cossack army.
    1. Boris25
      Boris25 20 January 2018 21: 11
      Well, negotiate !!!! The name of the page ??? And where is it ???
      1. Sanya Terek
        Sanya Terek 20 January 2018 22: 54
        The village of Kotlyarevskaya is located in the May district of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic.