Fearless "people's tribune" of the nineties, Victor Anpilov created and headed the movement "Labor Russia". The Communist Party of the Russian Federation has not yet been created, and Labor Russia has already gathered thousands of rallies in Moscow and in many other cities of the country. It is then, in 2000-e, fame "Labor Russia" will decline, and the number of movement will be reduced to a minimum. But in the nineties, "Labor Russia" and its permanent leader knew everyone who at least somehow followed the political situation.
Victor Anpilov lived a long and interesting life. His biography is a typical example of the opportunities provided by the Soviet state to people from even the simplest families. He was born on October 2 1945, in the village of Belaya Glina, Krasnodar Territory, in the simplest rural family. In his book “Our Struggle,” Viktor Anpilov recalled his childhood. His father, a war veteran, Ivan Ivanovich Anpilov, worked as an obzhigalschikom pottery workshop - and this despite the fact that from the war he came without a hand. The mother of the future politician worked as a cook in one of the orphanages (there were two orphanages in the post-war White Clay). Viktor was not even fifteen years old when, in 1960, he left to enter a vocational school in Taganrog. After graduating from college, he worked as a fitter at the Taganrog combine plant. The Soviet way of life of a working man from the provinces is common for the Soviet era. Simultaneously with his work at the factory, Victor, who was learning to learn, was studying in the school for working youth. Best of all, he was given Russian language and literature, which predetermined the life of Viktor Anpilov as a journalist later on. In 1964, Mr .. Viktor was drafted into the army for three years, until 1967, he served in the missile forces in the Carpathian Military District.
Returning after being demobilized to his native White Clay, Victor Anpilov soon became a literary collaborator in the party department of the local newspaper, Put Put October. Thus began his journey to the profession of a journalist. Viktor Anpilov entered the journalism department of Moscow State University and was enrolled in the first in the history of the department a group of journalism journalists. He studied Spanish and Portuguese - at that time the Soviet Union actively cooperated with socialist Cuba, maintained contacts with the Latin American revolutionary movement.
After graduating from university, Viktor Anpilov left for Cuba, where he worked as a translator in the Ministry of Trade fleet. Returning to his homeland, he continued to work as a translator at the Higher Komsomol School, then as a journalist in a number of newspapers in the Moscow Region. In 1977-1984 Viktor Anpilov worked as a commentator on the Main Edition of Radio Broadcasting in Latin America of the USSR State Radio and Television. But perhaps one of the most exciting pages in the biography of Anpilov as a Soviet journalist is his work in 1984-1985. correspondent in Nicaragua, where the civil war of the Sandinista revolutionaries against the pro-American "Contras" continued at that time. As Viktor Anpilov later recalled in his autobiographical book, he had to go hiking with the Sandinists, sometimes being a hair's breadth from death. In 1985-1991 Viktor Anpilov worked at the USSR State Radio and Television. Even then, at the end of Perestroika, he wondered what the Soviet Union would expect in the event of a final abandonment of the socialist path of development. In 1990, Anpilov, who by this time began to gain fame as an uncompromising supporter of communist values, was elected deputy of the Moscow Soviet from the 401th Solntsevsky constituency of Moscow. In the Moscow Soviet, he joined the communist faction "Moscow". In the autumn of 1990, 27 years ago, Viktor Anpilov established the Molniya newspaper, which was first published as a printed organ of the Communist Initiative Movement (DKI).
23 November 1991 was founded by the Russian Communist Workers' Party (RKRP), which united radical supporters of the Soviet government and the socialist path of development. Its backbone was made up of members of the Communist Initiative Movement and the Marxist Platform, and the most well-known leaders at the early stage of the party’s existence were Viktor Anpilov and Viktor Tyulkin - a party leader from Leningrad, a member of the Leningrad Regional Committee of the CPSU and secretary of the party committee of the Avangard NGO. Viktor Anpilov was elected secretary of the Central Committee of the EIFR and headed the Moscow City Committee of the EIFR. However, it was not party activity, but the leadership of the “street” movement “Labor Russia” that glorified Victor Anpilov.
As early as November 1991 of the year, the movement “Labor Moscow” was created, which on November 7 of the year 1991 held the first rally of supporters of communist ideas in post-Soviet Russian history. In December, 1991, the movement conducted the first peaceful march on Ostankino, and on February 23, the first clashes with the Moscow police took place - then riot police were sent to disperse the rally "Labor Moscow", in which war veterans and retirees took part. But the leadership of the country did not test these categories of people, substituting them under the blows of police batons. The success of Trudovaya Moskva was obvious, therefore already in January 1992, the plenum of the Central Committee of the RCWP decided to establish a social and political movement that would provide mass support for the party’s policies. In October, 1992 was founded the All-Russian social and political movement "Labor Russia". So the capital initiative came to the all-Russian level.
The 1992-1993 years are the peak of political activity of “Labor Russia” and the popularity of Viktor Anpilov as a tribune of the people. At this time, activists of “Labor Russia” held many actions, the scale of which modern political parties can only dream of. For example, March 17 1992, on the anniversary of the referendum on the preservation of the USSR, "Labor Moscow" gathered at the Manezhnaya Square rally, in which more than 100 thousand people took part. In the summer of 1993, Labor Russia activists foiled joint Russian-American military exercises at the Totsk training ground.
In September-October 1993, the activists of “Labor Russia” were the first to come to the aid of the Supreme Soviet of Russia. The defense of the House of Soviets is a heroic and tragic page in the history of the movement. Then the representatives of the most diverse political forces — from Cossacks, monarchists and nationalists to left-wing radicals — communists and even anarchists — came to the defense of the constitution and the Supreme Council. He went to the House of Soviets and Victor Anpilov, along with his numerous supporters. Among the volunteers of “Labor Russia” there were people of very different ages, up to retirees, of different professions, including those who did not have experience in military service and weaponsbut ready, if necessary, to give their lives for the constitutional order.
The last days of September and the first day of October 1993 of the year are the incessant street battles of “Labor Russia” and activists of other parties and movements with the police and riot police. October 1 1993, large-scale clashes took place on Smolensk Square. Riot militiamen and units of the internal troops brought from the Sverdlovsk region were thrown against the demonstrators. Nevertheless, the barricades on Smolenskaya Square lasted until late at night. Viktor Anpilov, along with General Albert Makashov, led the campaign of supporters of the Supreme Council to Ostankino, where clashes occurred. On the night of October 4 1993, Boris Yeltsin and his entourage decided on an armed assault on the House of Soviets.
Anpil made the last attempt to save the situation, turning to the military for help. He went to the Academy of Armored Forces, however, as the politician recalls in his memoirs, they didn’t let him go there and not one of the officers came out to meet with the leader of "Labor Russia". Anpilov left Moscow, hiding in the Tula region - in the country house with friends. There he wrote an appeal “To arms!” And was going to move on to organizing actions to resist, when on October 6 the place where Anpilov was hiding was revealed to the special services. The leader of “Labor Russia” was arrested and taken to the Lefortovo pre-trial detention center, where many other leaders of the anti-Yeltsin opposition found themselves. On the day of the execution, October 4 1993, the Ministry of Justice of Russia suspended the activities of eight political parties and social movements. Among them was the "Labor Russia". However, soon Yeltsin, under public pressure, was forced to release all the leaders of the resistance of the Supreme Council under the pretext of an amnesty. Viktor Ivanovich Anpilov was released. He continued his work as a leader of "Labor Russia".
After the disagreements between Anpilov and Tyulkin became aggravated in 1996, the leader of “Labor Russia” left the party and further focused on the activities of the movement he headed. Traditions have become a regular "hikes to Moscow", arranged by "Labor Russia". In the second half of 1990, the movement continued to express the interests of the most disadvantaged segments of the population in post-Soviet Russia. However, the popularity of both Anpilov himself and his movement began to decline. There were several reasons. First, the most ardent patriots of the Soviet Union, people of older generations, born in 1920-1930-s, died or retired. Secondly, the general economic and political situation in the country has stabilized somewhat, which calmed a part of society. Thirdly, the creation of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, headed by Gennady Zyuganov, who managed to completely seize the leadership in the left camp, pursuing quite moderate policies, also played its role.
In the elections to the State Duma of the Russian Federation in 1995, the “Communists - Labor Russia - For the Soviet Union!” Bloc (leader of the EIFR, Viktor Tyulkin, leader of the Russian Communist Party, Anatoly Kryuchkov, Labor Russia leader, Viktor Anpilov) took the sixth place, typing 4,53% of votes . Only 0,7% was not enough for him to pass to the State Duma. The opposition press then declared that this result was deliberately falsified in order to prevent the presence of "uncontrollable" Anpilovites in the Russian parliament. In the elections in 1999, the success of Anpilov and his supporters was much less significant - the Stalin bloc for the USSR (Viktor Anpilov, leader of the Union of Soviet Officers Lieutenant Colonel Stanislav Terekhov, grandson of IV Stalin Yevgeny Yakovlevich Dzhugashvili) got only 0,61% of votes.
Nevertheless, Victor Anpilov continued active political activities until the very last days of his life. He was a very active person - he continued to travel throughout Russia, to go abroad, to meet with Russian and foreign comrades and like-minded people. Realizing that it is impossible to act alone in modern conditions, Viktor Anpilov tried to block himself with a variety of political forces - from supporters of Eduard Limonov to the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia V.V. Zhirinovsky. One of the main ideas of Viktor Anpilov, the commitment of which he retained until the last, was the reduction of the powers of the president and the expansion of the rights and powers of parliament. Anpilov believed that sooner or later the legislative branch of power in Russia would once again become the spokesman for the interests of the majority of the country's population, including genuine representatives of the people, delegates of working groups, and not just artists and businessmen.
In 2012, he acted as a trustee for Vladimir Zhirinovsky, and in 2014, he supported the return of Crimea to the Russian state. No matter how Viktor Anpilov treated the policies of the current Russian government, no matter how he accused her of the poor material and social situation of millions of Russians, but he was always a patriot of his country and simply could not but support the reunification of the Crimea.
In the 2017 year, when Pavel Grudinin was registered as a presidential candidate in Russia, Viktor Anpilov spoke in his support and was going to become a confidant of the new candidate from the country's left-patriotic forces. More recently, a video was shot where Victor Anpilov on Red Square recited "election carols" in support of Pavel Grudinin. Nothing foreshadowed a quick disaster. January 13 2018, the 72-year-old politician went to meet with Pavel Grudinin. During the meeting, he became ill. Victor Anpilov fainted. With an extensive stroke and in a state of coma, the leader of "Labor Russia" was taken to the Moscow N. Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Care. Two days later, on January 15 of the year 2018, without regaining consciousness, Viktor Ivanovich Anpilov passed away at the age of 73.