Military Review

Artemy Artsikhovsky - the discoverer of birch bark letters

21
Artemy Artsikhovsky - the discoverer of birch bark letters



115 years ago was born Artemy Artsikhovsky, an outstanding scientist, an expert on Slavic-Russian archeology

Artemy Vladimirovich was born on December 13 (26), 1902 in St. Petersburg in the family of the famous botanist Vladimir Artsikhovsky. He studied at the Faculty of Social Sciences of Moscow University with the archaeologist Vasily Gorodtsov, later - at the graduate school of the Scientific Research Institute of Archeology and Art History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, defended his Ph.D. information provided by chroniclers. In 1929 he defended his doctoral dissertation "Old Russian miniatures as historical source".

The main scientific interest for Artsikhovsky was the ancient Novgorod, which he began to explore with Boris Rybakov, the expedition founded by Artsikhovsky is the oldest permanent archaeological expedition existing in our country.
Artsikhovsky's expedition made excavations in wide areas, as only the area of ​​the Nerevsky excavation was 10 thousand square meters, - in the field of view, archaeologists kept the estates and quarters of medieval Novgorod.
On July 26 of 1951, Artsikhovsky discovered the first birch bark certificate, this find became an additional and valuable source of information, which made it possible to synthesize archeological data with written materials on the history of Novgorod. The result of 25-year work related to the found letters was their seven-volume academic publication with scientific comments.

Artemy Vladimirovich - the initiator of education at the Moscow University Department of Archeology (1939) and its first leader. More than one generation of domestic archaeologists studied on the textbooks he prepared, “Introduction to Archeology” and “Fundamentals of Archeology”. Artsikhovsky made a great contribution to the formation and development of archeology as a university science in our country.

Artemy Vladimirovich 17 passed away on February 1978 of the year in Moscow.
Author:
Originator:
http://rusplt.ru/wins/artemiy-artsihovskiy-pervootkryivatel-28957.html
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  1. Boris55
    Boris55 13 January 2018 09: 13
    +7
    Many thanks to him for his work, which dealt a crushing blow to Norman theory.
    1. Cat
      Cat 13 January 2018 09: 57
      +5
      Dear Boris, who are you for? For white or red?
      Vladimir Artemievich in his writings drew a rather rigid parallel to the events described in the annals and archaeological artifacts. The find in Novgorod of letters of mercy put an end to it - written sources of that time were found!
      By the way, in his candidacy, Vladimir Artemievich conducts a comparative analysis of the Mongol-Tatar invasions and their reflection in Russian chronicles.
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 13 January 2018 10: 18
        +4
        I liked the article! It’s good that they reminded us all of a wonderful scientist.
      2. Boris55
        Boris55 13 January 2018 10: 20
        +4
        Quote: Kotischa
        Dear Boris, who are you for? For white or red?

        I am for the Bolsheviks.
      3. venaya
        venaya 13 January 2018 10: 28
        +4
        Quote: Kotischa
        .. in his Ph.D. Vladimir Artemievich conducts a comparative analysis Tatar-Mongol invasions and their reflection in Russian chronicles.

        This is the most interesting: Is it possible that in the Russian chronicles of that time at least once some “Tatar-Mongol invasions” were mentioned? Please tell us more about this moment, otherwise the specialists working on this historical time still have not found a single mention, not that "Tatar-Mongols"but even about the most"Yoke"- because even the very word in the original documents in the Russian language of that time has not yet been discovered. True, they say that a century after the end of this very"Yoke“a certain Pole brought this word from the West. But as you know, all this was already much later. In general, I’ll say that to defend at least some dissertation on this subject, it’s usually necessary to write some kind of stupidity, otherwise VAK will definitely not miss it, and will not allow defending a dissertation. Such is our life today, and more often, unfortunately, we have to put up with it.
        1. igordok
          igordok 13 January 2018 12: 07
          +4
          In 1931. in the Lower Volga region birch-bark letters were found which were written in the Uyghur script, both in the Uyghur language and in Mongolian. After analysis, it turned out that these were poems.
          Details at https://paulus-raul.livejournal.com/31768.html
        2. Hantengri
          Hantengri 13 January 2018 12: 21
          +7
          Quote: venaya
          In general, I myself will say that in order to defend at least some dissertation on this subject, it is usually necessary to write some kind of stupidity, otherwise the VAK will definitely not miss it and will not let you defend the dissertation. Here we have such a life for today, and more often, unfortunately, we have to put up with it.

          In this case, it’s time for you to defend yourself for a long time, for you have cast out stupidities, as many as 3 doctoral ones! laughing
        3. Cat
          Cat 13 January 2018 12: 23
          13
          Venya Do you surprise me?
          One of the common explanations in the annals ".... the king of filthy Batu came to the Russian land ....." or "the army of the Grandfather razarimsha ....". The appearance in the works on the history of the century before last the term “yoke” and “Tatar-Mongols” most succinctly describes the events of those centuries. No less sufficient word defines campaigns in Russia "invasion". So in the bottom line - the "yoke" - this is the period of dominance of the khans of the Horde over the Principality of Russia;
          - “Tatar-Mongols” are those from the annals of “godless filthy”, but in reality a collection of people of different faiths and nationalities participated in campaigns in Russia led by khans and temniks of the Horde. And sometimes by force put under the gun. They didn’t give passports in those days, the oath and the label or penza had to be earned. So, the national and religious composition of Batu Khan’s troops was more than not permanent.
          - "invasions" - separate military operations on the territory of Russia. There is a tradition in historiographic literature to name them by the name of the leader.
          And if we go further, then instead of a battle we should use the term "massacre", etc.
          Or do you propose to write - "..... godless filthy tsar Batu bursting into the church of the city of Suzdal chopped everything up, the whole slep ..." or even easier if direct directions from those years, preferably with identification cards, medical policies and state registration marks on there are no horses or yoke - no? Denying the general, with the help of the private I beg you more than stupid.
          Trying to destroy the established historical school of Russia, the successor of science of the Russian Empire and the USSR, and the most ridiculous at the level of "I have not read, but do not approve"? Especially when archaeological and linguistic directions of science are ignored. It is sad that this trend has been developing in VO.
          I do not defend academicians, they are also mistaken, mistaken or defend - the situation.
          In my posts I defend an unknown monk who wrote in the light of a torch - "in ...... Batu himself came to Kozelsk with all his hordes and there was darkness with him ........ It was three weeks ... .... and they say their baby Prince Kozelsky in that blood drowned. "
          I have the honor, Kitty!
          1. M. Michelson
            M. Michelson 14 January 2018 09: 12
            +2
            Is the "continuity of historical science from Russia and the USSR" so uniquely good? Say, the name of one of the most vile historiographers of pre-revolutionary Russia, Klyuchevsky, is still surrounded with reverence. What is there to enjoy?
            And if on the topic, then just all these "filthy" in the annals and suggest conspiracy theological thoughts. Russian princes go to the Horde, you know, they feast there, sometimes they return with their wives (!), And in the annals of their Horde chiefs they are watered in black. This is the same as reading in the Soviet newspapers in 1940: "A fascist ober-bandit, the so-called" Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Hitlerite clique Ribbentrop, visited the USSR.
            So it is better to start with the conjuncture of academicians. And in more detail.
          2. co-creator
            co-creator 15 January 2018 02: 22
            +2
            Quote: Kotischa
            The appearance in the works on the history of the century before last the term “yoke” and “Tatar-Mongols” most succinctly describes the events of those centuries.

            And Kievan Rus also succinctly describes the history of the ancient Russian state? Do not you think that in the annals themselves there is already all the terminology and a replacement for a new type of “yoke”, “Tatar-Mongols”, “Mongols” has led to a change in the meaning and understanding of the text of the annals?

            Quote: Kotischa
            So in the bottom line - the "yoke" - this is the period of dominance of the khans of the Horde over the Principality of Russia;

            What dominance? So Peter I paid tribute to the Crimean Tatars, does this mean that they dominated the Russian state?
            Quote: Kotischa
            - “Tatar-Mongols” are those from the annals of “godless filthy”,

            This is what you yourself have come up with. "Godless nasties" may be the same Rusichs who ravaged the neighboring prince and plundered temples. To rob a neighbor’s temple for the princes of that time was worthless. Now you have distorted the annals and did not notice this.
            Quote: Kotischa
            but in reality, the totality of people of different faiths and nationalities participated in campaigns in Russia under the leadership of the khans and temniks of the Horde.

            It remains only to give an exact definition of the term Horde.
            In general, for example, the Tatar Crimean army also consisted of different nomadic tribes. Robbery is not conquest, here you can dial different rabble.

            Quote: Kotischa
            - "invasions" - separate military operations on the territory of Russia. There is a tradition in historiographic literature to name them by the name of the leader.

            in other words, the robbery of the forest steppe.
            It is strange that this tradition did not appear to write so about similar “operations” of the Crimean Tatars.
            Quote: Kotischa
            Or do you propose to write - "..... godless filthy tsar Batu bursting into the church of the city of Suzdal chopped everything up, the whole slep ..." or even easier if direct directions from those years, preferably with identification cards, medical policies and state registration marks on there are no horses or yoke - no?

            Well, yes, something like that should be written. ... An army led by Batu ... but instead they write specifically the Mongol Tatars that there is a forgery and an attempt to change the text of the annals.
            IGOs and robbery are two different things.
            Quote: Kotischa
            Denying the general, with the help of the private I beg you more than stupid.

            You privately change the general. I can prove it to you using the example of 1917 or 1991.
            Quote: Kotischa
            Trying to destroy the established historical school of Russia, the successor of science of the Russian Empire and the USSR, and the most ridiculous at the level of "I have not read, but do not approve"?

            It is strange, if someone coined the term Kievan Rus, then it’s impossible to break and discuss it? I now believe that a historical school where they come up with terms that distort texts and that meaning should not only be broken, but thrown into the trash.
            Quote: Kotischa
            Especially when archaeological and linguistic directions of science are ignored.

            That is right. Unfortunately, official historical science ignores archeology when they do not coincide with this science. I'm just silent about forgeries for political purposes.
            Quote: Kotischa
            I do not defend academicians, they are also mistaken, mistaken or defend - conjuncture

            In this case, you say, do not dare to touch the historical school. This is somehow incomprehensible.
            Quote: Kotischa
            In my posts I defend an unknown monk who wrote in the light of a torch - "in ...... Batu himself came to Kozelsk with all his hordes and there was darkness with him ........ It was three weeks ... .... and they say the baby their prince Kozelsky in that blood drowned.

            And why did you decide that he was writing the truth? Because you want to think so? Here many citizens really believe that Solzhenitsyn wrote the truth in his literature about the Gulag. Even at school they study him.
        4. Hantengri
          Hantengri 13 January 2018 12: 35
          +5
          Quote: venaya
          Please tell us more about this moment, otherwise the experts working on this historical time still have not found a single mention, not even about the "Tatar-Mongols"

          In Russian and European sources they are usually called Tatars.
          Quote: venaya
          “Yoke” - because even the very word in the original documents in the Russian language of that time has not yet been discovered.

          Here, after all, bad luck! There is a yoke, but no words! laughing Tell me, Venya, because the inhabitants of Central Asia, at first, with a fright, called the steam locomotive “shaitan arava”, did he somehow change, temporarily, his essence and ceased to be a steam locomotive?
        5. Vend
          15 January 2018 14: 13
          +1
          Quote: venaya
          Quote: Kotischa
          .. in his Ph.D. Vladimir Artemievich conducts a comparative analysis Tatar-Mongol invasions and their reflection in Russian chronicles.

          This is the most interesting: Is it possible that in the Russian chronicles of that time at least once some “Tatar-Mongol invasions” were mentioned? Please tell us more about this moment, otherwise the specialists working on this historical time still have not found a single mention, not that "Tatar-Mongols"but even about the most"Yoke"- because even the very word in the original documents in the Russian language of that time has not yet been discovered. True, they say that a century after the end of this very"Yoke“a certain Pole brought this word from the West. But as you know, all this was already much later. In general, I’ll say that to defend at least some dissertation on this subject, it’s usually necessary to write some kind of stupidity, otherwise VAK will definitely not miss it, and will not allow defending a dissertation. Such is our life today, and more often, unfortunately, we have to put up with it.

          Read "Zadonshchina" "The Legend of the Mamaev Massacre"., "The Tale of the Ruin of Ryazan Batu".
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 13 January 2018 09: 39
    +6
    Thank. Birch bark letters - like a ray of light in the past centuries.
    1. Cat
      Cat 13 January 2018 10: 02
      +5
      V. Yanov has a lot about birch bark letters. In fact, archaeological research in the USSR is a grandiose project to search for themselves. Oh, will we be so rich to repeat them!
  3. Serge72
    Serge72 13 January 2018 09: 58
    20
    It is very important that the scientist
    proved the coincidence of archeological data with the data of ancient Russian chronicles and the accuracy and reliability of historical and geographical information provided by chroniclers.

    That is, additional evidence of the CREDIBILITY of chronicles, the source value of which the authors of some articles of VO (and not only VO) encroach on.
    So really - THANKS for the material
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 13 January 2018 10: 05
    +5
    Valentin Lavrentievich Yanin, recalls: “Starting the first lecture, Artsikhovsky introduced the audience to the defects of his speech:“ I do not pronounce the two letters “k” and “g”; instead, I say “t” and “d.” It sounded like this : “I do not pronounce“ t ”and“ d ”; instead, I say“ t ”and“ d ”. The explanation did not save. One student, who carefully recorded his lecture on findings in the Black Grave, where, among other things, funerary equipment were found at the exam, she began to tell Artsikhovsky about chicken horns, making a reasonable adjustment to what she heard. The professor then indignantly said: “Dumb fool! There are no births in the tour!”
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 13 January 2018 10: 25
      +5
      Good. These episodes help to feel that the person is alive, not a bronze statue.
      1. Cat
        Cat 13 January 2018 12: 32
        +2
        The example mentioned by Alexey about V. Yanin, I heard from the already late assistant professor D. Yagofarov at my first lecture at the University in 1995. It was cited as an example that “there are no indestructible authorities - people burn pots and there is no better reward for a teacher when a student surpasses him”!
  5. Curious
    Curious 13 January 2018 16: 41
    +5
    Venya, as always, casts a shadow on the wattle fence, distorting the facts. The fact that the term “yoke” with reference to the power of the Golden Horde over Russia was introduced in 1479 by the Polish chronicler Dlugosh, and the term “yoke” was not used in the Russian chronicles in this context, it has been known since 1479.
    But this, firstly, does not cancel the fact of the existence of the Golden Horde, Russia and their confrontation. Secondly, the word "yoke" has been known since biblical times. Etymology is in the relevant literature.
    Some statements suggest that the comrade belongs to the category of “unrecognized” geniuses, offended by everyone.
  6. Yura Yakovlev
    Yura Yakovlev 13 January 2018 22: 17
    +3
    This is how myths are born.
    The first birch bark letters were discovered during excavations in the 19th century Vasily Stepanovich Peredolsky.
    Peredolsky displayed birch bark letters found or bought from the peasants in the city’s first private museum built on his own money. According to him, birch bark letters were “letters of our ancestors”. However, it was impossible to make out anything on old scraps of birch bark, so historians talked about hoaxes or considered "writing of their ancestors" as scribbles of illiterate peasants.
    In the 1920s, the Peredolsky Museum was nationalized and then closed. The director of the Novgorod State Museum Nikolai Grigoryevich Porfiridov issued the conclusion that "most of the things did not represent any special museum value." As a result, the first collection of birch bark letters was irretrievably lost.
    True, we must admit that Peredolsky was not looking for letters, but the legendary city of Slovensk, which is exactly where it should be described. For some reason, only this fact is hushed up by modern scholars, as well as the primacy in detecting birch bark letters
    1. Michael_Zverev
      Michael_Zverev 13 January 2018 22: 53
      +2
      VL Yanov mentioned Peredolsky back in the 70s.
      Here, perhaps, it is appropriate to talk about one interesting conversation. Shortly after the birch-bark letters were opened, one elderly man who was in his childhood in Novgorod (and this was before the revolution) and then visited the private museum of the Novgorod local historian and collector V.S. Peredolsky, said that he saw birch bark letters in this museum. Impressed by these unusual letters, my interlocutor recalls, he and other boys, his comrades, even started a game of birch bark mail. This is hardly a memory error. There is nothing unusual in that birch bark letters could be in the collection of a lover of Novgorod antiquities at the beginning of our century. If these letters remained completely unknown to science, then most likely they were insignificant fragments on which no coherent text could be read. We began to encounter such scraps already in 1951. For example, letter No. 7 contained only the first words: “A bow from Philip to ...” Since then, such scraps on the expedition received the comic name “Filkin letters”. But we take them on a par with the whole. Indeed, it can always turn out that the continuation of work in the neighboring section, even after many years, will open another fragment of such a letter, and then it will be possible to read it in its entirety. Be that as it may, the real discovery of birch bark letters occurred only in 1951.

      Yanin V.L. Birch bark mail of centuries. - M.: Pedagogy, 1979.
      In general, scientists knew about the existence of birch bark writing until 1951.