Military Review

Hypersound or scare

59
Hypersound or scareWhen the Soviet Union collapsed, the country choked in a stream of a wide variety of information. At the same time, numerous projects and promising developments suddenly lost the “secret” stamp, and the need for one or another weapons began to argue amateurs, not having the necessary knowledge.


THEORY AND PRACTICE

If such publicity existed in the USSR, then it is highly likely that such projects as the reusable space-rocket system Energia-Buran would have remained on paper. Would not have to create and "Spiral". Or take, for example, the plane T-4, titanium "Weave." We realized it in time, saving a lot of money. And how much has been invested in the development of nuclear power plants for aircraft, and all for nothing. The situation with the project of the Tu-144 passenger was no better. True, from all these projects something useful was learned, but this smallness did not pay for the investment.

There are many such examples associated with unnecessary or not having practical application, not only in the aircraft industry, but also in other areas. But the most unpleasant is that seemingly educated people do not want to learn from the mistakes of the past, offering and supporting ideas that are harmful to the country.

It is one thing to conduct research aimed at providing promising developments, and another, to “take the bull by the horns” at once, launching experimental samples into serial production that did not pass the test. The main source of such ridiculous decisions was politics, but it seems that today it also overcomes the minds of some specialists. And the press can only inflate words abandoned by famous personalities.

ON THE EMPTY PLACE

Recently, all the bowl you can hear the arguments about hypersonic aircraft. We began to speak about special flights more than half a century ago about flights that were five or more times faster than sound speed, and in all seriousness, when we still had no idea even about supersonic speeds. Various schemes of power plants and the aircraft themselves (LA) were considered, they even tried to simulate something on the ground stands and in flight. But before the full-scale implementation of hypersonic projects over the past decades, it has not reached. The only aircrafts flying at hypersonic speed are still descendable spacecraft and the head parts of intercontinental ballistic missiles, but they are not even indirectly related to aircraft manufacturing.

Of course, you can refer to the flights of the experimental American X-15 aircraft, as well as the Space Shuttle and Buran spacecraft, but it should be understood that the duration of their flight at hypersonic speed is calculated in minutes. But there are all sorts of sensational messages, only encouraging the arms race.

THE FATE OF MIG

Not long ago, the State Duma of the Russian Federation held hearings on the resumption of serial production of the MiG-31 interceptor fighter, which seemed to have nothing to do with it. This aircraft completed the evolution of the E-15 family of OKB A.I. Mikoyan. True, the tasks facing him are still relevant, but the level of engineering technology on which it was based is a thing of the past. This spawned talk of creating a new interceptor fighter. He was even dubbed as the MiG-41, and some editions replicate the hypothetical drawings of the future car. However, as experience shows, in fact, the new machine usually turns out to be quite a different look, more close to the earth, than it is served in the media.

At the same time, Honored Test Pilot, Hero of Russia Anatoly Kvochur in February 2014 of the year, commenting on the report of State Duma Deputy Alexander Tarnaev on the development of the MiG-41 in Russia based on the MiG-31, in an interview with RIA News reported that the newest interceptor MiG-41 should fly at a speed exceeding the sound one no less than 4 – 4,3 times, that is, close to hypersonic. Only few people think about what will give the interceptor these extra 1000 km / h? If this is true, and not misinformation, then the new “MiG” can become a reality no earlier than 2030 of the year.

Kvochur's statement followed the publication in the American magazine Aviation Week & Space Technology on November 1, 2013 of an article by Guy Norris entitled Exclusive: Skunk Works Reveals SR-71 Successor Plan on the development by Lockheed Martin of the promising high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft SR-72 with turbo-ramjet engines, capable of performing flight at a speed 5,5-6 times higher than the sound speed. Its first flight prototype is scheduled to take off in 2020. But the American project should not be classified as a shock one, it will be so expensive that if it comes to mass production, then overseas will be limited to the release of no more than a dozen cars, at best.

It is not possible to implement in the foreseeable future and the Russian project. Such airplanes will be extremely expensive and much more complicated than the MiG-31, since they will have to solve numerous problems associated with the creation of turbo-jet engines (these are the most high-tech units in the aircraft industry) and with the cooling of very heat-stressed airframe components heated from air friction to 500 – 600 degrees Celsius (limit for titanium), and the life support of the crew.

FORGOTTEN "COLD"

Yes, in our country science does not stand still, and there is some experience in creating direct-flow jet engines, including those intended for hypersonic speed flight (scramjet). In the "NVO" this was repeatedly reported. In particular, it was told about the joint creation in 1970 of the Khimki design bureau “Fakel” and the CIAM of the hypersonic flying laboratory (GLL) “Cold”. Its basis was the anti-aircraft missile 5B28 complex C-200В. At the same time on the bow of the product 5В28 placed experimental scramjet E-57. According to media reports, the studies were successful and an invaluable experimental result was obtained.

But one thing is a scramjet, and another thing is a combined turbo-jet propulsion system, since the plane must take off from the airfield, accelerate to a speed of at least 3 thousand km / h, and then the scramjet must enter, and the turbojet engine must shut down. Similar power plants were considered by engineers half a century ago, but they never appeared. It cannot be ruled out that for hypersonic aircraft that take off independently from the airfield, it will be necessary to create even more complex engines, including a variable cycle.

Another difficult task facing the creators of a combat vehicle will be the safe launch of rockets from the cargo compartment into a high-speed environment, since it is simply impossible to place them on the external suspension of a hypersonic carrier, again because of the aerodynamic heating, and they will create such a huge resistance. that the economy will have to forget. What is good on paper is not always good in practice.

As an example, I will give the surface temperature of the SR-71 when flying in cruise mode at a speed corresponding to the number M = 3. The temperature of the front edges and the inside of the air intake is approximately 427 degrees Celsius, and on the outer surface of the skin in the afterburner of the engines is almost 600 degrees.

Remember the words of A.N. Tupolev, abandoned sukhovtsami about T-4: "Do you want to ruin the country?". Time has confirmed the correctness of Andrei Nikolaevich, since his place was taken by a simpler and cheaper bomber-missile carrier Tu-22М3.

AND AGAIN ON THE RAKE

You can, of course, return to the steel hull, similar to that used on the MiG-25, or to the thin-walled structures of the "Steel" 1930-s aircraft. And surely these structures should be cooled, especially for their most heat-stressed nodes. But whether this will achieve the final result is unknown.

In 1958, we were already attacking an almost “hypersonic rake” when the military wanted to see the E-155 interceptor flying at a speed of 4 thousand km / h at an altitude of 30 to 50 km, and intercept any air targets at the turn of 140 – 170 km Fortunately, there was no such goal, and they thought better of it in time.

Hypersonic speed in the aircraft industry is not far off. But it is not manned vehicles that should be so speedy, but unmanned reconnaissance aircraft and combat missiles. But even here there are “pitfalls”: for example, how to protect a nuclear warhead from the same heat. And without it in the future war you will not manage, despite the huge stock of kinetic energy of a high-speed rocket. Yes, and start such products are likely to be not from hypersonic, but supersonic manned aircraft carriers, and this direction is quite realistic.

True, even in this capacity, it will not be easy to create such products, and it will take more than a decade. Just one example: the development of the X-31 winged supersonic missile with its active financing took more than 20 years, work went on from the 1977 year.
Author:
Originator:
http://nvo.ng.ru/armament/2018-01-12/7_979_hyper.html
59 comments
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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 14 January 2018 07: 00
    +3
    Hypersonic speed in the aircraft industry is just around the corner. But so fast it is necessary to do not manned vehicles, but unmanned reconnaissance and military missiles.

    Once aviation began with wooden "whatnots". Time will come and hypersound will be almost an everyday occurrence. EVERYTHING HAS ITS TIME. yes
    1. Sergey39
      Sergey39 14 January 2018 07: 32
      +1
      In the meantime, hypersound to fright will fit
    2. siberalt
      siberalt 14 January 2018 07: 34
      12
      Somehow it would be better if serious articles were posted on the forum, preferably by adult authors.
      1. Vard
        Vard 14 January 2018 08: 21
        +4
        Technical problems, unlike others, are being solved ... And after the MiG-31 started flying, violations of our borders completely stopped ... He was catching up a black bird ... there was a rumor that they even shot down one ...
    3. Cat
      Cat 14 January 2018 07: 52
      +5
      Hurry should be leisurely!
      Currently, our aircraft industry is in stagnation. What is produced in the USSR is deteriorating, what we are doing today is still not enough. But if we stop “moving” at all, then no matter how much we can lose than with today's “attempts”.
      My own subjective opinion, in the 90s we once "saved on science" and ........
      In this connection, it is more progmatic to go towards the goal, developing high-tech technologies that, when implemented, will pull adjacent areas of the national economy. Space, aviation, crab building - these are the whales on which you can comfortably sit. By the way, these areas are clearly more promising than the oil and gas needles of the economy. In this connection, I believe that various buns such as 200 lyam for flights to the territory of Russia should not be launched by carrier companies such as Aeroflot, but by a research institute related to aviation development. Including military.
      R.s. If, under equal other conditions, I am offered to fly an IL-96, airbus or Boeing, then I will choose our car simply because of pride in my homeland.
      1. Molot1979
        Molot1979 14 January 2018 13: 10
        +9
        Dear, if you are drawn to express your undoubtedly very valuable thoughts, then state them in the correct Russian language. AviAprom, not AviOprom, stagnation, not Stognization, carriers, and not carriers unknown to the Russian language. And then there is a feeling that a second-grader-two-year-old got into the forum, accidentally getting to his father's computer. Pride in their homeland is also desirable to show, without distorting the native language.
        1. Cat
          Cat 14 January 2018 15: 25
          +1
          Thanks for the comments, otherwise the paws are thick - the phone is small!
          Although you have not been told that before fighting grammatics like me, at least punctuation must be correctly placed!
          However, I allow you not to read my comments, the patriot’s heart will not stand it.
          It remains to regret that the system of "minuses" was removed on the site.
          Sincerely, Kitty! hi
    4. krops777
      krops777 14 January 2018 08: 16
      +5
      But here there are "pitfalls": for example, how to protect a nuclear warhead from the same heating.

      Che for nonsense, and now, for example, Sarmat warheads do not enter the atmosphere at hypersound?
      Would not have created and "Spiral". Or take, for example, a T-4 plane, a titanium “Weaving”. They caught on in time, saving a lot of money


      This is a penny compared to how much they spent on supporting the countries of the socialist camp and building facilities in "friendly" countries.
    5. gridasov
      gridasov 14 January 2018 13: 02
      +2
      It’s like the fantasy of a peasant woman becoming a queen. There is not even a scientifically sound methodology for understanding flight processes in rapidly changing physical processes. Hyper speed is precisely such a process. There are no analysis techniques as a method of working with super-large mathematical data to mathematically model such events.
      1. Igor V
        Igor V 14 January 2018 14: 43
        +1
        Keldysh would have come up with!
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 14 January 2018 14: 51
          +2
          Maybe . But life is so short, and the working potential of intelligence is so short that a person does not have time not only to realize his knowledge, but also to find receivers. The new generation always starts almost from scratch. Why! Because truth is such a thing that cannot be expressed in words. A sage and a disciple always go in parallel, but in different ways, and cannot be taught, but can only be learned.
          1. Vadim237
            Vadim237 14 January 2018 21: 01
            0
            You need to direct all your fundamental knowledge to create a warp engine - you never know what happens
            1. Vadim237
              Vadim237 14 January 2018 21: 26
              0
              As one character said, this is pure mathematics.
            2. gridasov
              gridasov 14 January 2018 21: 50
              +1
              Do not rush. All processes are developing according to algorithms and, as one character said, a "Newton's apple" or a "mathematical apple" cannot come off the branch and immediately appear on the ground. Moreover . Each point in the spatial disposition of the body’s flight has a set of unique and purely unique fundamental parameters that do not arise on their own, but are an algorithmic process of transforming one complex into another. So this is really pure math
          2. Mikhail3
            Mikhail3 14 January 2018 21: 57
            +1
            but also find receivers

            Can you find the transmitters? It is amusing to listen to deep comments about the nature of cognition set forth in the language of a negligent seven-year school.
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 14 January 2018 22: 37
              +1
              Yes, what kind of people are you, that you have seven-year-olds around, and you are kind of smart, and you ruined the planet and you yourself didn’t become smarter. The whole energy of the processes is costly, but turn off the light and not many will survive And for you it’s also fun. At the same time, you yourself carry such information in which the terms and words you yourself cannot fully substantiate.
              1. Mikhail3
                Mikhail3 15 January 2018 08: 44
                0
                Honey ... and you did not bust? Spherical humanoid in a vacuum. Good genius to build from himself, ignoramus.
        2. Mikhail3
          Mikhail3 14 January 2018 21: 55
          +1
          I have suspicions that Keldysh has already come up with. Even when the "Storm" did. Just hypersonic missiles - a pointless thing. Complex filling in them simply can not withstand acceleration. Yes, there are technologies on the basis of which they make smart shells for artillery. But the right rocket filling is many times more complicated ...
          Hypersonic airplanes are useless; they cannot save whole pilots. A little maneuvering, and ... The most logical would be a cloud of shells consisting of carbide scrap and a hyper accelerator. The energy carried by a simple piece of iron at hyper speed is already monstrous. Plus, by any means it is necessary to achieve low cost devices, even if relative.
          In general, large and complex megaracats should not be made. But about the mass and
          cheapness you need to think hard ...
      2. Vlad.by
        Vlad.by 15 January 2018 02: 50
        0
        Mr. Gribasov, now everyone is indulging in models. From imitation to analytical. Artificial intelligence is created, models of human and social behavior are investigated. A. You are again for yours. The issue in hypersound is not in flight theory, although, I suppose, there will still be surprises. The question is in the materials and in the interaction of the plasma and the object. What is the use of hypersound if there is no connection with the device, for example.
    6. The comment was deleted.
    7. Do not care
      Do not care 14 January 2018 20: 36
      +1
      Quote: aszzz888
      Hypersonic speed in the aircraft industry is just around the corner. But so fast it is necessary to do not manned vehicles, but unmanned reconnaissance and military missiles.

      Once aviation began with wooden "whatnots". Time will come and hypersound will be almost an everyday occurrence. EVERYTHING HAS ITS TIME. yes



      Once astronautics began with flights to the moon. Almost 50 years have passed. Everyone has already forgotten about the moon. Just the laws of physics met the laws of Economics.
  2. Indifferent
    Indifferent 14 January 2018 07: 15
    +4
    Something I did not hear anything about the Zircon rocket, which it’s already taken to service, or are about to do so in the near future. I want to add that it was the development of aircraft with nuclear power plants that led to certain conclusions in aircraft construction and space engines. There is a reserve that can always be used for further work in one direction or another. And the Buran technology also allowed the creation of high-strength ceramics and television control of large aircraft, which could not but come in handy in other, mainly military, areas. Therefore, I believe that any negative result is also a very useful result. Well, but the fact that dear, so without difficulty the fish is not caught. From everything you can draw conclusions and look for other ways. It is clear that finance does not allow making a hypersonic plane. After all, he should fly at an altitude above 40 km, and fly very far. Otherwise, there is no sense in this whole undertaking. And this needs new materials, new technologies and new approaches. The level of modern science is not yet pulled in this area. And if you pull, it will turn out to be cosmicly expensive! I think that hypersound so far is only needed for cruise and ballistic missiles. He dispersed the rocket in space, and sent guided hypersonic heads to the ground. They themselves fly, they themselves are guided and they themselves undertake an anti-ballistic maneuver. It is real, relatively cheap, and will soon be universally applied. And airplanes are a short future. Because it is very expensive. I will say more. Flying saucer technology is essentially already known. Laboratory samples have been created and they show clear theoretical conclusions. But to make a flying saucer with the modern development of technology is impossible. There you need a disk with a diameter of several meters of unimaginable accuracy of manufacture from ceramics and simply beyond the limit strength. To create such a very difficult and extremely expensive! Really impossible at the moment. But this does not mean that you do not need to work in this direction.
    1. Winnie76
      Winnie76 14 January 2018 07: 51
      +5
      Quote: indifferent
      I will say more. Flying saucer technology is essentially already known. Laboratory samples have been created and they show clear theoretical conclusions. But to make a flying saucer with the modern development of technology is impossible. There you need a disk with a diameter of several meters of unimaginable accuracy of manufacture from ceramics and simply beyond the limit strength. To create such a very difficult and extremely expensive!

      Prokopenko Detected. Tell us better about ECIP and reptilians.
    2. gridasov
      gridasov 14 January 2018 13: 10
      +2
      What are the ways!? To find the right path, you must first find that door in a dark room, of which there are unimaginably many, to first take this path. In high-potential complex processes, you first need to learn how to analyze such processes. As for flying saucers, it’s generally funny you reason. What is needed is not just disks, but which form the space between the magnetic power flows, which will be determined by a high energy density, and this does not require expensive materials and ultra-high accuracy. You need to know the technology for organizing such processes and the algorithmic sequence of their organization. Therefore, in the current development, humanity is unable to think and reason with categories of reality. Everything is built on illusions and methods far from reality.
  3. Herculesic
    Herculesic 14 January 2018 08: 30
    +6
    Wow! So much nonsense in one article! fool The author sees the holidays have not ended yet, otherwise he would not have written such an explicit order in the form of his scribble! fool Let's go back to the origins of aviation - sail and plywood - these are the materials from which new ones will be built, they are also true and old wassat aircraft! As a fuel, naturally castor oil, as it was at the dawn of aviation? However, the horse’s serving of castor oil needs to be given to the author of the article — maybe it will lead the author out of a delirious state! !! fool The author, to you from me - - - - - - - !!!
    1. Igor V
      Igor V 14 January 2018 14: 47
      +1
      Do not shoot the pianist, he plays as he can. Whether he is needed at VO is the question.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 14 January 2018 15: 04
        +2
        The absolute majority of research institutes and other research laboratories work according to your principle. A group of like-minded people is gathering, but everyone is so unanimous that they do not see objectivity. There is no person in the group of these people with a justified, but alternative method of analyzing and thinking and solving problems. Therefore, it always turns out that way, everyone thinks in terms of mass imposition of opinion. All for or all against. The conclusion is this. that digging from information you never know where and when it will pop up. that will close the picture of puzzles. , and most importantly, from these puzzles you need to draw a well-grounded picture that would like a polygon to tend to a circle, but never will, since dimensionality is algorithmic, which means that this polygon can always be measured by dimensionality change algorithms. So truth-it is always an object of approximation, since from any disposition of a relative look at it, it will be peculiar and unique.
  4. AlNikolaich
    AlNikolaich 14 January 2018 10: 15
    0
    I repeat once again. Before a long controlled flight in hypersound, how can we wait until a carrot conversation. So far, only warheads can "fall" from space at such speeds!
    If the USSR could not, then the prospect of this is very far! It is true hypersound at speeds above 8 max. And now even the supersonic order of 4 Mach is an insurmountable problem. Devices fly a few kilometers and collapse!
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 14 January 2018 13: 42
      0
      Precisely that they do not even understand the causes of destruction.
    2. Vlad.by
      Vlad.by 15 January 2018 02: 56
      0
      Ek, you are bent! But what about explosives under 5-6M gaining and even maneuvering when aiming at a target?
  5. vlad007
    vlad007 14 January 2018 11: 39
    0
    Quote from the article: "... since it is simply impossible to place them on the external slider of a hypersonic carrier, again due to aerodynamic heating, and they will create so much resistance that they will have to forget about the economy."
    They haven’t placed anything on the external sling for a long time (F-22,35,117 and our Su-57) since they began to introduce the technology of stealths - placing something on the external slider increases radar visibility.
  6. Northern warrior
    Northern warrior 14 January 2018 13: 08
    +1
    The problem of heat removal from hypersonic missiles is solved by applying an ablation coating to their body, which carries away heat during evaporation. That is how BB missiles and spacecraft are protected from overheating. This approach is good for disposable products, but completely unsuitable for reusable aircraft. I see a way out only in the cooling of heat-stressed sections of the airframe with aviation fuel, which must constantly circulate through special channels. I’m not sure, however, that there is enough glider area to dissipate a huge amount of heat at speeds above 6M. While there are no materials that would not lose strength during prolonged supersonic flight. MiG-25/31, of course, can fly at a speed of 3000 km / h (2.83M), but for a short time, although their gliders are almost entirely made of steel and titanium alloys.
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 14 January 2018 13: 50
      0
      First you need to understand. what temperature is and the consequence of what processes it is. So, you can always either stabilize variable magnetic fluxes, which means you can control temperature processes, and not look for a panacea. And in general it is simple physics.
    2. CT-55_11-9009
      CT-55_11-9009 16 January 2018 14: 16
      0
      Quote: Northern warrior
      The problem of heat removal from hypersonic missiles is solved by applying an ablation coating to their body, which carries away heat during evaporation.

      Well, that is unlikely. The product then has a very large weight ...
      Quote: Northern warrior
      I see a way out only in the cooling of heat-stressed sections of the airframe with aviation fuel, which must constantly circulate through special channels.

      Actually, for several decades now, the combustion chambers and LPRE nozzles have been so cooled. Yes, and the Black Bird, EMNIP, has the same principle of cooling, so the idea is not new. But true.
      Quote: Northern warrior
      I’m not sure, however, that there is enough glider area to dissipate a huge amount of heat at speeds above 6M.

      Enough. Even the American X-15 reached 6,2M and nothing melted. True, he had problems with cracking the cockpit ... But they were solved, and promptly.
      Quote: Northern warrior
      While there are no materials that would not lose strength during prolonged supersonic flight.

      Right? But what about heat-resistant titanium alloys (tungsten and nickel to the heap)? They are just resistant to supersonic conditions.
  7. Jurkovs
    Jurkovs 14 January 2018 13: 29
    +1
    If such glasnost existed in the USSR, it is highly likely that projects such as the reusable space-rocket system Energia-Buran would have remained on paper.

    Surprised by the author. Doesn’t he know that all the leading experts and designers were against the monstrous Energy-Buran. They unanimously claimed about its lack of demand and uselessness. In exchange, several more necessary and demanded projects were proposed, including the air launch of Lozino-Lozinsky. And only Brezhnev’s obstinacy, who said “to make things like the Americans”, became the reason for the implementation of this unnecessary project, which was confirmed by further history.
  8. Irbenwolf
    Irbenwolf 14 January 2018 13: 29
    +5
    How interesting scribble. There is such an aphorism: "Who carries the flashlight - stumbles more often."

    Suppose that Energia, Buran, Spiral, T4, Scythian, Well done, Bartini’s creations, ekranoplans are all that our “partners” did not succeed in and turned out to be in the USSR by investing “a lot of money”. Let's say all this money is saved - where to put it? Let me guess, "let it go for the good of the people." Guessed? I know that I guessed right. So, dear author - scroll through the story to this day and see where that money would go - cottages, villas, resorts and other things that are extremely useful to the people. List of "people" you forgot to attach. You should not think that in the USSR it was completely different than now. There were rich officials and “shadow workers” only in view of the ideology of arrogance, these people had a couple of orders of magnitude less. Because they could "come".

    In order to understand the stupidity of what was written, go along the street of an industrial city outside the Moscow Ring Road and take an interest in whether people would prefer Energy-Spiral-Buran or "monetization of benefits" and other "caring requisitions."

    In Russia, a monument of gold to the creators of a nuclear bomb has not yet been cast. Remember Japan without a bomb?
  9. sxfRipper
    sxfRipper 14 January 2018 13: 34
    0
    I’m not even a sofa expert, I can warm my back on the stove! Explain to me, the grayness is not scratched - WHO AND HOW can MANAGE a hypersonic PLATFORM ??? Everything else is with the author, the penultimate paragraph.
    1. Irbenwolf
      Irbenwolf 14 January 2018 13: 52
      0
      Well, approximately the same as how to provide fuel combustion in the combustion chamber at the same speeds. In order to get modern supersonic engines, Arkhip Lulka spent 30 years, but he solved the problem.

      And yes, the speed of propagation of the radio wave is equal to the speed of light. As for overloads, for a pilot, with a uniform set of speeds, they can be brought to acceptable values.
      1. sxfRipper
        sxfRipper 14 January 2018 16: 20
        0
        I didn’t ask about that. I’m talking about the need for a homo sapiens inside a piece of iron, which he (homo in the sense of) simply cannot control! Well, with the exception of takeoff. As for landing - you understand ... First you need to return.
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. CT-55_11-9009
          CT-55_11-9009 16 January 2018 14: 31
          0
          And on takeoff, and on landing, and in flight can control. True, losing consciousness is just a spit. I understand, not ours, but read about the American X-15 rocket. He accelerated to over 6 Machs and was manned. Of course, there were many nuances, but still the Americans brought the apparatus to an acceptable state. The X-15 maneuvered like a brick, and because of the overloads, I had to make a special protrusion on the cockpit to stop with the front part of the helmet, and the head restraint of the chair held the back of the head (so that the neck would not break to hell). The pilot’s seat itself was fitted more than half the pilot so that, God forbid, the ribs would not break during lateral overloads. And the control system was redone, putting instead of two control knobs three (like pitch, roll and speed controls, but just three, and installed them on the armrests of the seat, otherwise the pilot could not control the steering wheel due to overloads even with a straight horizontal flight ) Plus - a special control panel close to the space suit of cosmonauts. Actually, many astronauts also trained on the X-15, the same Armstrong, for example, hooked up this program at its end.
      2. gridasov
        gridasov 14 January 2018 22: 01
        0
        Arkhip Lyulka is purely experimental, but still a genius of his mind made an influx on the surface of the expiration of the blade and this achieved the result. Moreover, if he had understood and justified such a technical solution, he would have created a fundamentally new engine in design, and would not have squeezed a lemon out of which nothing can be squeezed out. Although you can still add the tangential air inlet and ejection of the outlet nozzle. True, an increase in traction will be followed by a decrease in the quality factor of work.
  10. Ace Tambourine
    Ace Tambourine 14 January 2018 20: 43
    0
    I remember the Apollons on the 2nd space landing went ... And they are alive for now ... not all, really ... but what to do, Time is stronger
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 14 January 2018 21: 20
      0
      The shuttle and Buran also entered the dense atmospheric layers on the first space - thermal protection kept the temperature at 1500 C. Full of materials for the manufacture of hypersonic rocket and aircraft bodies: tantalum carbide - 3880 degrees, niobium carbide 3800 degrees, tungsten 3200 degrees, molybdenum carbide 3000 degrees, carbon fiber - 5000 degrees in the future, these devices will be able to print on large 3D printers, since carbides are powder metallurgy and from them make a processing tool for heavy processing conditions. Also, diamond-like materials and superhard materials such as Ballas, Carbonado, Slavutich, Elbor, Hexanit R, Belbor, Ismit, and Dismit can become structural materials for GLA.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 14 January 2018 22: 06
        0
        It is necessary to distinguish between the melting temperature of a material in a static state when it is melting on the ground and the temperature in a dynamic state when the temperature is caused by ionization of the surface of the expiration and the formation of magnetic fluxes and the temperature itself is a consequence of the induced alternating voltages of the magnetic flux and EMF in these materials. These are fundamentally different processes.
        1. Vadim237
          Vadim237 15 January 2018 00: 13
          0
          That's why instrumental materials with great strength, low calorific value and correspondingly less creep, under the influence of pressure of 100000 atmospheres at 10 Mach and a heating temperature of about 900 degrees, are the most suitable option for creating hull elements: wingtips, fairings, air intakes, etc.
          1. gridasov
            gridasov 17 January 2018 18: 11
            0
            All is correct. However, materials have critical strength limits, which means that it is necessary to prioritize the process in which the temperature of these tips, fairings, air intakes, etc. will be depolarized and, with a controlled potential relative to the velocity and ionizing properties of the outflowing stream, create potential and emf, which are the result of destruction and overheating
            1. Kelwin
              Kelwin 23 January 2018 02: 35
              +2
              Yeah. Clear but not clear. Could you explain on fingers, that is, in a digestible form, the equations or formulas overwhelming, the mentioned concepts and relations like “depolarization of temperature” and its relationship with a certain “potential”, well, and what else is doubtful in your texts above? Especially delivered this "There is not even scientifically sound process understanding techniques flight in fast-changing physical processes "
              1. gridasov
                gridasov 23 January 2018 11: 16
                0
                Come on ! Simply, if we consider temperature as a derivative of a certain physical and cyclical and symmetrical process, then it is completely obvious that where the temperature rises, then there are areas in the circuit where this temperature tends to balance this potential and there is a process of desire to lower the temperature. In general, it is much simpler to consider this whole process as electromagnetic interaction. Therefore, it’s closer to the topic .. Designers and engineers create a process in which an unidirectional process of interaction of one level of energy density expressed by magnetic potential occurs in the engine and which is created in the engine itself when fuel is burned, and then the so-called "rejection of the masses", which interacts with the external environment. And therefore, achieving greater flight speeds of the body requires creating more potential in the engine. And this potential is indicated by raising the temperature in the combustion chamber .. I’m talking about creating such a process cycle when the working parts of the engine rotor perform the function of only pushing and accelerating this cycle. In this case, the acceleration device is carried out not by external influences and fuel consumption, but by its own interconversion and kinetic energy of the air flow, but also converted by the potential energy of the flow. Technically, it is so simple that it does not require any incredible efforts to create such new engines according to the principle of operation. In general, we did not invent something incredible. Just changed the process algorithms through the creation of new dominants in the process. Namely, it is not only necessary to push the stream, but also to rotate it portionwise in such a way, and what is the rotation speed of the rotor and how many guiding planes of the flow and much more, which is now completely neglected when creating efficient engines.
  11. Vadim237
    Vadim237 14 January 2018 20: 54
    0
    "But it’s one thing, a scramjet engine, and another thing is a combined turboprop engine, because the plane must take off from the airfield, accelerate to a speed of at least 3 thousand km / h, and then the scramjet engine must go into operation, and the turbojet engine must shut down." Already appeared, in the same SR 72 turbojet separately, scramjet separately
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 14 January 2018 22: 25
      0
      In the engine of a new design and new according to the algorithm of physical. processes can be achieved dramatically more than a wide scale of rotation of the rotor and at the same time, these speeds can be kept within reasonable limits, but without reducing the air flow rates on the blades and most importantly at the exit from the periphery of the rotor. This means that both takeoff and landing and flight in space can be carried out on one engine. But all these are theoretical concepts, although their justification is more logical than what they fly today. and at the same time it is a reality
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 15 January 2018 00: 20
        0
        Here is a SABER hybrid jet / rocket engine already practical development.
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 15 January 2018 12: 27
          0
          Everything is wrong in this engine. Everything contradicts mathematical principles. The body will begin to lock itself earlier than the same modern ones. In general, even at the aerodynamic level there is no understanding of the essence of the processes. .
          1. Baikal
            Baikal 16 January 2018 19: 58
            +1
            Oooh, busting Gridastov again dropped out of the torsion bar laughing
            Gentlemen, the time has come for cool stories ...)) Now a specialist clown around the world will tell us everything laughing
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 17 January 2018 18: 14
              0
              I would be more upset if you were alone in your dislike of me, or rather, my reasoning. And if it makes you so upset, I can give you the pleasure of hanging out even more.
              1. Falcon5555
                Falcon5555 18 January 2018 16: 44
                0
                Somehow you argue inconsistently. "afflicted ... alone ... frustrating ... pleasure ... hang yourself" - nothing can be understood. The latter is generally somewhat ambiguous. laughing
  12. Old26
    Old26 15 January 2018 15: 28
    0
    Quote: krops777
    But here there are "pitfalls": for example, how to protect a nuclear warhead from the same heating.

    Che for nonsense, and now, for example, Sarmat warheads do not enter the atmosphere with hypersound

    No
    1. Falcon5555
      Falcon5555 18 January 2018 16: 49
      0
      C'mon ... Like no? I think they all come in much more than hypersound, they just quickly achieve their goals and do not have time to warm up. And the article is about long and horizontally flying aircraft.
  13. av58
    av58 16 January 2018 17: 14
    +1
    As soon as I read: the author is an aviation engineer and historian of aviation, and is published in Kommersant, all interest disappears. Liberoids, by definition, cannot say anything good.
  14. kamski
    kamski 16 January 2018 21: 47
    0
    “They caught on time, saving a lot of money” They didn’t save, but they stole and continue to steal ...
  15. Baby sitter
    Baby sitter 17 January 2018 23: 24
    0
    Actually, the bazaar is mainly about missiles ... Who needs hyper-planes besides an aftor?