At the end of the outgoing year, marked by the centenary of the October Socialist Revolution, we can sum up the competition of ideas that rule the world. If by world we mean all of humanity, then as a criterion of success in the competition of ideologies, we should take the rate of socio-economic development, measured by indicators of gross domestic product (GDP) and human potential index (PPI).
For the past thirty years, the PRC has been the undisputed leader in both respects, and the unconditional outsider is Ukraine. Thirty years ago, the standard of living in the latter was much higher than in China, today it is three times lower.
All these years, Russia has been trampled on the spot, having difficulty returning to the average life expectancy achieved in the USSR, which is substantially smaller in number and worse in health and the volume of production of goods with far lower added value. During this time, other countries continued to develop, most of us caught up and overtook. Russia fell below the average level, being among the third world countries.
The second world of the socialist countries after the collapse of the USSR, although it was geographically reduced, but taking into account the socialist orientation of not only China, but also India and the countries of Indochina, it became absolutely and relatively more both in terms of human potential and GDP. Ahead of the rate of socio-economic development of the country of the first world in two or three times, the second world in ten years will dominate the planet.
The first world has been stagnating for two decades, unsuccessfully struggling with the growing imbalances. Although he absorbed the space of the USSR, the general crisis of capitalism, which Soviet political economists liked to write about, did not stop. The 2-3 trillions exported from the former socialist countries and the millions of new workers hired by Western corporations have only delayed the exacerbation of this crisis, which today is acquiring apocalyptic features.
Right were those critics of market reforms that warned that the transition from socialism to capitalism for Russia would end on the periphery, among the countries of Latin America and Africa. But the authors of convergence theory also turned out to be right, proposing to combine the good elements of the capitalist and socialist systems, abandoning the bad ones. It was precisely such a synthesis that the Chinese Communists carried out by building a socialist market economy. P. Sorokin half a century ago called it an integral system, predicting the end of both Soviet socialism and American capitalism.
The integrated system combines centralized planning with market competition, state ownership in infrastructure and basic industries with private enterprise in the rest of the economy, socialist ideology with personal enrichment opportunities. Supporting entrepreneurial activity, the state regulates it in such a way as to keep the energy of private business in line with public interests. It integrates the activities of various social groups and professional communities in such a way that the result is an increase in social welfare.
If in the capitalist system the main criterion of economic activity is profit, and in the Soviet system there was an increase in production, in the PRC such is the increase in the standard of living of the population. The Chinese system of state regulation is aimed at increasing investment in the development of the production of consumer goods. The entire system of economic regulation, including the state banking system, is subordinated to the fulfillment of this task, providing cheap long-term credit for the implementation of the plans of business entities for the growth of volumes and an increase in the technical level of production. These plans are developed through an ongoing dialogue between the government, business and academia, in which the strategic goals set at the political level are realized in private initiatives on the basis of a complex system of direct and reverse connections that encourage creative activities and punish the damage to society.
For three decades, the PRC has maintained world leadership in the rate of socio-economic development. This is achieved by an effective management system, all of whose institutions operate in a coherent manner thanks to the ideology of a steady increase in public welfare supported by the overwhelming majority of the population. Everything that contradicts it is cut off, regardless of the dogmas of certain teachings.
So, Deng Xiaoping rejected the dogma of scientific communism, which forbade hired labor and the accumulation of private capital. As a result of the rise of private entrepreneurship among the rural population, a rapid growth in agricultural production began, the country solved a food problem that the powerful Soviet Union could not cope with. In contrast to the leadership of the latter, the Chinese Communist Party did not lead to the opposite dogmas of the liberal-democratic ideology. She began to build a market economy, not abandoning the achievements of socialism. During the first decade of the formation of market institutions, private enterprise developed on the basis of the businessman’s full responsibility with all its assets. Institutions of limited liability, through which the Russian state was taken away most of the property and squeezed two trillion dollars of withdrawn capital, appeared in the PRC only after the moral norms of responsible behavior in the business ethics of Chinese business were formed. The state did not distribute property free of charge, did not allow financial speculation, controlled cross-border operations — entrepreneurs were enriched by the production of socially useful products.
Unlike the Russian Federation, the PRC does not follow the dogmas of the Washington Consensus. He does not intend to abolish foreign exchange controls and restrictions on cross-border capital movements, will not abandon state lending of investments, retains state-owned basic industries and control over pricing of basic goods. The Chinese did not allow Western consultants to dissolve themselves into a transition economy - they built a socialist market economy with Chinese characteristics. With the latter definition, they emphasized the diversity of models of the socialist system, once again demonstrating a creative approach to managing socio-economic development. In the same spirit, they are building their international economic ties. The “One Belt - One Way” strategy proclaimed by Xi Jingping is based on joint investments in promising areas of trade and economic cooperation and focuses on a mutually beneficial combination of competitive advantages. Unlike Washington’s financial institutions, which impose on all countries the self-destruction of state borders and restrictions, Beijing’s development institutions offer funding for joint investment in the common interest without political conditions.
Rejecting dogmatism, the CPC of the PRC created an ideology of an integral system combining socialist goal-setting, the freedom of creative self-realization of the individual in socially useful creative activities and patriotism. Having survived the cultural revolution, she got rid of the radicalism inherent in the main ideological currents of the last century: communism, liberalism and Nazism.
Another way to the integral order is India, combining the socialist ideas of Gandhi, the values of democracy and national interests. On this path, it, like the PRC, achieved accelerated socio-economic development, coming out in the year before last in the first place in the world in terms of GDP growth. The countries of Indochina, following the path of socialism while preserving their cultural specifics, also demonstrate high rates of economic growth. And even African countries introducing management institutions that have been developed in the PRC demonstrate accelerated economic development. An example is Ethiopia, crawling out of poverty with double-digit GDP growth rates.
Over the past three decades история She also gave reverse examples of replacing socialist ideology with libertarian ones. The image of “Japan Incorporized” is well known, emphasizing the solidarity of the Japanese socio-economic structure. If it were not for the liberalization of its economic policy, made under US pressure in the 80-s, Japan would probably have maintained high rates of economic growth. The same can be said about the South Korean economic miracle, stopped by a similar liberalization of the economy under pressure from the IMF in the 90s. And, finally, the miracle of the socio-economic development of the USSR, the majority of the republics of which, after its collapse, abandoned socialist ideology in favor of the Washington Consensus with disastrous social and economic consequences. We should also recall the post-war miracle of the restoration and rise of the FRG, France, Austria, as well as the successful development of the Scandinavian countries, which were guided by a socialist ideology of a democratic type.
In science, as is known, practice is the criterion of truth. The correctness of the theory must be confirmed by experiment. Over the past thirty years, basic theories in social studies have been experimentally tested. The collapse suffered two major dogmatic theories that claimed the ultimate truth: scientific communism and its antipode - libertarianism, including its modern form, the Washington Consensus. This results in the erroneous course that our country follows in its socio-economic policy. Replacing one dogmatic ideology with another after the collapse of the USSR brought us to a historical dead end. Twenty-five years standing in this impasse gave rise to a swamp, in the bog of which all attempts of our president to bring the country out of the crisis are drowning.
There can be no justification for the economic policy that plunged the richest country in the world into the miserable condition of the third world. Lacking oil and gas resources, repeatedly yielding to the USSR in terms of scientific and technological development, today India and China are five times higher than Russia in terms of GDP and other indicators of the development of research and production potential. This year, the average salary in the PRC has become higher than in Russia, where the level of labor productivity is more and more behind the advanced countries. Dropping lower and lower in the world table of ranks in terms of socio-economic development, Russia leads in terms of socially determined diseases, suicides, abortions, as well as in the growth rates of personal states of offshore oligarchs. The latter are based not on the ingenious discoveries of new technologies, which increase the efficiency and production volumes, but on the appropriation of elements of national wealth: privatization of state property, natural or administrative rent.
Russian national wealth has been privatized by a narrow group of individuals who exploit it for personal gain. The growth of dollar billionaires, which continues against the background of a four-year fall in real incomes of the population, is a clear indication of the targets of the current system of management of social and economic development. Attempts by the head of state to deploy it in the direction of popular interests cause only an imitation of the tumultuous activities of officials concerned about personal well-being. In the absence of state ideology, its place is occupied by the thirst for profit.
As the remarkable Petersburg scientist Danila Lanin wisely remarked, the absence of ideology means the ideology of libertarianism. This ideology sets the program of behavior of the ruling elite. If the main value is money, or rather, their quantity, then money becomes the criterion of success, including government leaders. A good example of the implementation of this ideology is the fantastic salaries of the heads of state banks and corporations, which they write out for themselves, regardless of the objective results of their activities. If the main goal is personal income, is it any wonder the huge bonuses of directors of unprofitable campaigns? In fairness, it should be said that their private sector colleagues do the same.
Imitation of the performance of their duties, hiding the abuse of official authority for personal gain, is a typical behavior of officials in the existing management system. The “team” has become its basic structural element - it is organized according to the principle of mutual responsibility, organized to retain power for the purpose of profit, a criminal group. At all levels of government - from the village council to the federal ministries - the corresponding fractals are visible. Is it any wonder the highest achievements of this managerial model: the unprofitable privatization of the world's largest property complex, which ended in the state bankruptcy of the state short-term government pyramid, the collapse of the central bank of Otkrytie, which opened hundreds of billions of rubles, and exported a trillion dollars abroad.
Attempts to combat the decomposition of the control system by increasing the number of controlling and law enforcement agencies only exacerbate the situation. They also obey the power of money. Therefore, they form a symbiosis with business teams in power, pursuing unprotected collective responsibility of entrepreneurs. As a result, a vicious circle is formed: corruption clans dominate in the economy, control-force structures are built up to fight against them, which suppress free entrepreneurs, driving them under the roof of these business teams or forcing them to leave business. At the top of this power-economic pyramid are the bankers who have appropriated the disposition of state money and are interested in their high prices. Having driven the interest rate three times higher than the profitability of the manufacturing industry, they became the masters of the economy, deciding the fate of the insolvent enterprises. The interest slip together with the tax press squeezes all revenues from the real sector of the economy, which is degrading due to reduced investment.
The center of the world in libertarian ideology coincides with the place where money wealth is concentrated. Therefore, overwhelmingly greedy adherents of this ideology tend to New York and London, hiding their revenues in advance in Anglo-Saxon jurisdiction. The campaign on deoffshorization conducted at the direction of the president led to the resettlement of many large Russian businessmen there as well. Money for them is the highest value, and they follow them to where the cult of money is brought to the absolute. There is no doubt that the majority of those who are put by the last American sanctions before the fateful choice of arresting accounts or treason against the Motherland will choose the latter.
The implementation of the goals of the country's social and economic development formulated by the Russian president is impossible without introducing an ideology that is clear and understandable to all citizens. In Russia, this ideology cannot but be socialist.
First, without ideology, it will not be possible to bring the system of management of socio-economic development in line with the urgent requirements expressed by the head of state. It's like a red commander in command of the White Army. By repressions and detachments, it is possible for some time to force dissident subordinates to carry out orders, but without work, not out of fear, but it is impossible to raise the modern intellectual economy on the conscience.
Secondly, without a criterion of compliance of the decisions made with the interests of increasing public welfare, the control system will be deprived of the core - the responsibility of officials and heads of state corporations for the specific results of their work. She will remain corrupt and incapable.
Third, social justice is the dominant value in the public consciousness. If the management system does not comply with it, the people will not consider it legitimate. He will pretend to submit, and officials will pretend to be governed. This system of universal imitation can create the appearance of national unity, but it will fall apart during the first trials. So a century ago, the Russian Empire collapsed, and a quarter of a century ago - the Soviet Union.
Fourth, the socialist choice is progressive, opening the prospect of Russia's inclusion in the core of the new world economic order. To preserve libertarianism under the cover of the absence of official ideology is to condemn ourselves to the peripheral position and role of the cash cow for the American oligarchy.
Fifth, without an ideology that unites society and subordinates private interests, including those of the ruling elite, to the whole people, we cannot stand in the world hybrid war, which has been launched in an effort to preserve the global hegemony of US power. We could hardly have won the previous world war if the Soviet Gosbank worked under the methodological guidance of the German Reichsbank, the Gosplan submitted to the imperial ministry of the occupied eastern territories, Goebbels supervised the publication of Soviet newspapers, and Borman led the party building.
Of course, socialist ideology must be modern. First of all - humane, based on the need to respect human rights and freedoms. And also patriotic, prioritizing national interests and building in accordance with them foreign policy. It should also be focused on advancing socio-economic development on the basis of a new technological order, that is, be technocratic, pragmatic and progressive.
The question of the practical implementation of this ideology is beyond the scope of this article. It is clear that it is impossible to revive the CPSU, and it is not necessary. The bearers of ideological meanings in our society are science and religion. More than a decade ago, we substantiated the idea of progressive socially conservative synthesis and developed a program of social justice and economic growth. What kind of fusion of traditional and modernization values, socialism, humanism and patriotism will depend on the practical work of the ideologists of state-building. It is important to begin this work as soon as possible. Without an ideology consistent with the popular worldview, our management system will resemble Krylov's fable Quartet.