Military Review

War, porcelain and art ...

The publication of materials about the city of Meissen in Germany was loved by many VO readers. They also liked the photos taken in this city. However, the most interesting porcelain created by the hands of Meissen masters is still not in Meissen, but in Dresden, and it was there that the author of these materials was able to visit, see many interesting exhibits displayed today in the halls of the Dresden art gallery, and, of course , take a picture of them. And since many would like to know about stories Maysen porcelain more - we fulfill their request!

Porcelain is a truly unique material that allows you to create even such monumental compositions. You can see this “small” (and that relatively small!) In the exposition of the famous Dresden art gallery.

Not once or twice in the history of mankind, it happened that successful wars turned into a rise of art in a particular country. The Romans conquered Greece and were conquered by its art. They began to copy it so that today most of the ancient Greek sculptures are known to us only in Roman copies. The Renaissance gave new impetus to this - condottieri ravaged Europe and the same Italy, but it gave money to art lovers that appeared and they paid them to artists and sculptors who were so respected that even the Pope did not disdain to give the artist a dropped brush. That is, the money obtained by war and robbery went to the palaces and beautiful paintings, and someone's sweat and tears were not interested in anyone.

There are also these huge porcelain Chinese vases, covered with amazing paintings. It is not surprising that such products for their palaces and hunting lodges tried to get all the monarchs of Europe.

Further more! Having been fed up with the antiquities found in the land and the creations of compatriots, the Europeans set off overseas in search of new products that enchant us and strike weapons. 4 May 1799, the last and decisive battle of Seringapatam in India, having won a victory in which, the British completely looted it. In addition to piles of gold and precious stones, a huge amount of various art objects were brought to England, including Tipu Sultan’s personal belongings, his luxurious daggers and swords, firearms weapon and rich clothes. Today, a significant part of the exported is part of the collections that belong to the British royal family and the Victoria and Albert Museum. True, then some of these items were bought at auction and returned back to India. Thus, in 2004, the famous sword Tipu Sultan bought Sotby's Indian liqueur manufacturer Vijay Mallier at auction.

Do you think these are real flowers? Not at all! Porcelain is only one china!

But even further India lay China, from which, even before the beginning of the XVIII century, Dutch, Portuguese and English merchants imported porcelain into Europe. At the same time, namely at the end of the XVII century, in Europe and there was a fashion for Chinese porcelain. But as the Europeans did not try to learn the secret of its manufacture, the Chinese kept it in strict secrecy, although they had mastered the production of hard porcelain as far back as the 6th century. Actually, Europeans were introduced to porcelain by Marco Polo, but at that time there was no question of its mass supplies. Now, one ship after another sailed across the sea to Europe, and in their holds perhaps Chinese and Japanese porcelain was perhaps the most precious cargo.

Chinese porcelain of the early twentieth century. Belongs to the category of "soft", so it is thick-walled. But the painting is very thin.

This service was intended for export to Europe, so there is a milkman in it.

The Japanese themselves borrowed porcelain production technology from the Chinese rather late - around 1500 of the year. By the name of the harbor, where Japanese porcelain was loaded on Dutch ships, it was called "imari". Japanese porcelain was inferior in quality to Chinese, but its decoration was richer. Apart from the colors used by the Chinese, the Japanese were the first to paint it with gold.

Japanese tea and coffee service, made specifically for foreigners. At the bottom of each cup there is a printed portrait of a Japanese woman, and the walls are painted with colorful engobes. Moreover, if all the cups and saucers are the same, then the painting is different at all. It is clear that she portrays a dragon, but no two are alike, each looks different, mustache and wings. Moreover, part of the clay used in the painting of this service is white and porous. Therefore, it is impossible to wash the drips from it! But it’s just that the Japanese look good! It is immediately obvious that they used the dishes, and that she was “old.” In the enamel there are patches of tiny embers, that is, it is ... "hand firing"!

The first who appreciated the porcelain in Europe for their dignity was the magnificent Duke Francesco I di Medici, who in 1575 in the famous Florentine gardens of Bomboli arranged the manufacture of so-called “soft porcelain”. He was called “the Medici porcelain” and made it from clay from Vincenz. However, although it was translucent, it was not white, but yellowish in appearance. More than 50 products from the “Medici porcelain” have been preserved and it can be said that this was the first European porcelain, only in terms of quality and appearance, it was still inferior to Chinese. Then they tried to organize the production of porcelain in England and in France, but without success. The mystery remained a mystery!

Well, if it is impossible or too troublesome to keep living monkeys in the palace, then no one bothers to keep porcelain ones!

The King of Poland and the Saxon Elector Augustus A strong patron of the sciences and fought a lot, was also an avid collector. Money was needed for the army, more was needed for the money collection, so he was terribly happy when someone named Johann Böttger demonstrated in his presence “the transmutation of mercury into gold”. The naïve Elector, although physically exceptionally strong — they say that he could spin an iron poker into a ring, was apparently not very strong-minded, since he gave Böttger the title of baron before he richly provided him with money. And he, too, was not very clever, for he immediately began to lead a wild life, and did not care that he had not fulfilled the promise to the monarch. Therefore, it is not surprising that, seeing that there was no money either, and being ashamed that he could not fulfill his ally’s obligations to Peter the Great, in 1701, he ordered the arrest of the hapless alchemist and put him in a “golden house” where was kept by another alchemist, Johann Kunkel - his predecessor. Over the gold mining Böttger worked until the 1704 year, but it is clear that he could not get any grains.

And it was here that Augusta, it can be said, dawned on - he decided to establish his own porcelain production and at the same time replenish his treasury and collection.

In 1704, Böttger was sent to the fortress of Königstein, located in Saxon Switzerland, under the strict supervision of the commandant of Count E.V. von Chirngauz, who was engaged in mathematics and physics, and who also owned a glass factory, where porcelain was already created. Von Chirngauz was also engaged in the fact that he was looking for suitable raw materials for its production in Saxony, and evaluating the knowledge of Böttger, he took him to the company.

The dish in the center is made in the popular in Europe, the style of "chinoiserie", that is, "under China"

Within a year, von Chirngauz and Böttger managed to make red (or jasper) porcelain, for which red clay “bolus” from Plauen was used, containing a high percentage of iron oxides. Tableware made of jasper porcelain resembled that made of precious jasper, and was decorated in Chinese style with convex patterns and dragons. Later, this porcelain was called “Bettgerovsky”.

War, porcelain and art ...

Coffee pot from red "Bettgerovsky" porcelain (before 1720).

What a terrible rhino, is not it? And it is also made of porcelain, “Byotgerovsky” porcelain, which very often looked like a real stone.

This success inspired Augusta, and he gave money to equip a special laboratory in Dresden in 1707. It was found out that for porcelain production it is necessary to have three major components: kaolin from the Schneeberg region and Aue, feldspar and alabaster as a flux, as well as the optimal composition of the initial mixture and the conditions for its roasting. In the year 1708, after twelve-hour roasting, it was possible to get the first plates of porcelain sponge cake. And since this was recorded in the journal of the experiments of Böttger, the time of birth of European solid porcelain is known to us to one hour. So one of the most expensive secrets of that era was revealed. At the same time, the new European solid porcelain exceeded the soft varieties of Chinese porcelain in quality. In 1708, Chirnhaus died of dysentery, and Bettger continued to work alone. He debugged the production technology of porcelain products and invented a glaze recipe, and his recipe is still used today.

The so-called "royal porcelain", decorated with royal and princely coat of arms.

Well, this is a “porcelain” of waste to the needs of tourists. It is unlikely that someone leaves Meissen without even buying such a souvenir plate!

After that, in 1710, a manufactory was organized in Albenhtsburg castle in Meissen, which began to produce dishes, the decoration of which imitated the artistic style of one of the provinces of China. But unlike Chinese, Maysen porcelain has a higher content of kaolin, therefore it is considered “hard”.

Just a porcelain gazebo ...

Then in 1717, the secret of porcelain painting with cobalt was discovered. They began to apply green tint to the raw clay, but after firing it acquired a bright blue color. With the help of cobalt, as before, popular Chinese motifs were reproduced in the so-called chinoiserie style. But soon their own paintings appeared on the products - for example: the famous “onion ornament”, and the dishes in the “onion” style at the plant in Meissen are still being produced today.

White porcelain vase, Meissen (1713 — 1720).

In the 1719 year, which undermined the health of fussing with various toxic substances, Bettger died, and in the confusion one of the porcelain production secretaries of custodians, Samuel Stoltsel, managed to escape to Vienna, where he founded his manufactory.

But here the Elector Augustus himself intervened in the matter, having had the nickname of the Strong completely in vain. Threatening death to the untimely Samuel Stolzel, his people returned the fugitive from Vienna, and the artist Johann Gregorius Gerold arrived to Meissen, to whom the kurfyust promised a solid salary. And in this case, he was not mistaken, because Herold was able to improve Meissen porcelain: alabaster was replaced with quartz and feldspar, as a result of which the products after firing became really snow-white. The artist himself preferred to work in the Japanese style "kakiemon." His color palette was rather limited, but Herold expanded his color palette to several hundred shades.

Figures by Johann Joachim Kendler.

1731 year for Meissen opened new horizons: Johann Joachim Kendler began his work at the enterprise, engaged in the creation of porcelain sculptures, which he made more than a thousand in his life! And sculpted the same animals in full size. He also made portraits of courtiers, including rarely lively sculptures of maid of honor in figs in the rococo style. However, there would be no orders, there would be no sculptures. And just then Augustus Strong distinguished himself again. He decided to order animal figures from porcelain that would look like real ones. And Candler fulfilled this order, but then Augustus died and all plans for the Japanese Palace collapsed overnight.

Candler's genre compositions were notable for their great vividness and were in great demand. Of course, it is possible to collect them, but even old rifles from museums are cheaper.

Then he took up genre compositions, which had a great demand: sculpted figures of children, separately and in groups, gardeners, peddlers, shepherds and shepherds fashionable in those years. His monkey orchestra received great fame: a composition consisting of 21 figurines was made by him for Louis XV and then donated to the famous Madame Pompadour.

Interior view of the gallery of porcelain in the ... Dresden Gallery.

Gradually, he created the same style that began to copy all the manufactories that produced porcelain. Exquisite curls of pens on tureens, compositions in the form of bouquets and flower garlands, ripe fruit in baskets and angels with wings with prayer-folded hands or fluttering among the clouds became classic designs for expensive porcelain dishes. And even when the rococo style was already out of fashion, the Meissen manufactory in this style continued to serve the monarchs on the tables.

And so it looks from the yard.

The main result of the Meissen manufactory was the service “Swan”, designed for exactly one hundred persons and includes two thousand different items. Moreover, it was done not at all for the king or the emperor, but for the wealthy bourgeois, one of the directors of the manufactory. And then, according to his model, they made a few more. After all, people are big monkeys!

Halls of the Porcelain Museum in Meissen.

Catherine II also honored the Maisen manufactory with her order and ordered several sculptures on a mythological theme. And then orders were flooded out of a horn of plenty, so special “Russian days” had to be installed on the manufactory, when orders were made only for faraway Russia.

In 1762, artist Michel Victor Asye appeared at the enterprise, with which white unglazed porcelain — biscuit — came into vogue, from which statuettes on mythological themes were launched.

Gradually, the popularity of Maysen porcelain fell so much that the enterprise at the beginning of the XIX century was on the verge of closure. But then the Meissen tableware began to be exported to the USA and Russia, and things got better. It is interesting that at this time statuettes and dishes used to imitate samples of the XVIII century, but the expensive works of the XIX century, which are sold today, were also in great demand - this is also an imitation of the former rococo style.

At the end of the XVIII century porcelain production was established in Venice. Venetian porcelain was notable for an abundance of gilding and “pictures” with views of Venice.

Before the revolution in Russia, so-called Kuznetsov porcelain became very popular. It was very durable, so the walls of the cups are thin, literally like paper. Gold painting exquisite and very elegant. Dear simplicity - that's what it's called!

Among the works of artists of this time stand out figurines and compositions by the sculptor Paul Shoyrich, who created more 100 figurines and compositions in the art deco style. And his audience especially liked his series of figurines called Russian Ballet, inspired by the performances of the ballet Sergei Dyagilev in Berlin.

But Emil Berner was famous for being able to make porcelain the world's largest bells. Their height is two and a half meters.

This is the logo and mark of the Meissen manufactory - two blue crossed swords.

Well, today, just like 250 years ago, the kaolin needed for an enterprise is mined here, not far from Meissen. Moreover, only two people are working on its mining, which is even noted in the Guinness Book of Records. But the artists on it are 450 people.

The British also contributed to the development of porcelain business: they managed to create the so-called "bone china", which is intermediate between hard and soft porcelain. And the greater “softness” is given to it by the burnt bones, introduced into the porcelain mass before firing. This is what a modern English bone china gift cup looks like.

Half of what they produce there today are dinner sets; 35 percent - belongs to ceramic sculptures and artistic porcelain; but everything else is exclusive orders of very high value. Meisen makes ceramic tiles that go to artistic panels.

It is not so difficult to make such a fruit vase if you have a lot of V-spaces to ensure that all these flowers are the same!

In 2010, the company celebrated its anniversary - 300 years since its inception. To it were made exact replicas of the most famous works, including the “Monkey Orchestra, the Swan service, and also the sculptural images of Kendler's animals. All this enjoyed tremendous success, so that most of these replicas were then sold out. For example, copies of the famous VAZ went on 15 thousand euros for each. Interestingly, wealthy buyers from Russia prefer to order royal style porcelain with gilded relief ornament. This method of finishing came into vogue in the XIX century. The technology of applying the so-called "glossgold", a special kind of golden enamel, was developed by the artist Heinrich Gottlob Künon. Well, of course, all Maysen products are simply fabulously expensive. So, if the online store reports that it has a XVIII century statuette for two thousand euros of Kendler's work, then you don’t need to think, of course, it is a fake! Why so expensive? Because manual work! Although scientific and technological progress has come here. For example, all the small details of the rimmed decor - flowers, stars, curls of garlands, cups handles - all of this is molded in Vixint forms that are highly durable, so they serve for a long time, not like the old gypsum ...
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  1. Spartanez300
    Spartanez300 17 January 2018 06: 13
    In order to make such masterpieces you need to have a brilliant talent, I always envied such craftsmen with white envy.
    1. Vard
      Vard 17 January 2018 07: 20
      I had a chance to see it all in real life ... Even in spite of the ban, I photographed this famous bouquet ... From a distance of about a meter, to distinguish from the real one ... It is impossible ...
  2. Serge72
    Serge72 17 January 2018 06: 22
    Yes, masterpieces - pleasing to the eye
    And benefit
    A porcelain monkey is even prettier than a living one!
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 17 January 2018 07: 48
    However, the most interesting porcelain, created by the hands of Meissen craftsmen, is still not in Meissen, but in Dresden
    ... And who argues, a museum in Meissen, a museum of regional significance, but in Dresden a federal one ... Of course, the work is better collected and the collection is richer .. But an organ from Meissen porcelain is something, not a beautiful imitation, but a fully functional tool where even short concerts are held. Porcelain bells were also made at the Meissen manufactory. And they are functional, are in the Church of Our Lady in Meissen
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 17 January 2018 11: 42
      This is the logo and mark of the Meissen manufactory - two blue crossed swords.

      Holmes, what a strange symbol ... what Does this remind you of anything? If you put two saucers together, you get the signature of one "professor" hi
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 17 January 2018 11: 50
        good By the way, yes....
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 17 January 2018 11: 52
          from another series, but it seems that many have a favorite moment from all the films.
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 17 January 2018 13: 23
            It's right... good
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 17 January 2018 13: 34
              I look at this moment, it immediately recalls how we somehow in 2010 raped with my brother Lelik. fellowlaughing True, we drank not from china wink
              1. parusnik
                parusnik 17 January 2018 13: 37
                I don’t have any associations with this moment, unfortunately .. smile
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 17 January 2018 13: 41
                  I do not have this moment, unfortunately, no associations .. smile

                  live righteously, Alexey Anatolevich request on the other hand, not unfortunately, but fortunately. yes Well, you understand, sometimes when you remember through a headache in the morning what happened yesterday, so shiver and throw! belay moderation is needed everywhere! hi
                  1. parusnik
                    parusnik 17 January 2018 14: 41
                    live righteously, Alexey Anatolevich
                    ..Yes, what righteousness .. smile It’s simple, its own "tank" has already been drunk .. And the second one simply has no one to start with .. Now they are talking more about politics about alcohol .. And I love art ... As they say, there is no romanticism ... hi smile
                    1. Mikado
                      Mikado 17 January 2018 16: 15
                      And I love art ... As they say there is no romanticism ... hi smile

                      two quotes are immediately recalled: 1. "and in previous years I could eat a quarter." laughing 2. "I am a soldier .. and I love the book more than a sword" request (Ibrahim Hannibal - V.S. Vysotsky, a gorgeous role!). By the way, talk about alcohol is very good here. good Especially when Marat comes with a watch on his hand. drinks
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 17 January 2018 18: 15
                        "Nails would make of these people
                        There wouldn’t be better nails in the world! "
                        (it seems V. Mayakovsky)
                      2. parusnik
                        parusnik 17 January 2018 18: 49
                        "and in previous years I could eat a quarter."
                        ... Exactly ... But for now:
                        Ah, it would be only with whom to talk!
                        Oh, it was b, oh it was b,
                        Oh, it was b, oh it was b,
                        Oh, I’d only talk to anyone! ... I’m having fun when the guys from the old service stop by ... And it’s kind of sad .. All the talk about money, who bought what ... Local gossip ..
                    2. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 17 January 2018 18: 51
                      No question at all! In my face you will find a worthy interlocutor! drinks well, at least, understanding. wink
                      1. parusnik
                        parusnik 17 January 2018 19: 01
                        It’s easy .. drinks smile
          2. ruskih
            ruskih 17 January 2018 17: 15
            If you recall this film, then this episode corresponds more to the article: “... oatmeal, sir! ...” Pay attention to the plates on the table Mayotte series from the Staffordshire series England. Most likely it is faience, however, pastoral pictures are very beautiful and interesting.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 17 January 2018 17: 21
              class! a little about the scene itself, says Adabashyan:
              It was very interesting. The game went on and off screen. Vitalik Solomin and I had such a theater for ourselves. We thought that my Barrymore could not stand him, because he came with Holmes and is in charge of everything here. Decides who can go out, who can’t, who can do what. And this hatred was expressed in various details, for example, in the fact that when Barrymore laid out oatmeal in the morning, he threw three spoons to someone and threw one plop on his plate. And on the table, meanwhile, was a notebook, pages that were spelled out with the phrase "Barrymore d ... k, Barrymore d ... k, Barrymore d ... k." This is not in the frame, but this game always went between us and created an amazing atmosphere. Moderators, you’ll excuse me, the simple Russian word will not miss, but do not judge me either! drinks
  4. polpot
    polpot 17 January 2018 08: 03
    Thanks for the article and great photos.
  5. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 17 January 2018 08: 21
    Great article! And the plates with the symbol of Meissen production! A masterpiece in four strokes! Concisely and not corny. I love such things.
  6. XII Legion
    XII Legion 17 January 2018 08: 28
    Eat on china, and even on this)
    It’s worth it
    Thank you!
  7. marline
    marline 17 January 2018 08: 32
    Thanks for the great article. Very pleased with the photos.
    The museum contains real works of art, and therefore the price is so high. By the way, porcelain was also used as a diplomatic gift, as an example - the famous "Olympic" service from Sevre, was donated by Napoleon to Alexander I in honor of the conclusion of the Tilsit peace, you can admire it in the Armory in Moscow.
  8. Curious
    Curious 17 January 2018 08: 56
    “The first who appreciated porcelain in Europe was the magnificent Duke Francesco I di Medici, who in 1575 set up a factory for the production of so-called“ soft porcelain ”in the famous Florentine gardens of Bomboli. It was called“ Medici porcelain ” him from clay from Vincenza."
    Clay was from Faenza.
    Since the Middle Ages, Faenza has been a major center for the production of ceramics (in particular, majolica products). The golden age of this production fell on the Renaissance (XV-XVI century). By the name of this city, faience got its name.
    As for the city of Vicenza, there are a lot of attractions in it, it is considered the Italian capital of gold processing, and although it is only 200 km between Faenza and Vincenza, it has nothing to do with china.
    In general, Medici porcelain can be called porcelain with a stretch, since there are very few kaolin in its composition: 16 parts of glass frit, 24 parts of sand, 12 parts of white clay from Faenza and a bit of kaolin from there; finished products were covered with lead glaze or tin glaze. It turned out to be something like glazed and painted glass, made and decorated by potters.
  9. soldier
    soldier 17 January 2018 10: 42
    The art of making porcelain is one of the most beautiful and time-consuming
    The result is before us)
  10. ruskih
    ruskih 17 January 2018 10: 49
    Thanks for the article and great photos. The bouquet is gorgeous !!! Guessed every flower. Masterly work of the master!
  11. uskrabut
    uskrabut 17 January 2018 11: 51
    Informative. Real porcelain really looks very beautiful. Nice to watch, nice to hold.
  12. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 17 January 2018 17: 25
    Porcelain - the embodiment of real art
    And lasting value
    I wish the author to release such articles more
  13. Horseman without a head
    Horseman without a head 17 January 2018 17: 39
    Thanks for the nice article !!
  14. Mikado
    Mikado 17 January 2018 18: 18
    "Nails would make of these people
    There wouldn’t be better nails in the world! "
    (it seems V. Mayakovsky)

    Yes, that's for sure. Only many filon today deign, sirrequest
    1. Curious
      Curious 17 January 2018 19: 29
      Filonite is primarily an author. Why not write an article about German porcelain. Indeed, in the XVIII century in Germany (I know that it was not then) almost two dozen porcelain manufactures were created. Yes, Meissen was the first.
      But the second was Hoechst.

      And then you can continue. Or you can start the European Porcelain cycle.
      1. kalibr
        17 January 2018 19: 44
        I do not like to write about things that I myself did not see or did not see my acquaintances and friends from whom I can ask about something. Not interested. It is not interesting to rush into topics just because they aroused momentary interest of the audience. As a rule, my themes are either what I devoted 30,20,17,10 years to, or what I saw with my own eyes or my friends saw. Write about everything ... good articles will not work!
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 17 January 2018 20: 50
          Viktor Nikolayevich caught my thoughts in part:
          Filonite is primarily an author.

          Only I meant that we are waiting for you! drinks
          I do not like to write about things that I myself did not see or did not see my friends and acquaintances

          Vyacheslav Olegovich, I agree. Because myself and the photographs (even if not of the best quality - I myself hi ) make it more interesting, because you know how to describe it, and the imagination is already starting to spin ... yes because what you do is “touch it”.
          1. ruskih
            ruskih 17 January 2018 21: 49
            Perhaps I will support.
            winked Victor Nikolaevich,
            we are waiting for you!

            And I will add. winked Nikolai Vladimirovich,
            we are waiting for you!

            Since, to be objective, of the three of you, only Vyacheslav Olegovich is not phylon. wink
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 17 January 2018 21: 53
              Do you believe in the information field, Elena? what I began to write to Viktor Nikolaevich about this in the previous comment, but then I erased it. I think an adult will decide for himself. request And at the same time, he reads my thoughts, and you too ... belay
              In general, Viktor Nikolayevich, grow a beard, uncover your body! soldier for frantic selfishness - not to share with those who value and respect you their knowledge! hi drinks
              1. Curious
                Curious 17 January 2018 22: 19
                If you are guided by the settings of Vyacheslav Olegovich and write about what you saw or devoted 30, 20, 10 years, then articles such as "Production of Products from Gas-Filled Plastics" or "Features of the Technological Process of Reducing Smelting of Ferronickel from Oxidized Ores of New Zealand" are unlikely to interest a wide audience .
                The funny thing is, the photo archive is also. Furnaces, workshops, mines, converters, factories. There is a true photo where I’m drinking on stage the variety show "Lido" in Paris. But this does not seem to be a topic for VO.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 17 January 2018 22: 24
                  The funny thing is, the photo archive is also. Furnaces, workshops, mines, converters, factories. There is a true photo where I’m drinking on stage the variety show "Lido" in Paris. But this does not seem to be a topic for VO.

                  and if you add wild monkeys? wink and? how do you like drinks
                  why? Describe the life and business trips of a Soviet engineer! Theme, another one! And directly related to the "defense industry"! soldier WE ASK ALL! love
                  1. Curious
                    Curious 17 January 2018 22: 57
                    To tell you the truth, the business trips of ordinary Soviet engineers - metallurgists - are not a particularly exciting topic. The USSR did not indulge its engineers with foreign currency, so the entertaining content of the trip depended entirely on the host country. The military and the defenders had more impressions, but I did not get directly into the combat zones fortunately. So it’s difficult to turn around this plot.
                    1. ruskih
                      ruskih 17 January 2018 23: 32
                      Victor Nikolaevich, even stop don't give up Do not be shy. Reading your comments is a pleasure. Interesting, informative, with a subtle sense of humor. It doesn’t matter what you write about: weapons, history, buckwheat merchantily ... .. Literally everything is interesting. love
                      1. Curious
                        Curious 17 January 2018 23: 40
                        Yes, as Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky said: "No matter how rough the flattery, in it certainly at least half seems to be true." True site administrators about my comments have a completely opposite opinion.
  15. parusnik
    parusnik 17 January 2018 18: 53
    (it seems V. Mayakovsky)
    .. Alas, no. Nikolai Tikhonov’s poems "Ballad on Nails". One of his most famous and quoted works. In his youth, the poet was a follower of N. Gumilyov.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 17 January 2018 19: 18
      I had doubts ... I took a risk, put it on “Zero”, and lost ... I have a principle, I quote only from memory, otherwise, what kind of Petersburg minisable am I?
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 17 January 2018 19: 33
        But it’s not surprising, many people confuse .. In school, in the Soviet Union, much attention was paid to the work of V.V. Mayakovsky, many poems were taught by heart, including the poem Mayakovsky V.V. “Khrenov’s story about Kuznetskstroy and about the people of Kuznetsk” .. They pour their lips off the cold, but whisper their lips in the palm: “In four years there will be a garden city!” .. And N. Tikhonov’s work was not paid special attention, although N. Tikhonov was kindly greeted by the Soviet government .. But due to the fact that he was a sinner in his youth, belonged to the literary association “Serapion Brothers”, he “passed” it more optionally or as an extra-curricular reading. But on holidays, especially on November 7, they went on TV literary and musical compositions, revolutionary songs sounded, poems were read, especially often sounded in such programs “Ballad on Nails” .. along with V.V. Mayakovsky’s verses .. And since, in these programs, the authors of the verses were not named, the names were published only in the credits .. It was easy to confuse .. For some reason I liked these programs .. Goosebumps were delighted .. I liked the cartoons on V.V. Mayakovsky’s poems .. now they’re sorry they don’t show ... Not the format .. the rhythm of the Ballad about nails is very similar to the rhythm of Mayakovsky’s poems, although the construction e rhymes are somewhat different, but nonetheless ...
  16. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 17 January 2018 19: 11
    So what was the matter !?
    "There is no passage here (I swear to you!)
    From art lovers
    And many times they wrote about this in the press ... "
    (V. Vysotsky)
    Moreover, you and E. Lukin read! At your service and mutual pleasure!
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 17 January 2018 19: 41
      E. Lukina, only "We rolled your sun" ... It's to blame, not a big fan of Soviet science fiction, but now Russian ... I like more foreign ones. R. Bradbury in particular ... A. Azimov, R. Sheckley .. E .Lets..other "mastadons" .. In my opinion, now there is a crisis in this genre .. Fantasy, somehow this genre was chosen for itself ...
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 17 January 2018 20: 19
        It doesn’t matter, except for you Lukin no one else read! And as far as fantasy is concerned, you are wrong - this is a separate genre and SF does not crush it at all. Another thing is that the NF itself has changed relative to the "classics."
        1. parusnik
          parusnik 17 January 2018 20: 25
          Perhaps I just judge bookshelves in stores ... I read annotations and something my hand doesn't reach for buying ...
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 17 January 2018 20: 50
            I’ve read the “Martian” here a year ago, chesslovo, I probably haven’t experienced such pleasure from the “solid” NF from the “Moon Rainbow”.
  17. ruskih
    ruskih 17 January 2018 23: 59
    they have a completely opposite opinion about my comments.

    what As the saying goes: "There are no comrades for the taste and color!" love
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 18 January 2018 01: 16
      I would say with such a pity to write articles, not comments. So let him write!
      oh, he would know what kind of kuesh I prepared - at once he would write an article about cooking! drinks
      1. Curious
        Curious 18 January 2018 08: 53
        Kulesh on a complex fish and meat broth?
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 18 January 2018 11: 48
          so much to me! recourse You offer me another jurma to prepare from a mixture of fish soup and chicken broth! fellow but in general, the canonical kulesh is prepared at the bows. wink Shkvark was not replaced by the brisket. request drinks
          1. Curious
            Curious 18 January 2018 14: 48
            Grout. For the classic kulesh grout is used. This is not a little crackling. Greaves are obtained in the preparation of lard.
            Grout is prepared directly in the process.
            A little flour is taken. If you have three liters of broth, then 200 grams, add about half a glass of water and rub it with your hand to small lumps and transfer to a dry bowl. This is a waste.
            Then finely chop 100 grams of fat and fry for 5 minutes, then add the finely chopped onion and another 10 minutes until it turns golden. Then add zatiruha, another half a minute, a minute, done.
            You can add along with onions and garlic.
            Five minutes before the readiness of the kulesh, add zatiruha.
            1. Mikado
              Mikado 18 January 2018 15: 12
              I acted easier. The breast was “swept” with a onion, then it was added to the pan with boiling millet with potatoes. And yes, he threw the garlic. I still add fragrant oil. drinks I’ve not eaten for a hundred years!
              zatiruha - something like dumplings obtained? dumplings? good
              1. Curious
                Curious 18 January 2018 15: 39
                The dumplings are big. And these are small. The easiest way is to wet your hands in water, you can in the water with an egg, roll in flour and rub hand in hand. This will be a waste.
                1. Mikado
                  Mikado 18 January 2018 15: 46
                  The dumplings are big. And these are small.

                  but the principle and taste are relatively the same, as I understand it. Expand the presentation! I’ll cook next time - I’ll add. yes
  18. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 21 January 2018 17: 49
    Thank you. Interesting.
    Never interested in china, its history.