Military Review

Experienced all-terrain vehicle ZIS-E134 “Layout No.1”

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In the early fifties of the last century, the Soviet army, occupied with its development and improvement of its defense capability, faced a number of characteristic problems. Among other things, it was found that not all available vehicles meet the requirements. To provide the necessary logistics, the armed forces needed ultra-high-traffic cars. One of the first developments of this kind was the ZIS-E134 “1 model”.


In a hypothetical war, Soviet troops would have to move and carry cargo, not only along roads, but also over rough terrain. The existing wheeled vehicles with insufficient cross-country capacity could not always cope with such tasks. Tracked conveyors, in turn, coped with obstacles, but did not differ in ease of operation and high resource. In addition, the tracked chassis was inferior to the wheeled when working on good roads.


Prototype ZIS-E134 "Layout 1"


25 June 1954, the USSR Council of Ministers adopted a resolution on the formation of a number of new special design bureaus (CSC). Similar structures appeared in the composition of several leading automotive plants. The task of the special design bureau was to create special equipment on the order of the military department. Simultaneously with the decision on the formation of new bureaus, an order appeared to create several projects of special machines for the army.

The army wanted to get an eight-wheel ultra-high car capable of working effectively on roads and on rough terrain. The machine had to overcome various obstacles, including engineering barriers; ponds should cross ford. At the same time, the new vehicle had to transport up to 3 t of cargo in the body and tow a trailer weighing up to 6 t.

The technical task and the order for the design of a promising machine received Moscow Plant them. Stalin (ZIS) and the Minsk Automobile Plant (MAZ). Having a great experience in the field of off-road trucks, both enterprises were able to present ready experimental projects and experimental equipment of new types in a relatively short time. In the Special Design Bureau of the ZIS plant, design work was carried out under the supervision of Chief Designer V.A. Grachev.

Experienced all-terrain vehicle ZIS-E134 “Layout No.1”
Starboard view


The trial design of the special design bureau of the Moscow plant received the working designation ZIS-E134. For several years, three versions of experimental equipment were created with these or other features. According to the project, a prototype “Layout No. XXUMX” was built in its original form. According to some information, this machine appeared in the documentation of the Ministry of Defense as ZIS-1E134. Curiously, all the work on this project was completed and completed by the middle of 1. As a result, the car retained in its designation the letters "VMS" and was not renamed in accordance with the new name of the manufacturer.

It should be noted that according to the results of testing the ZIS-E134 “Layout No. 1” machine, an improved version of the original project was developed. He retained the old designation, but at the same time differed a number of major changes and innovations. The prototype of the updated ZIS-E134 was designated as “Layout No. 2” or ZIS-134-2. Soon the third mockup appeared. In fact, the three running layouts were completely different machines, but wore similar names. This can lead to some confusion.

All the basic requirements for a promising all-terrain vehicle related to driving performance on highly rugged terrain, including those equipped with engineering barriers. Such a technical task made V.A. Grachev and his colleagues use in the first ZIS-ЭNNXX project both well-known and fundamentally new technical solutions. As a result, the new machine had to have a non-standard technical look and an original appearance, which, however, allowed to solve all the tasks.


The scheme of the experimental machine


The project proposed the construction of a four-axle special machine with a chassis frame structure. On top of the frame should have been placed the engine and cockpit, covered with a common body. The latter occupied about half the length of the machine, ensuring optimal use of the available spaces. The back half of the frame served as the basis for the cargo platform on which one or another payload could be placed. The frame was based on the units of the car ZIS-151. In the framework of the new project, the existing serial frame was strengthened and slightly shortened. The same car "shared" and a closed cabin, which in this case had to be slightly rebuilt.

Under the hood of the ZIS-E134 all-terrain vehicle, there was a modified ZIS-120BK gasoline engine that differed from serial products with increased power. In the framework of the new project, it was forced by processing the cylinder head and the gas distribution mechanism. According to the results of such a change, an engine with a capacity of 5,66 l could deliver power up to 130 hp. The boost led to a certain reduction in the resource, but this was not considered a serious shortcoming.

The specific purpose of the car and the special design of the chassis led to the need to develop an original transmission, which included a large number of different units. A three-stage automatic hydraulic transmission / torque converter borrowed from an experienced ZIS-155A bus was connected directly to the engine. Its presence was due to the need to repeatedly increase the torque at the beginning of the movement: on weak soils required a fourfold increase in this parameter. While driving, the torque converter facilitates machine control by automatically shifting gears. Also, this device had the function of reverse, which simplified the “buildup” of the stuck car. Breaking the rigid connection between the power plant and other elements of the transmission, hydraulic transmission also prevented the engine from stopping during overloads.


Scheme, top view


At the level of the rear wall of the cab was placed five-speed gearbox, borrowed from the truck ZIS-150. Due to its location, it was necessary to use a relatively long and curved control lever. The gearbox was connected to a two-stage transfer case, which had reduction gears. She distributed the torque to a pair of power take-offs associated with the four-axle self-locking differentials. The transfer box and power take-offs were taken from the BTR-152В armored personnel carrier. All mechanical devices from the transmission were connected to each other using cardan shafts.

Ultra-high permeability should be provided, first of all, by the undercarriage of a special design. In the project ZIS-ЭНNUMXЕ, in accordance with the requirements of the customer, should use a four-wheeled chassis. To evenly distribute the weight of the car to the ground, it was decided to install axles with equal intervals in 134 m. At the same time, two wheels on each side were under the engine and cabin, and the other two were under the load platform. Continuous bridges from the BTR-1,5В with suspension on leaf springs reinforced with double-acting shock absorbers were used. The two front axles had steering controls controlled by power steering.

The all-terrain vehicle was proposed to be equipped with specially designed tires I-113. These products of the eight-layer design had the size of 14.00-18 with a total diameter of 1,2 m. The chassis received a centralized tire pressure adjustment system. The air pressure varied from 3,5 kg / sq. Cm to 0,5 kg / sq. Cm. When changing the pressure from the maximum to the minimum area of ​​contact with the ground increased fivefold. All wheels were equipped with shoe brakes controlled by a centralized pneumatic system.


"1 layout" overcomes an obstacle


Despite the relatively large diameter wheels, the ground clearance of the machine was only 370 mm. In order to avoid possible problems when driving on difficult terrain, the bridges were covered with a special bottom pan, suspended under the frame. When traveling on snowy terrain, it was proposed to use a special wedge-shaped blade mounted under the bumper. With its help, much of the snow was set aside from the wheels.

Behind the engine compartment on the ZIS-ЭНNUMX car was located the crew cabin. The cab body and much of its internal equipment was borrowed from the ZIS-134 serial truck. At the same time it had to install a set of new equipment. The specific gear lever, torque converter controls and other new devices forced the designers to remove the middle seat from the cab, making it double. Indicators of temperature and oil pressure in the engine, power steering and hydraulic transmission were taken to a new instrument panel.

The back of the frame of an experienced all-terrain vehicle was given for the installation of a cargo platform. As the latter, the onboard body of the ZIS-121В serial car was used. It had a rectangular platform, surrounded on all sides by low sides. Also used metal arc to install the awning. In the future, after the launch of mass production, machines based on ZIS-E134 could receive other targeted equipment, both transport and special purpose.


All-terrain vehicle on snowy terrain


An experienced ultra-high-performance car had a total length of 6,584 m with a width of 2,284 m and a height (on the roof of the cabin) 2,581 mm. The curb weight of the car was set at 7 tons. With the 3 tons payload on the cargo area, the total weight reached 10 tons. When driving only along the highway, the car could tow a trailer weighing up to 6 tons. 1 T. According to calculations, an all-terrain vehicle on the highway could reach speeds of up to 65 km / h. On the ground, the maximum speed was limited to 35 km / h. There was also some potential in the context of overcoming various obstacles.

The development of the new project and the construction of “Layout No. XXUMX” lasted just over a year. The assembly of the prototype was completed in mid-August 1-th. At the same time, the new machine came to the testing grounds only after a couple of months - in the middle of October of the same year. All-terrain vehicle tests were conducted at several sites of the automotive industry and the Ministry of Defense. They lasted for several months, which made it possible to check the equipment in different areas, on different soils and in different weather conditions.

During the tests, the first prototype was able to show the maximum speed at the level of 58 km / h. The machine successfully moved on dirt roads, rough terrain and low load bearing soils. The all-terrain vehicle proved that it was possible to climb the slopes of the 35 ° steepness and roll off to 25 °. He could cross a trench up to 1,5 m wide and climb a wall 1 m high. Water obstacles up to 1 m in depth crossed the ford. Having two steered axles improved maneuverability. The turning radius (along the outer wheel track) was 10,5 m.


Snow blade


Particular attention during the tests was given to the work of the suspension and wheels with variable tire pressure. All undercarriage systems showed the desired performance and capabilities, but there were some unexpected results. As it turned out, soft tires with relatively low pressure can do without elastic suspension elements. Such tires perfectly absorbed all the shocks and compensated for uneven ground, literally leaving the springs out of work.

The prototype “Layout No.1”, built as part of the ZIS-ЭNNXX project, was primarily considered as a technology demonstrator, able to show the pros and cons of new solutions. According to the test results, this machine could be modified to improve certain characteristics and eliminate the identified deficiencies. In its current form, it was not considered as a possible sample for mass production and mass exploitation.

The tests of the first prototype continued until spring 1956 of the year and led to the desired results. An experienced all-terrain vehicle in practice showed the correctness of the ideas used, and also made it possible to identify the weak points of the proposed concepts. Without waiting for the completion of the tests of the “Model No. XXUMX”, the designers of the SKB VMS started the development of an updated project of an ultra-high maneuverable transport vehicle. It is curious that this project retained the existing designation - ZIS-E1.


Prototype ZIS-Э134 "Layout 2"


Almost immediately after the completion of the ground tests of “Layout No. XXNX”, a new ZIS-ЭNNXX “Layout No. XXNX” came out for testing. In connection with the preliminary results of the previous project, some noticeable changes were made to the design of this machine. Later, these ideas were developed and even were brought to the series in several subsequent projects. It is the second prototype ZIS-E1 that is considered to be the direct “ancestor” of a number of well-known ZIL brand amphibious all-terrain vehicles.

As part of the experimental project ZIS-E134, only one prototype prototype vehicle was built. After the completion of independent and joint tests, he was returned to the manufacturer, and his fate was unknown. According to some reports, the prototype was later disassembled as unnecessary. The development of special automotive technology now had to help other prototypes.

The first result of the pilot project ZIS-E134 was the mock-up sample №1, built on the basis of existing components and assemblies. His tests allowed to clarify the optimal appearance of a promising all-terrain vehicle and to begin the construction of a new prototype machine. Within a few years, three prototype all-terrain vehicles with the same name were built under the experimental program. “Layout No. 2” and “Layout No. 3”, as well as their predecessor, made a significant contribution to the study of subjects of ultra-high-traffic cars and are also worthy of separate consideration.


Based on:
http://русская-сила.рф/
http://denisovets.ru/
http://russoauto.ru/
http://strangernn.livejournal.com/
Kochnev E.D. Secret cars of the Soviet Army. - M .: Yauza, Eksmo, 2011.
Author:
Photos used:
Russoauto.ru, Denisovets.ru
26 comments
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  1. Dalailama
    Dalailama 12 January 2018 07: 00
    +2
    And then, finally, only at the “Layout 2” someone thought that on the off-road driver should look not only at traffic lights ...
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 12 January 2018 07: 56
    +4
    Under the hood of the ZIS-E134 all-terrain vehicle, there was a modified ZIS-120BK gasoline engine that differed from serial products with increased power. In the framework of the new project, it was forced by processing the cylinder head and the gas distribution mechanism. According to the results of such a change, an engine with a capacity of 5,66 l could deliver power up to 130 hp. The boost led to a certain reduction in the resource, but this was not considered a serious shortcoming.
    Well, yes, the transmission was just too complicated, there wasn’t enough power and just had to create a new series of V-engines. Specifically for this series of machines, the ZiL-134 engine.
    If you take the book "Automotive Engine ZiL-130," then here are the technical requirements for the development of a new engine range. If anyone is interested, here is the link: http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/Z/Zavod_Imeni_Lihache
    va / _ZIL.html
  3. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 12 January 2018 10: 36
    +6
    "New" is a well-forgotten old!
    YAG-12
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 12 January 2018 13: 01
      +3
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      "New" is a well-forgotten old!

      In principle, the old is just an idea. The rest are still new developments. The main difference is the drive to the steered wheels: the gimbal for the YAG-12 and the CV joint in the ZIL.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 12 January 2018 13: 19
        +2
        Duc .... does the idea mean nothing? recourse
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 12 January 2018 17: 06
          +3
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          Duc .... does the idea mean nothing?

          Here I agree with you completely and unconditionally. The implementation went the other way. All the same, problems with a special machine park made themselves known in the 30s and in the 50s. This refers to machines for cutting gears with a spiral tooth, production lines for the production of V-shaped engines. All this appeared later, in the early 60s ..
    2. Alf
      Alf 12 January 2018 22: 07
      +2
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      "New" is a well-forgotten old!

      Not certainly in that way. Please note that on the 134th, unlike the YAG-12, a scheme with a uniform arrangement of wheel axles was implemented, which gives an increase in patency due to the inability to sit on the frame or fall into a wide ditch.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 13 January 2018 02: 36
        +2
        Quote: Alf
        Please note that on the 134, unlike the YAG-12, a scheme with a uniform arrangement of wheel axles is implemented, which gives an increase in patency due to the inability to sit on the frame or fall into a wide ditch.

        What is, is .... But also what years ...!
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 13 January 2018 05: 39
          +1
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          What is, is .... But also what years ...!

          And what about the years? If you are interested in this topic and its implementation, then look at the link, this is an implementation of the 8x8 scheme in practical chassis and machines, and not weapons:
          http://www.tinlib.ru/transport_i_aviacija/tehnika
          _i_vooruzhenie_1993_02 / p13.php
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 14 January 2018 04: 06
            +2
            Quote: Amurets
            And what about the years?

            And then .... "years"! This is now the multi-axle chassis-base of heavy trucks, special transporters! But there is always a "beginning" ... That was the "beginning" for Soviet engineers in the 30 years. So what, what were there “somewhere out there” (USA, Germany .....) multi-axle cars (chassis) in the 30's? In the USSR, there was a lot of “curiosity”: there was no experience in the design, operation of multi-axis vehicles . And much had to be "acquired" by the method of trial and error ".. It was then ...." in those years "it was learned: what scheme could the USSR industry" master ", what is easier to construct, what is easier to operate ... That then it was determined what is "more profitable" and in which cases: a cardan drive or a constant velocity joint; uniform distribution of axles or uneven
            PS and I put a snapshot of the YAG-12 because it could have "appeared" after reading the article ("Market No.1") that the Soviet "era" of multi-axle chassis only began in the 50 years (and not in the 30 ... )
            1. Amurets
              Amurets 14 January 2018 07: 53
              +1
              Quote: Nikolaevich I
              PS and I put a snapshot of the YAG-12 because it could have "appeared" after reading the article ("Market No.1") that the Soviet "era" of multi-axle chassis only began in the 50 years (and not in the 30 ... )

              I agree with you that multiaxial equipment was worked out in the USSR. abroad they went by creating half-tracked chassis, and only in Germany did Bussing produce armored vehicles. I will not repeat Alpha and your thoughts about the scheme, which is better, what is worse. In many ways, the need forced me to look for new ideas and new technological solutions. I will not reveal the secret that foreign companies, selling licenses and factories, tried to minimize the sale of necessary special equipment. For example: a strict embargo was imposed on the Glisson gear-processing machines and in the USSR they only got complete with the Gas plant, and only the Gas-A and Gas-AA programs. Worm gearboxes had to be installed on Gaz-AAA and other multi-axle vehicles. The production of CV joints was disrupted only because foreign firms refused to sell licenses. Grachev just accidentally found the corners and discovered the secret of the dividing grooves of the Bendix-Weiss hinge, the main type of constant velocity joints on the ZiL / ZiS and Gaz. Yes and only Gaz-61/64/67 and Gaz-63 / ZiS-151/157 could produce them. on Gaza. Do not be surprised, the Gaz-63 bridges stood on ZiLakh. The reconstruction of the YaAZ, the Second World War fell through only because of the Finnish War when the United States imposed a complete embargo on the supply of equipment to the USSR. IMHO. And the main problem seems to be that the West did not want industrial development in the USSR.
        2. Alf
          Alf 13 January 2018 17: 28
          +2
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          Quote: Alf
          Please note that on the 134, unlike the YAG-12, a scheme with a uniform arrangement of wheel axles is implemented, which gives an increase in patency due to the inability to sit on the frame or fall into a wide ditch.

          What is, is .... But also what years ...!

          So what ? Look at the German BA Puma chart.
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 14 January 2018 05: 11
            +2
            And then .... Actually .... something that I could "tell" to you; I already "said" to Amur ... (here. "Next to")
            1. Amurets
              Amurets 14 January 2018 13: 14
              +1
              Quote: Nikolaevich I
              And then .... Actually .... something that I could "tell" to you; I already "said" to Amur ... (here. "Next to")

              Do not be offended if something is wrong, but still, YaAZ before the Second World War was not in a position to manufacture such machines; neither had the production of powerful engines and gearboxes with a wide range of gear ratios. Alas, the weakness of the YaAZ technological base did not even allow one to master simpler machines or to produce them in sufficient quantities. A car like YAG-12, it would be better to build, bring and test in US. Link: article about YaAZ before the Second World War: http://www.gruzovikpress.ru/article/1024-gruzovik
              i-yaro-slav-skogo-av-to-za-voda-ya-5-yaroslavskay
              a-pyatitonka /
              IMHO. Only because of the weakness of the technical base, work on this promising machine was stopped. It would be useful as a special chassis for BA and carriers of weapons and special equipment, such as ferry bridges.
              1. Nikolaevich I
                Nikolaevich I 14 January 2018 15: 12
                +2
                Yes, nothing to be offended! YAG-12 is a very complex "product" for the Soviet auto production of that period! The technological state of the automobile industry of that time was such that it was difficult to establish the production of the YAG-12 (or similar chassis) not only at YAZ, but also at other automobile plants ... as you rightly noted, the “chronically” lacked sophisticated special equipment. But I do not agree with you that the whole problem was the weakness of the YaAZ technological base! With "great desire" it was possible to carry out the reconstruction of the plant. But at that time, the prevailing leadership in the auto industry (and with their submission in the leadership of the Red Army, government circles) at that time was the prevailing opinion that at that stage one should "focus" on the production of 2-3-axle chassis. Is it worth to argue now: who what is right or wrong? Alas, sometimes the fate of a product or technology depends on the addictions of one or another "big boss" .. (Here, in VO recently discussed the priority of creating a tank DZ ... it was believed that the equipment of Soviet DZ tanks was delayed due to the fact that the then “the commander-in-chief“ Baghramyan “did not like the“ type of tanks in the “boxes” of the DZ!) And the technological base of the YaAZ was not so weak. If they produced 3-axis YaG-10, half-tracked trucks were developed, tracked tractors were developed and produced.
                1. Amurets
                  Amurets 14 January 2018 15: 36
                  +1
                  Quote: Nikolaevich I
                  But I do not agree with you that the whole problem was the weakness of the YaAZ technological base! With "great desire" it was possible to carry out the reconstruction of the plant.

                  Yes, all of this is nothing to argue with.
                  Just look at the material from the link that I gave above. This is a specialized publication. It used to be an interesting magazine, now it’s just a brochure.
                  1. Nikolaevich I
                    Nikolaevich I 14 January 2018 16: 44
                    +2
                    Thanks for that! I will definitely use it! hi
  4. iouris
    iouris 12 January 2018 12: 30
    +1
    This is how the BTR was designed.
  5. svp67
    svp67 12 January 2018 14: 17
    +2
    Quote: DalaiLama
    And then, finally, only at the “Layout 2” someone thought that on the off-road driver should look not only at traffic lights ...

    You are very critical. They used what was available from serial samples, and on the “Model-1” they checked not the visibility of the cabin, but the very concept of such a machine and engineering solutions.
    By the way, here are the "grandchildren" of these "Layouts"

    Me more this statement of the author resounded:
    В hypothetical the war, Soviet troops would have to move and carry goods not only on roads, but also on rough terrain.
    You would think that if the war started real, then it would have passed on smooth highways, as well as the everyday life of the Soviet Army cars .... No, there were enough pits, slopes and gully, and in a real war there would have been more rubble from nuclear strikes .
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 12 January 2018 17: 17
      +4
      Quote: svp67
      You would think that if the war had begun real, then it would have passed on smooth highways, as well as the everyday life of a Soviet Army car.

      I agree with you completely. Even the beginning of the Second World War, or rather the fall of 1941, Russian roads shocked not only German drivers, but also tankers. German equipment was literally stuck in the mud. And an example of this is not photographs of ours. But by German photographers.
    2. Curious
      Curious 12 January 2018 18: 44
      +1
      "here are the" grandchildren "of these" Layouts "

      And this is the last car released at ZIL. Demolished even the museum of the history of the plant.
      1. svp67
        svp67 12 January 2018 19: 24
        +2
        Quote: Curious
        And this is the last car released on ZIL

        It's a pity, of course, ZIL, but it is precisely the machines, the heirs of Layout No. 1, that are still produced and continue to live.
        CJSC Bryansk Automobile Plant is a Russian company, a manufacturer of wheeled chassis and high-cross-country tractors with load capacities from 14 to 40 tons for military and civilian equipment. It is one of the leading Russian enterprises in its industry.
        The Bryansk Automobile Plant was founded on June 4, 1958, as a branch of the Moscow ZIL plant for the manufacture of components: drive axles, winches, transfer cases, suspensions and other parts for ZIL-131 cars. The basis for the creation of a new enterprise was the tractor production of the Bezhitsky Steel Plant [1].
        Already in 1959, the production of automotive equipment for the needs of the army was transferred from Moscow to the plant, and in 1960 a special closed design bureau (SKB) and independent production were created at BAZ.
  6. serge siberian
    serge siberian 12 January 2018 18: 25
    +1
    Once, not in this life, I saw a photo of this car and thought, “This is the technique.” But I was about 10 then. The years passed in the country, it has changed a lot, to put it mildly, but fundamentally, the need for such a technique has still disappeared day. repeat
  7. poplar in Kiev
    poplar in Kiev 12 January 2018 19: 02
    0
    ZIL -157., A slightly improved Studebaker. Three driving wheels are enough to overcome off-road
    1. AlNikolaich
      AlNikolaich 12 January 2018 21: 30
      +3
      Quote: poplar in Kiev
      ZIL -157., A slightly improved Studebaker. Three driving wheels are enough to overcome off-road

      A colleague, almost a little ... The concept is from the student, of course, but now, the pneumatic brake drive, the tire pressure regulation system, the design itself and the installation of tires in one row. These little things are of great importance! The ZIL 157 analogue in America never appeared!
      And yet, the student has six driving wheels, and the wheel formula is 6x6!
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 13 January 2018 01: 59
      +1
      Quote: poplar in Kiev
      ZIL -157., Slightly improved Studebaker.

      A slightly improved Studebaker, this is the ZIL-151, but there were differences in it, and most importantly, the ZIL-151 was never produced with a 6x4 wheel arrangement, and the supplies of Studebaker 6x4 accounted for about 25% of the number of delivered vehicles. I will not list all the changes of the ZIL-157 from the ZIL-151, they are in the book: https://eknigi.org/voennaja_istorija/35327-zis-15
      1-zil-157-sovetskie-voennye-gruzoviki.html
      And believe me, in the conditions of Siberia and the Far East, such machines would not hurt a civilian.