Military Review

Hmeimim protective rings

49



The shelling of Hmeimim became the most significant news first days of the year. Although the information about the destroyed Su-24 and Su-35 was not confirmed, many experts have already spoken about the unwillingness of the Russian army to protect the air base. One of the most common complaints was the lack of special protective caponiers.

There were also accusations that after the withdrawal of troops announced by Vladimir Putin, the contingent relaxed. Let's try to figure out how the defense of Hmeimim is actually organized (Khimki in army slang), and see how the US and NATO forces in Afghanistan and Iraq are protecting similar objects.

Syrian Khimki

Prior to the commencement of the operation of the VKS RF in Syria, Khmeimim was the international airport named after Basil al-Assad. And even when the Russian base was deployed on its territory, it did not stop taking civilian flights, here the passenger terminal functions normally.

During the construction of the facility, the Syrian authorities least of all thought about its safety. The airport is located outside the city of Latakia, it is surrounded by a large number of different farms, settlements, factories. In the north, mountains begin, where it is easy to find convenient platforms for observation and shelling. Despite the status of international, the airport was never designed for a large number of aircraft, civilian aircraft had enough space on the platform opposite the terminal.

In the photos taken in 2015, it is clearly seen that the Su-24, Su-30 and Su-34 are located along the runway. For two years, the Russian military seriously expanded the airbase. There were several additional parking lots, taxiways, a large number of economic objects. But the main problem of “Khimki” remained small capacity.

Now there are three parking lots at the airport. Home is located to the left of the airport terminal. Su-24, Su-34, Su-25 as well as Su-30 and Su-35 are based there. Nearby is the TECH. Two other parking areas are located on the opposite side of the runway: one is a compact one, where fighter duty personnel are located, behind it is the largest one, where transport IL-76, DRLO A-50, and An-124 aircraft are stationed.

Also, the Russian military from scratch built a helicopter base, in fact, a new airfield, with several shelters connected to each other, with an apron and a runway.

Why Russian aircraft is not protected by caponiers? The answer is quite simple - shelters significantly reduce the place for basing. If you look at satellite images of December last year, it is clearly seen that the equipment is very dense, sometimes almost in two rows and even on taxiways. Parking is available at the TEC and civilian terminal. True, the “civilian platform” is occupied not by combat vehicles, but by transport vehicles - An-72, Tu-154, IL-76.

Of course, parking can be expanded. In particular, the main one is to the left of the terminal. There is the closest. But the object is sandwiched between the runway and outbuildings. At the same time, on request of security measures, it is impossible to bring parking to the runway. Admittedly, the Russian military faced a problem that had previously been solved by the American and British military in Iraq and Afghanistan. In 2001 and 2003, they also used civilian airports, and it turned out that they were not suitable for the safe deployment of more military aircraft.

Half the country under the base

Only one way out - the creation of large joint military bases from scratch. So the United States had a "Ballad" in Iraq, and the UK had a "Camp Bastion" in Afghanistan. And if the Americans placed the "Ballad" still relatively close to the city, then the British built their base tens of kilometers deep into the desert.

Another important feature of such objects: the airfield itself is located in the center of the base, and it is surrounded by a large number of different buildings. Such a layout makes parking vehicles as far as possible from the base, thereby protecting them from mortar and rocket attacks. And with a ground attack, militants will have to make their way to planes and helicopters through built-up areas for a long time. Therefore, in the Ballad and Camp Bastion, the vehicles did not stand in caponiers, although the bases were subjected to constant shelling of mobile groups armed with mortars and launchers.

Knowing the vulnerability of Khimki, from the very beginning of the operation, the Russian military paid close attention to defense from land in order to prevent mortar and rocket attacks. Another big danger is MANPADS calculations.

Of course, the system of protection and defense of the main Russian base in Syria is not disclosed, but if we analyze the publications and photographs, we can assume that it consists of three rings. The first is the air base itself, its perimeter and checkpoint. Here the service is the Russian military police. She patrols along the engineering barriers, as well as on the territory, checks the cargo at checkpoints.

The second ring is a position within a radius of several kilometers from the base. Most likely they are occupied by marines, paratroopers, and possibly motorized rifles. They are reinforced by units equipped tanks T-90, which can not only hit targets at a great distance, but also detect objects at night and in bad weather. Most likely, these positions block the points from where the calculation of MANPADS can bring down the plane.

The third ring - mobile special forces, and perhaps even the fighters of the KSSO, who check suspicious places in the band a few dozen kilometers around the base. Their goal is mobile groups and the identification of caches. The second and third rings are supported by helicopters, which also patrol the perimeter, search for suspicious objects and, if necessary, deliver a blow.

You can protect, you can not exclude

Judging by the available information, only in 2016 – 2017 the Hmeimim were bombarded with unguided rockets several times.

But why not create a solid perimeter? The fact is that the base area is very densely populated, dozens of villages and farms, as already noted, are close to it. Where do you want them to go before placing several defense rings in a radius up to 50 – 70 kilometers?

Now, in the area of ​​the Khmeimim airbase, several protection systems have been created, which allow to maximally weaken the effectiveness of the shelling. In particular, these are artillery radars, detecting fired missiles and mines. There are also special systems such as the Russian “Pantyr” and the American Senturion. They are able to shoot down missiles, and under certain conditions - and mines. The bases are covered by electronic reconnaissance systems, which intercept the radio communications of mobile militant groups. EW complexes, silencing communication channels and GPS signals are also actively used.

But the militants have also learned to bypass high-tech protection. For example, in Camp Bastion, mobile teams hid in road traffic, did not use communications and navigation systems. The shelling was conducted at maximum range. For this, rockets with an increased fuel reserve were used. Such products had very low accuracy, but for those tasks it was quite enough.

In the US and British armed forces, shelling is treated as an inevitable evil. Even on protected bases, their number can be seriously reduced, but it is impossible to completely get rid of mines and missiles falling from the sky. In this situation, only the correct distribution of objects in the territory saves. Simply put, the least significant objects should be in the zone of maximum risk.

So, the defense of the Russian Khmeimim base, by today's standards, must be admitted to be quite effective. But effective protection from journalists who are able to destroy any amount of equipment on the pages of their publications has not yet been found.
Author:
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https://vpk-news.ru/articles/40676
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  1. svp67
    svp67 13 January 2018 09: 08
    +2
    In the armed forces of the United States and Britain, the shelling is treated as an inevitable evil.
    Yes, and worried about the shelling of their field camps in NATO, they were able to create systems of protection against mortar mines and missiles, why didn’t we worry about it in time? What did not anyone know about NATO developments?
    1. KVU-NSVD
      KVU-NSVD 13 January 2018 09: 50
      +7
      They hoped for shells, control of the area by pro-Assad forces, and, as usual, at random. Now, of course, the regime has been strengthened, the share of its soldiers in the protection of adjacent territories has been increased, I think that the density of the air defense grouping - electronic warfare has increased, the Syrian special services are intensively rustling among the locals. But the main thing is not to change It: 1) large population and => many potential accomplices 2) mountains around and in the immediate vicinity.
      1. svp67
        svp67 13 January 2018 09: 53
        +4
        Quote: KVU-NSVD
        Hoping on the shell

        So they could, should even have been included in defense systems ... but they don’t know how to shoot mortar mines, but NBS C-RAM (Centurion) or MANTIS (Mantis) can
        Quote: KVU-NSVD
        But the main thing is not to change It: 1) large population and => many potential accomplices 2) mountains around and in the immediate vicinity.

        You have to be able to fight where you have to, and not where you want ...
        1. KVU-NSVD
          KVU-NSVD 13 January 2018 10: 06
          +6
          Hello, Sergey. In general, I agree. It’s hard for me, as a signalman, to judge air defense. But against mortar attacks, ZAK integrated with artillery radars would probably be effective. Do we have any? Everything that is written about such systems is somehow contradictory
          1. svp67
            svp67 13 January 2018 10: 13
            +1
            Quote: KVU-NSVD
            Hello Sergey

            Good afternoon
            Quote: KVU-NSVD
            But against mortar attacks, ZAK integrated with artillery radars would probably be effective

            In the West, lasers are used, and yet, even with a decade of stagnation, Russia is still in a leading position in this matter ...
            1. KVU-NSVD
              KVU-NSVD 13 January 2018 10: 19
              +6
              How does a laser help against a piece of cast iron with TNT and a fuse without any hint of electronics and all kinds of homing heads there
              1. svp67
                svp67 13 January 2018 10: 23
                0
                Quote: KVU-NSVD
                How does a laser help against a piece of cast iron with TNT and a fuse without any hint of electronics and all kinds of homing heads there

                It’s such a laser, it can do a lot .... but now it could be used to illuminate the flying "cast iron" and facilitate aiming. In the 80s, 1K11 Stilet, a Soviet self-propelled laser system for counteracting enemy optoelectronic devices and controlling weapons on the battlefield, was very promising

                And that year, our defense industry announced the successful testing of MLK - a mobile laser system based on armored personnel carriers
                1. KVU-NSVD
                  KVU-NSVD 13 January 2018 10: 36
                  +6
                  the use of a laser to illuminate targets involves missiles as a means of destruction. I can hardly imagine the density of the backlight and missiles capable of minimizing the volley of the Cornflowers battery. It seems that multi-barrel ZAK with a tip from counter-battery radars is more effective for object-based air defense when working against "cast iron"
                  1. svp67
                    svp67 14 January 2018 18: 09
                    0
                    Quote: KVU-NSVD
                    I can hardly imagine the density of the backlight and missiles capable of minimizing the volley of the battery. Cornflowers

                    And why not a volley of the division? You do not confuse. All these systems are created to protect field camps during local conflicts of low intensity, when SINGLE fire weapons can break through to these camps, like what happened in Syria and what happened in Afghanistan.
                    1. KVU-NSVD
                      KVU-NSVD 14 January 2018 18: 14
                      +5
                      I agree - with ONE help hi
            2. Nikolaevich I
              Nikolaevich I 13 January 2018 15: 15
              +3
              Quote: svp67
              In the West, lasers use

              Hmm ... A single experimental facility in the field test? Is this called "apply"?
              Quote: svp67
              even with a decade of stagnation, Russia is still in a leading position on this issue ...

              Oh li ???
        2. fcsm1960
          fcsm1960 13 January 2018 10: 23
          +5
          "Seeing the battle from the side, everyone imagines himself a strategist"
          Kozma Prutkov
          1. svp67
            svp67 13 January 2018 10: 41
            +6
            Quote: fcsm1960
            "Seeing the battle from the side, everyone imagines himself a strategist"

            Kozma, although an invented character, is certainly great. But you attribute this phrase to him in vain. It belongs to the famous Georgian leader and poet Shota Rustaveli. The phrase itself became known thanks to the poem "The Knight in the Tiger Skin"
          2. flicker
            flicker 13 January 2018 22: 50
            +3
            We propose to close the exchange of views, uh strategies? request
      2. EvilLion
        EvilLion 14 January 2018 03: 14
        0
        Well, you probably hope for sure, but the military is smarter.
    2. Lopatov
      Lopatov 13 January 2018 10: 00
      +3
      Quote: svp67
      Yes, and worried about the shelling of their field camps in NATO were able to create a system of protection against mortar mines and missiles

      There is usually just a warning system. So that the serviceman takes a place in the shelter.
      Full-fledged C-RAM systems are very rare, cumbersome and are more likely to be in trial operation.
      1. svp67
        svp67 13 January 2018 10: 10
        +3
        Quote: Spade
        Full-fledged C-RAM systems are very rare, cumbersome and are more likely to be in trial operation.

        For our only warring bases abroad, we could not skimp ...
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov 13 January 2018 10: 27
          +4
          Quote: svp67
          For our only warring bases abroad, we could not skimp ...

          The point here is not "skimp", the point is the lack of sophistication of technology, including the Americans. Their "Centurion", apparently, is not particularly effective, since they invest such money in using micro-rockets and laser solutions for C-RAM.
          The German “Mantis”, apparently, exists only at the level of exhibition samples, as does the Italian “Porkupin” German “Smartcamp” - at the level of computer graphics. according to the Italian Draco filling station, they write that it can be used as a "performer" for C-RAM, however, combat use in this capacity has not been noted.

          Well, the warning function can be assigned to the "Zoos", which seem to be in Syria.
          1. svp67
            svp67 13 January 2018 10: 32
            +4
            Quote: Spade
            Well, the warning function can be assigned to the "Zoos", which seem to be in Syria.

            It is possible, but why have not yet been assigned. I think that would not conflict with the air defense and airborne radars. And here it’s probably worth regretting that we are not able to create a SINGLE radar field in the interests of both the airborne forces and air defense, and the ground forces. Remember our debate about the generation of ATGMs, that's where ideas need to be moved and put into practice. In addition to the "Shell", it is necessary to introduce BMPTs into the common system, but with new universal missiles capable of hitting both tanks and flying objects and 57-mm cannons, with new shells ...
    3. Rostislav
      Rostislav 13 January 2018 10: 28
      +2
      Enlighten the name of the American defense system, capable of shooting down 82 mm mines. mortar?
      1. Lopatov
        Lopatov 13 January 2018 10: 34
        +1
        LPWS "Centurion"
        1. Vlad.by
          Vlad.by 14 January 2018 02: 36
          +1
          I would like to see this Centurion in work to protect against at least one Cornflower ...
    4. max702
      max702 13 January 2018 11: 34
      +3
      I’m wondering if they’ll shoot at the base with a full Grad package, what will happen? Finding a car and trained crew is not a problem, getting to the launch point of 15-20 km is the same possible, it will take 5 minutes to do all the work .. can I intercept 40 missiles very much doubt it ..
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion 14 January 2018 03: 16
        0
        Who prevented this from being done in 2 of the year? But they didn’t, which makes your question meaningless.
        1. max702
          max702 15 January 2018 15: 15
          0
          There are a lot of oddities in this war .. As if there was an agreement, certain measures of influence should not be applied .. Something like a convention .. The United States has quite a few bases in Syria, Iskander is there for a reason ..
  2. Lopatov
    Lopatov 13 January 2018 09: 57
    +7
    Why is Russian aircraft not protected by caponiers? The answer is quite simple - shelters will significantly reduce the space for basing.

    Yes, rather there are the notorious "maybe", laziness and incompetence

    There are solutions that practically do not “eat up” usable area. Gabions, reinforced concrete structures, prefabricated lightweight protective structures ...
    1. svp67
      svp67 13 January 2018 10: 02
      +1
      Quote: Spade
      Gabions

      And they would be quite enough, especially since the technologies have already been worked out ...
      1. Lopatov
        Lopatov 13 January 2018 10: 05
        +1
        They are more than the rest of the useful area "eat". True, at the same time they are the cheapest, incl. in terms of transportation cost.
        1. svp67
          svp67 13 January 2018 10: 11
          +4
          Quote: Spade
          They are more than the rest of the useful area "eat"

          Not more than an ordinary embankment, but much less
          Quote: Spade
          True, at the same time they are the cheapest, incl. in terms of transportation cost.

          Alas, so far the life of a soldier remains the cheapest among us ... What does not please
          1. m.cempbell
            m.cempbell 13 January 2018 12: 36
            +2
            Alas, so far the life of a soldier remains the cheapest among us ...

            One of the main problems of the Russian army ....
    2. EvilLion
      EvilLion 14 January 2018 03: 17
      0
      Perhaps, and laziness is in your office, and here is a military facility.
      1. Lopatov
        Lopatov 14 January 2018 08: 50
        +1
        Yeah ... Do you prefer to replace "laziness and maybe" with tougher concepts like "negligence"?

        In general, I should not tell tales about the lack of laziness and avosism at military facilities 8)))
      2. tchoni
        tchoni 14 January 2018 12: 03
        0
        Quote: EvilLion
        Perhaps, and laziness is in your office, and here is a military facility.

        That’s precisely why, there is “imposition” and “sloppiness”
  3. groks
    groks 13 January 2018 10: 44
    +1
    If the electronic warfare worked normally, then the UAV would not have arrived.
    If the districts were controlled for several kilometers, mines would not have arrived.
    The missiles have a longer range, but they are also much larger than mines and the Shell will cope with them.
    If this goes on, they may begin to shoot down planes. MANPADS are even easier to hide than a mortar.
  4. Professor
    Professor 13 January 2018 10: 48
    +4
    The issue of losing a large amount of equipment as a result of shelling is a matter of time.

    Hmeimim airbase. August 2017
    It seems that Russia does not build capital facilities because it does not intend to stay there for a long time.
    https://colonelcassad.livejournal.com/3655908.htm
    l

    http://planet-today.ru/novosti/v-mire/item/34019-
    izrail-obnarodoval-sputnikovye-snimki-rossijskoj-
    aviabazy-khmejmim-v-sirii
    1. Sergey Cojocari
      Sergey Cojocari 13 January 2018 14: 55
      +5
      June 22, 1941 ... I DO NOT TEACH ANYTHING!
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion 14 January 2018 03: 18
        +1
        If you do not understand 22 on June 41, then surely you will not understand in Syria.
  5. m.cempbell
    m.cempbell 13 January 2018 12: 35
    +3
    So the protection of the Russian base “Khmeimim” by today's standards must be recognized as quite effective.

    From the article I had the opposite opinion. If the airfield is really surrounded by numerous farms, villages, etc., then you can definitely forget about effective protection ...
  6. shura7782
    shura7782 13 January 2018 13: 09
    +1
    Everything will calm down (and this happens very quickly) and there will be a new shelling. This is a matter of principle. The result is not important, the fact of constant shelling is important. Correctly, the author painted about protection in three levels. We in Bagram were even cooler in terms of the number of personnel. Around only troops and posts. The Americans will do it right. Do not quibble.
    By the way, there is no information how they are doing there now. The base was beaten off chic. Techniques in bulk. The living area is dense. The goal is wonderful. The dream of saboteurs. What does Comrade Mauser think of this? Will there be a return move?
  7. shuravi
    shuravi 13 January 2018 13: 49
    +2
    First of all, you need to establish good intelligence work. Everything and everything is sold in the East, including information.
    And such a thing, dense buildings around the airfield, this is far from a drawback.
    This is just a huge number of those who do not want to receive an answer, and if they can even make money on it, then double motivation. In Afghanistan, spirits preferred to bombard airfields from wild places than from villages.
  8. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 13 January 2018 18: 08
    +1
    As C-RAM systems, special “anti-aircraft” MLRS caliber 37 (40) mm type French test installations can be used .. To begin with, you can “experiment” (as a prototype of a promising system) with ,, weapon blocks ”of the UB type -32, B8В20 and the upgraded C-5, C-8 missiles; as well as with the Shilka-M4 / 5, “modernized” to the M6 variant, by introducing in the ammunition a fragmentation-beam 23 short-range missile laser GOS, created on the basis of MANPADS "Strela-2M", "Strela-3", "Needle-1" (anti Ronova function) .Rassmotret ability to create launchers, using the idea of ​​"Mozyr" ...
  9. serge siberian
    serge siberian 13 January 2018 18: 44
    +2
    I think that there are still specialists in anti-sabotage work in our large country and they are in their places. They will solve this problem along with intelligence and other military personnel in their posts. Let them fish. Journalist drive away hi angry Oh, but they are like bath sheets ... sticking. And croaking and croaking, pah ... on them.
  10. Radikal
    Radikal 14 January 2018 02: 08
    0
    Quote: Professor
    The issue of losing a large amount of equipment as a result of shelling is a matter of time.

    Hmeimim airbase. August 2017
    It seems that Russia does not build capital facilities because it does not intend to stay there for a long time.
    https://colonelcassad.livejournal.com/3655908.htm
    l

    http://planet-today.ru/novosti/v-mire/item/34019-
    izrail-obnarodoval-sputnikovye-snimki-rossijskoj-
    aviabazy-khmejmim-v-sirii

    In the picture on the right - behind the parking lot the wasteland looks like - why not use it for the construction of caponiers? winked
    1. shuravi
      shuravi 14 January 2018 02: 14
      0
      Quote: Radikal

      In the picture on the right - behind the parking lot the wasteland looks like - why not use it for the construction of caponiers? winked



      Why do caponiers? Under these conditions, concrete slabs protecting against splinters will be sufficient.
  11. Radikal
    Radikal 14 January 2018 02: 16
    0
    Quote: shuravi
    Quote: Radikal

    In the picture on the right - behind the parking lot the wasteland looks like - why not use it for the construction of caponiers? winked



    Why do caponiers? Under these conditions, concrete slabs protecting against splinters will be sufficient.

    And from direct hits?
    1. shuravi
      shuravi 14 January 2018 12: 38
      +1
      Quote: Radikal

      And from direct hits?


      So the embankment, erroneously called caponier, also does not protect against direct hits. But they can cope with protection from a high-explosive wave and fragments of close-exploding ammunition, including quite powerful ones.
      Plates are certainly weaker, but for current threats are quite sufficient. You can also pull the anti-cumulative mesh on top.
      Not 100% protection of course, but much better than open parking. Well and other measures of course, security posts, undercover work.
  12. LeonidL
    LeonidL 14 January 2018 02: 17
    0
    “But no effective defense against journalists capable of destroying any quantity of equipment on the pages of their publications has yet been found.” - Very precisely, it’s just perfectly said - because evil languages ​​are more dangerous than a pistol!
  13. Narak-zempo
    Narak-zempo 14 January 2018 10: 45
    +1
    You just need to clear the 15-kilometer zone around the base from civilians and open fire without warning for anyone who appears in it. It’s ideal, but expensive, to patrol the UAV zone with ATGMs - burn any hell out of hell.
  14. tchoni
    tchoni 14 January 2018 12: 18
    +4
    The article recalls an attempt to otmazatsya, well, or to smear whom. Especially uboynfy argument in favor of the lack of embankment parking. - NO PLACES! - THERE ARE NO PLACE AT THE AIRPORT !!! one might think that this is the deck of an aircraft carrier 50x350 meters, where up to 50 planes and helicopters are placed on the flight shift, and where they still have time to fly.
    No, I understand everything, we saved a place for an embankment .... and as a result of the shelling, 8 planes were damaged (I understand that it’s slippery, it doesn’t confirm anything, but nevertheless a number of materials on the Internet suggest this. Photo was There was a subsequent strengthening of the base by the number of those who dropped out) Who is not in the know is more than 1 \ 4 of the payroll in the base.