Recall, the project Frigate 11356 "Petrel" is a variant of the deep modernization of older projects 1135 and 1135M. The development of the new project was carried out taking into account the experience of creating ships of the type "1135.6" or "Talwar", previously created for the naval forces of India. The main objective of the new project 11356 was the fastest possible construction of several guardians of the far sea zone, necessary for re-equipping the Black Sea and Baltic fleets.
The 11356 project was developed by the end of the last decade, and in 2010, the first contract for the construction of such ships appeared. In 2011, the second agreement was signed. In accordance with the two treaties, the shipbuilding industry was to transfer to the fleet six new frigates with a total value of about 40 billion rubles.
The 11356 “Petrel” project envisages the construction of a warship with a full displacement of more than 4000 tons, having a length of about 125 m with a width of up to 15,2 m and a draft of up to 7,5 m. engines (type COGAG). It consists of a pair of sustainer engines, supplemented by two afterburners. The total capacity of such a power plant reaches 56 thousand hp. Through the gearboxes of a special design, the power is delivered to two propellers. With such equipment, the Petrel is capable of speeds up to 30 nodes. Cruising range at economic speed reaches nautical miles 4850.
Given current trends and requirements, the 11356 project provides for the use of a new hull and superstructure design, to a certain extent reducing the ship’s visibility for radar systems. Measures to reduce acoustic visibility were also implemented. At the same time, new frigates retain certain features of their predecessors of the 1135 family.
The main means of detecting ships of the 11356 project is the Fregat-M2EM radar. Also, the radar complex includes several fire control stations used with anti-aircraft and artillery weapons. Data from the detection means is transmitted to the combat information and control system "Demand-M", which ensures the use of all radio-electronic means, weapons, etc.
The main attack vehicle of the frigates of a new type is the universal vertical launcher 3C14, intended for firing rockets of the Caliber family. Such weapons allow the ship to attack a variety of surface and land targets. The ammunition complex "Caliber" consists of 8 missiles. Also in the complex of rocket armament includes anti-aircraft system medium-range "Calm-1".
The 11356 project provides for the use of an advanced artillery system complex. An artillery mount A-190 with a 100 caliber mm gun is mounted on the forecastle of the ship. There is also a pair of AK-630 units with 30 caliber mm guns. To combat submarines and torpedoes, it is proposed to use two paired 533-mm torpedo tubes and a jet bomber RBU-6000.
The aft deck is a helicopter airstrip. Next to it in the superstructure is a hangar that allows you to transport and operate a Ka-27 or Ka-31 helicopter.
The order for the construction of all six patrol ships of the new type was received by the Yantar Baltic Shipyard (Kaliningrad). Shortly after signing the contract, the company carried out the necessary preparatory work and proceeded with the implementation of the order. 18 December 2010 was held the solemn ceremony of laying the main frigate of the 11356 project, named Admiral Grigorovich. This event was the actual start of a new program for the construction of new ships.
The first serial "Petrel" of the new project under the name "Admiral Essen" was laid in July 2011 of the year. The next bookmark ceremony, which launched the construction of Admiral Makarov, was held at the end of February on 2012. In July, November and December of the next 2013, the Yantar plant began the construction of the ships Admiral Butakov, Admiral Istomin and Admiral Kornilov.
The lead frigate of the 11356 project was launched in March 14 2014. About a year the ship was completed at the wall, after which it was released for testing. Required checks continued until the end of 2015. 10 March The 2016 fleet received the Admiral Grigorovich, and the next day it was raised a flag. In the early summer of the same year, the ship made the transition to the duty station.
7 November 2014 was launched the first serial ship "Admiral Essen". About a year later, this watchdog first went to sea for testing. According to the first plans, the ship was supposed to enter service before the beginning of the summer of 2016, however, the signing of the acceptance certificate slightly moved. 7 June of the same year, the frigate officially added to the Russian Navy.
The second serial ship (the third representative of the project), laid on 29 on February 2012, was launched in the first days of September on 2015. In early October 2016, the completed frigate “Admiral Makarov” went to the test. Due to certain reasons, the tests of the ship were noticeably delayed, and they could not be taken into the fleet combat crew in May last year, as planned earlier. However, at the end of December, the necessary act was signed, and now the Black Sea Fleet incorporates three “Petrels”.
To date, Yantar Shipyard has completed half of the existing order for the construction of patrol ships of the 11356 project and has provided partial re-equipment of the Black Sea Fleet. At the same time, however, the further fulfillment of the order faced serious problems and even managed to become a topic of controversy. The fact is that the shipbuilding program was negatively affected by events in the international arena.
Due to the lack of suitable Russian-made products in the 11356 “Petrel” project, we had to use gas turbine installations developed by the Ukrainian Scientific-Production Complex of the Gas-Turbine Construction “Zorya” - “Mashproekt” (Nikolaev). Before the start of 2014, and the subsequent deterioration of relations between the two countries, a foreign enterprise managed to deliver only three sets of equipment out of six. The impossibility of a quick, full-fledged replacement of lost engines by the forces of Russian industry led to noticeable problems.
After analyzing the existing situation, the command of the Russian fleet and the leadership of the industry made a decision. At the beginning of July 2015, Admiral Viktor Chirkov, Commander-in-Chief of the Navy, said that Russia would have to abandon the ships Admiral Butakov, Admiral Istomin and Admiral Kornilov, which were left without engines. Instead, it was proposed to build 18 small rocket ships of the 22800 project, the first of which should have been laid in 2016.
A little later, it was decided to create its own power plants designed to replace the products of the enterprise “Zorya” - “Mashproekt”. To solve this problem was the NGO "Saturn". In May, 2016 of the year, it was announced that the three remaining “Petrels” would be mothballed by the end of the current decade - until the required domestically produced engines appeared.
A few months later, in October, information appeared about the possible sale of three unfinished frigates to the naval forces of India. In February last year, Deputy Director of the Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation Vladimir Drozhzhov pointed out the possibility of transferring two ships of the 11356 type to the Indian fleet.
In connection with the existing problems and uncertain future, it was decided to lower the unfinished ships into the water and thereby free up the stocks for the new construction. The frigate "Admiral Butakov" was launched in March 2016. Two other ships were taken out of the assembly shop in November of the 2017. As follows from the available data, all three ships carry far from a complete set of equipment, and therefore I can not be completed at the plant wall. Unfinished ships were mothballed before making decisions about their future.
In early June, 2017, the domestic media released a new statement by the head of the United Shipbuilding Corporation Alexei Rakhmanov. He said that in the year 2018, USC planned to resume construction of mothballed ships. To continue the construction will require some research and development work, but they should not lead to significant difficulties and a new shift in time.
July 1 such statements were confirmed by the command of the fleet. Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Navy, Vice Admiral Viktor Bursuk, said that three new frigates will still be completed in the foreseeable future and will be added to the combat strength of the Black Sea Fleet. Soon, however, this information was corrected.
Already in September, Vladimir Kozhin, Assistant to the President of Russia on military-technical cooperation, pointed out that, within the framework of the current agreements of friendly India, two “Petrels” of the mothballed ones could be transferred. In this case, only one ship will be completed for its own fleet. The problem of power plants will be solved by available methods. So, the ship for the Russian Navy will receive domestic equipment, and the Indian side will be able to independently buy Ukrainian-made products.
At about the same time, other shipbuilding representatives clarified a possible scenario. So, for the Russian fleet can be completed guard "Admiral Butakov." "Admiral Istomin" and "Admiral Kornilov", in turn, can be sold to a foreign customer with the subsequent completion of his building. In addition, two more such ships can be built on Indian enterprises by the Russian project.
To date, three of the six ordered ships of the 11356 project were built, tested, transferred to the fleet and included in its combat strength. At the same time, the head and serial frigates have already managed not only to begin service, but also to take part in real combat operations. In November 2016 and June 2017, the Admiral Grigorovich watchdog carried out several rocket attacks on the positions of terrorists in Syria. "Admiral Essen" last year carried out three such blows. “Admiral Makarov,” for obvious reasons, has not yet managed to take part in the fight against terrorism.
Apparently, the further fate of the three following ships of the “Petrel” type has already been determined. One of them will be completed for the Russian fleet with the use of domestic components, while the other two will go to serve abroad. Thus, out of six ordered ships of the Russian Navy, only four will be able to receive, and one of them will not fully correspond to the original design and the existing technical requirements. However, in this case, the Black Sea Fleet will update its grouping of surface ships and increase combat capability accordingly.
In accordance with previous statements by the Navy Command, the shortage of 11356 frigates in the foreseeable future will be compensated for by building a large number of small rocket ships of the 22800 / Karakurt type. It is planned to build 18 of such RTOs, more than half of which have already, at a minimum, been laid and are at different stages of construction. The head and serial "Karakurts" were launched last year and soon have to go to the test. The ships of the 22800 project differ in the most noticeable way from the “Stormers” in a number of parameters, but they have similar combat capabilities provided by unified attack missile weapons.
Unfortunately, the direct consequence of the deterioration of the situation in the international arena were certain problems with obtaining certain products used in the construction of Russian ships. As a result of this, among other things, the fate of three Russian frigates of the 11356 project was called into question. However, a few years after the necessary industrial ties were broken, the Russian military and industry managed to find a way out of the current situation and adjust their plans. Due to this, the existing order in the interests of the Russian Navy, half of which has already been completed, will be implemented by two thirds in the future.
Despite certain difficulties, the Russian navy in the coming years will be able to receive at least four of the six ordered ships of the Burevestnik project. In addition, in addition to them, small rocket ships of the 22800 project will be built. Thus, with all the existing difficulties and a noticeable shift in some terms, the fleet will nevertheless begin to operate a noticeable number of new ships, which will positively affect its general condition and combat capabilities.
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