Military Review

Victorio and his indomitable apaches

22
By the early 70 of the nineteenth century, the resistance of most Native American tribes was crushed on the prairies. After the victory over the slaveholding South, the United States was left with only one problem - a handful of apaches dissatisfied with their lot, headed by the leader Victorio. For their courage and bravery, they were called the bronco (broncho), which means "invincible."
Victorio and his indomitable apaches


Happy times of the Gray Wolf

At first, US President Ulysses Grant tried to solve the problem with the Indians peacefully. An officer Gordon Granger was sent to the southwestern lands, having proven himself to be in opposition to the indigenous people of America. He had to persuade the Apaches to voluntarily move to the reservation. True, at that time they existed only on the map.

Granger met with the leader of the Indians, but failed to achieve a positive response from the Apaches. After Gordon had failed in his task, President Grant sent another no less famous military man, George Kruk, to the cause. With this appointment, Grant, as they say, hit exactly the bull's eye. In a short time Crook managed to gain confidence in the Indians. And they said about him that George is “more Apache than many Apaches”. He was also respectfully called Gray Wolf. For several years of "work", Crook was able to persuade almost all the natives of Arizona and New Mexico to relocate. And the matter is not only in respectful and confidential attitude towards the pale face. Kruk contributed to the emergence of a fundamentally new type of reservation. According to the military (as odd as it may sound), the reservations should have been for the Indians not just temporary parking, but a real home. Therefore, the territory of the future residence of the Redskins, he chose based on their needs and habits. The lands of Arizona, which completely corresponded to the habitual life of the Apaches, were best suited. The Gray Wolf was probably the most zealous broncho of the best lands in Camp Verd. In addition, George gave the resettled Indians full self-government, the judiciary and his own police. In addition, the Gray Wolf taught the Apaches to plant fields and grow pumpkins. Then it seemed that Crook was able to put an end to the bloody confrontation between the colonists and the indigenous population. In general, in a short time (about four years) Gray Wolf did what his predecessors did not succeed for several centuries. People began to live happily and peacefully, if not throughout the United States. But ... the president considered that Crook completed the task and transferred him to another area. Now George had to take part in the military campaign against the Sioux and Cheyenne.

As soon as the Gray Wolf left Camp Verd, the authorities reduced his work with a single stroke of a pen. The new order stated that the reservations created by Crook should be eliminated. And the Indians relocated from their native territories to San Carlos - an area of ​​desert and unsuitable for life. Redskins by force, threatening with reprisals, were sent, one might say, to death. How many people died from cold, thirst and hunger of chiricahua, mescaliers, Indians of the White Mountains and other Apaches - nobody knows. The corpses just nobody thought. Reservations, which were houses, are gone. In their place came the concentration camp San Carlos.

But not all Apaches humbly accepted their fate. Mass unrest began in San Carlos. The tribes of the Apaches were mixed into one, united by a common misfortune. Indignation was led by three leaders - Chunts, Konchino and Chaun-Desi. They dealt with the deputy reservation and fled. On the lands vacated after the resettlement of the Apaches, numerous pale-faced people immediately settled. And the Indians lost their homeland forever. Dissatisfied with the situation went to the mountains, as well as to the northern part of Mexico. Since the Mexican soldiers guarding the border turned a blind eye to the settlers, the Apaches had no problems. At the new places of residence, the Indians built fortified settlements. And already from there they often raided the pale-faced people who had occupied their ancestral lands. And since the position of the Indians who remained on reservations only worsened from year to year, the number of fugitives grew.

Brewing a major conflict.

Victorio on the warpath

For the Apache-Mimbreno, the Ojo-Caliente reservation was originally allocated. George Kruk gave these lands to the Indians, because they were their original territory. But in 1877, the Indian affairs department from Washington ordered the red men to leave their occupied lands and move along with the chiricahua Apaches to the San Carlos reservation. By that time, this concentration camp had already been filled to the utmost by the settlers, and the Indians knew the fate of the pale-faced people. But they could not not fulfill the order. So we went to San Carlos.

At the new site, mimbreno, headed by the leader Victorio, lasted only two years. In the spring of 1879, a group of Indians (according to various sources from a few dozen to several hundred people), along with their leader, fled from San Carlos. They traveled to the homeland of Ojo-Kalende to lead a guerrilla war against the invaders from there. The Indians settled in the mountains and built a fortress, which became a new home for them.

The Indians used their illegal status for one hundred percent. Every now and then they made lightning attacks on the white settlers of Oho Kalende, stealing cattle from them and burning houses. Then Victorio began to send his soldiers to the settlements located in the states of Texas and New Mexico. This development, of course, did not suit the Americans. The authorities decided to get rid of the indomitable Apaches, who caused so much trouble. Soldiers of the 9 Cavalry Regiment set off to hunt for the Redskins. But the first to attack the Indians. Victorio chose the right moment, so the attack was unexpected for the pale-faced. US soldiers were forced to retreat, suffering losses. The Apaches celebrated victory and rich booty - they captured weapon, ammunition and a few dozen horses.

This victory was the last straw. In search of the indomitable, one thousand US soldiers set off, helped by hundreds of rangers from the conquered tribes of the Apaches and the Navajo. In addition, armed groups of volunteers provided assistance in fighting Victorio. But the number of rebels increased. More and more disgruntled Indians went to the mountains to Victorio, hoping that they would be able to win their right to a decent life.

The increase in the number of aggressive-minded Indians caused panic among the population not only of the former lands of the Apaches, but also of nearby territories. Especially worried about their lives and wealth large landowners. They understood that sooner or later the redskins would get to them.

In mid-September 1879, the Apaches Victorio ran into Captain Byron Dawson's cavalrymen. While the soldiers descended into the canyon, the Indians managed to take more advantageous positions to fire the enemy. Started a shootout. The battle lasted almost two days with occasional stops. And it ended in victory for Victorio. I must say that in two days of shooting, Dawson lost only five soldiers. A few more were slightly injured. No one was hurt by the Apaches. A pale face had to retreat because of a banal reason - they ran out of ammo.

Soon residents of nearby settlements organized their own punitive expedition against the Apaches. A detachment consisting of farmers, went to the mountains, hoping to catch the Bronco by surprise. They had a very vague idea about the size of the enemy and its weaponry, so they thought that they would face a confrontation with a bunch of drunken Indians with bows. But as soon as the pale-faced people began to climb the winding mountain path, they were greeted by gunshots. The frightened punitive detachment hastened to retreat, but the Apaches jumped out from behind the stones. Battles did not work. The Indians easily (without losing a single warrior) killed all the uninvited guests.

After that, the Apaches Victorio made several more attacks on American settlements. In one of the raids, they were faced with a detachment of volunteers from the miners, who was just going to pacify the rebellious redskins. The victory was left to the last.

The fate of the retaliatory punitive detachment, consisting of farmers, worried residents of nearby settlements. Therefore, it was decided to send the second expedition, which was to find the first detachment, to unite with him and attack Victorio. But this time, not only ordinary Americans went to the mountains. They came to the aid of Mexican soldiers from the garrison in Paso del Norte (now the Mexican city of Ciudad Juarez), American soldiers and Texas rangers. Assistance in the search for the rebels have indians trackers.

The scouts reported to Victorio that the army of the enemy was heading for the mountains. And then the leader decided to arrange a trap for the guests. He directed part of his soldiers to the north in order to confuse the enemy's trackers. The rest of the warriors took a favorable position in the gorge.

The pale-faced, led by the rangers, reached the place of the death of the first punitive detachment, where they found the bodies of their compatriots. The commanders ordered to chop down trees to burn the corpses. They did not worry about their safety, because the Indians found fresh trails leading north. The squad considered that Victorio and his men had escaped. But as soon as a big fire broke out, shots rang out and arrows flew. After a short fire, the Apaches poured into the gorge. The second punitive expedition shared the fate of the first. None of the Americans and their Red Allies survived.

Last fight victorio

In the autumn of 1880, Victorio and his warriors were in Tres Castillos, in the east of the Mexican state of Chihuahua. The Apaches, tired of the endless hostilities, chose this place for a brief respite. And here Victorio made the first mistake. Trusting his scouts, who informed him of the absence of the enemy, he sent most of his soldiers to the hunt. There were women, children and only a few capable men in the camp.

At night, a large detachment led by Colonel Joaquin Terrasas approached the Indians. Allied rangers from the Taraumara tribe led him to the Apaches. Taking advantage of the moment, the soldiers silently killed the guards, and then staged a massacre in the camp indomitable. According to legend, Victorio and his Apaches resisted, as they say, to the last drop of blood. The leader received more than a dozen wounds before his lifeless body fell to the ground.

The soldiers of Terrazas spared neither women nor children. In all, seventy-eight rebel Apaches died of their hands that night, fifty-three of whom were women and children. Another sixty-eight people were captured (there were practically no men among them). According to the official version, Victoria fell by the hand of captain Mauricio Corredor, who led the trawler trooper squad.

When the rebels were finished, the detachment of Terrazas returned to the city. Soldiers who proudly displayed seventy-eight scalps in Chihuahua were greeted as real heroes. For the murder of the leader of the Apaches, the Corredor received a formal suit (according to another version, a personalized rapid-fire rifle).

***

Only a few Indians managed to survive in that slaughter. Among them was the leader Nana, who led the uprising after the death of Victorio. He managed in a short time to gather around him a few dozen Apaches, after which he headed north to the Sierra Madre mountains. On the way, they met a small volunteer squad of Mexicans. In the ensuing battle, the Indians won, killing nine enemy soldiers.

In the summer of 1881, Indians under the leadership of Nana attacked the US states of Arizona and New Mexico. And although their numbers were modest, the Apaches managed to frighten the white inhabitants of these lands. Soon Nana attacked Texas cowboys, after which he headed for the Sacramento Mountains. Here, several Mescalero Indians joined the leader. But still, the total number of insurgents did not exceed four dozen warriors. Of course, there could be no talk of a full-fledged war with the United States. Nana understood this perfectly well, so he chose the tactics of surprise attacks. In six weeks, his soldiers traveled more than a thousand miles, taking part in twelve battles with pale faces. Behind them was a detachment of Americans, consisting of a thousand soldiers, helped by hundreds of volunteers. The Apaches have long tried to break away from the enemy and were even able to return to the territory of Mexico. But in the end, they caught up. In the battle, almost all were indomitable, and Nana himself was captured. After that, the revolt of the Apaches died away. The US soldiers managed to still put down the uprising.
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  1. XII Legion
    XII Legion 18 January 2018 06: 29
    18
    The Apache tribal alliance was one of the most powerful
    And held on for a long time
    Yes, no scrap against scrap
    Thank you!
    1. ratveg
      ratveg 9 March 2018 01: 57
      0
      There was no tribal union of Apaches. Their total number in the mid-19th century was 6 thousand people. Separated into many tribes and clans that hate each other. Mescalero, Hikarilya, Chirikaua, Tonto, White Mountains, Lipan, San Carlos and others. The same Chiricahua were divided into four more tribes. They lived in robbery and robbery, for which literally all the neighbors hated them. And the whites and the Indians and Mexicans. Those who moved away from the robbery in time, for example the Apaches of the White Mountains and San Carlos, now have more than one hundred thousand. Mescalero has his own a ski resort and a hotel chain around the country. And those who could not abandon the robberies practically exterminated them. Like the same chiricahua
  2. Svist
    Svist 18 January 2018 06: 42
    +4
    From time immemorial, the Americans on the traitors leave, divide and conquer.
    1. Svist
      Svist 18 January 2018 06: 47
      +3
      The site does not allow calling Americans p-sami!
  3. moskowit
    moskowit 18 January 2018 06: 48
    +4
    The picture with spruces and snowy banks of the rivulet, to put it mildly, does not very accurately characterize the landscape of southern Texas ....
    And so, interesting .... It’s like watching a movie with Goiko Mitich ....
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 18 January 2018 07: 17
      +1
      Quote: moskowit
      And so, interesting .... It’s like watching a movie with Goiko Mitich ....

      Practically retelling - "Osceola - the leader of the Seminoles." Almost everything is carbon copy. Is that the terrain, tribes, and heroes are different. As General Sheridan said: "A good Indian is a dead Indian."
      1. ratveg
        ratveg 9 March 2018 02: 03
        +1
        In general, different situations. Seminoles are a cultural people in Florida. Wealthy Seminoles lived in estates, they had plantations with blacks. They raised cattle, children went to school. Americans didn’t like this independence, and for some reason it could potentially lead to independence. The same The British could protect the protectorate over them. And the Apaches are the closest analogue to the Afghan robber tribes. They lived for centuries as a robbery and did not know another life
    2. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 18 January 2018 07: 26
      +1
      Pictures with Christmas trees - it seems, the North American Indians.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 18 January 2018 07: 31
    +1
    In a short time, Crook managed to gain confidence in the Indians.
    ..Kind of an agent of influence ....
  5. Olgovich
    Olgovich 18 January 2018 07: 40
    +7
    USA won. But thousands of winners fertilized the land of Arizona and New Mexico and did not take advantage of the fruits of victory.
    Today, these states are rapidly populated by Mexicans, in whose veins there is a lot of Indian blood and whites will increasingly have to experience all the charms of the fate of a minority.
    1. Svarozhich
      Svarozhich 18 January 2018 11: 43
      +1
      No need to idealize the Indians. If you take more interest in ordinary and mores, very bad things come up. And they could not win, in principle, due to the complete lack of strategic thinking. In our understanding, they did not fight, it was their ordinary life.
      1. Sergey-8848
        Sergey-8848 18 January 2018 21: 43
        0
        Do not touch someone else's. Do not treat alien customs and mores as savagery.
        1. Svarozhich
          Svarozhich 19 January 2018 08: 19
          0
          And here is wildness? Their customs are their customs. No need to idealize.
        2. ratveg
          ratveg 9 March 2018 02: 19
          +1
          Murder and torture are not customs. The Apache custom to cut off wives' noses almost for an oblique look is savagery. Do not wash clothes for months is savagery. First place putting the ability to steal is savagery. Neglect other nations is savagery. When you can molest women to Mexicans, whites, to force them and it is considered as valor. Do not think of Apaches as heroes of children's films of the DEFA studio ..
  6. alebor
    alebor 18 January 2018 10: 25
    +1
    It would be nice to erect a monument to the freedom fighter Victorio in front of the American embassy in Moscow.
    1. ratveg
      ratveg 9 March 2018 02: 25
      0
      In the current United States, Victorio and his associates are considered heroes. Almost every year, books dedicated to them are published. This year, https://www.amazon.com/Will-Surrender-Hair-Horses
      -Tail / dp / 1911512765 And they erect monuments to him. Now in America heroes are blacks homosexuals lesbians Indians and others. The enemies are now Russians, their own pioneers and discoverers, settlers and others.
  7. Naputeon bonaput
    Naputeon bonaput 18 January 2018 14: 12
    +1
    Strange - Victorio fought against the Americans, and died at the hands of the Mexicans. And then, Hadji Murat is a bandit for us, and for someone a hero. Here is such a parallel.
    1. ratveg
      ratveg 9 March 2018 02: 36
      0
      Yes, because Victorio fought primarily against the Mexicans. The Mexicans were killed ten times more than the Americans. And in the United States, the majority of those killed are Mexicans. And when the author of the article writes with errors about the detachment of pale-faced farmers who are ambushed, it's not Americans And the real Mexicans from the Mexican village of El Carrizal in the Mexican mountains of Candelaria. 29 people were sent to the next world. Apaches have multiply charged hard drives and spencers, and Mexicans have wicked guns and some revolvers. An article would write about these events. ..
  8. RUSS
    RUSS 18 January 2018 16: 57
    0
    On the destruction of the Aztecs
    They were killed by an epidemic.
    With an epidemic established by biologists, severe fever, headaches, and bleeding from the nose, eyes, and mouth began, writes the NY Post.
    In 1545, typhoid "intestinal fever" called colocolisli came to Central Mexico, where the Aztecs lived, which in just five years reduced the number of Native American people by 15 million. As a result, 80% of the population died.
    DISEASES
    #BIOLOGISTS
    # WOW
    Scientists have found that the Aztecs actually killed
    Yana Nedomolkina today at 11: 39102840
    18
    With an epidemic established by biologists, severe fever, headaches, and bleeding from the nose, eyes, and mouth began, writes the NY Post.
    In 1545, typhoid "intestinal fever" called colocolisli came to Central Mexico, where the Aztecs lived, which in just five years reduced the number of Native American people by 15 million. As a result, 80% of the population died.


    Until recently, researchers could not understand what caused the dangerous fever. However, now deciphering the DNA of skeletons has allowed scientists to discard diseases such as smallpox, measles, mumps and flu. It was possible to establish typhoid "intestinal fever" by DNA from the teeth of the dead. The results of scientific work were published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution.

    "In 1545-1550, Cocoliztli was one of the epidemics that occurred in Mexico after the Europeans arrived there. It was the second of three epidemics that led to the mass deaths of people."
    After analyzing the DNA of 29 exhumed skeletons, scientists found traces of enteric salmonella (intestinal) from the paratyphoid of group C. Researchers believe that the bacteria could be in Mexico because of the pets that the Spaniards brought with them. Salmonella also spreads through contaminated food or water.
  9. Sergey-8848
    Sergey-8848 18 January 2018 21: 40
    0
    The current Indians should have a bloodline of kinship with great warriors, and thought, and thought about the land of their ancestors. With maracas and immigrants dance.
  10. Horse meat
    Horse meat 20 January 2018 18: 31
    0
    I look at the history of Alaska on a wiki, they wrote that Alaska was sold.
    When Alaska was actually rented out for 90 or 100 years.
    Sold or rented, this is a big difference.
  11. gsev
    gsev 23 January 2018 00: 40
    +1
    Quote: Konin
    I look at the history of Alaska on a wiki, they wrote that Alaska was sold.
    When Alaska was actually rented out for 90 or 100 years.
    Sold or rented, this is a big difference.

    Alaska really sold out. All respected written sources (signed by people who respect historical authenticity) speak only about the sale. Rumors about the rental of Alaska spread in the late forties and early fifties in the USSR. I did not distribute them and let more informed people inform about the reasons for the spread. It is interesting that there are similar legends, often denounced in a beautiful literary form. I will give 2 examples. Until now, there is information about the use of biological weapons by the Americans in Korea. In the memoirs of Kapitsa, I think the deputy. The USSR Minister of Foreign Affairs is given information that this is Beria’s misinformation. There is an interesting book, “After reading a burn ...” The plot is based on a successful attempt by the Americans to get Japanese encryption technology for a while. The plot is described competently. Apparently, the author participated in operations to capture ciphers. But the Americans admit that they were not able to capture a single encryption machine and the American decoders could not get acquainted with the design of these machines. Hacking Japanese ciphers is a victory for the American school of mathematics. The Japanese, even in the collapse of their state, sacredly kept their secrets.