Great commanders. Tamerlane

Tamerlane (1336-1405) - the Turk-Mongol conqueror, whose victories, characterized by acts of inhuman cruelty, made him the master of much of Western Asia.

Tamerlane or Timur (Timur-Lang, "Timur the Lame") belonged to the Turkic Mongolian clan Barlas, whose representatives settled in the Kashka valley, near Samarkand, as the Mongol armies moved west. Tamerlan was born near Shahrisabz 9 on April 1336 of the year. This place is located on the territory of modern Uzbekistan between the rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya, and at the time of his birth these lands belonged to Khan Chagatay, named after the founder of his clan, the second son of Genghis Khan.

The European version of the name of Timur - “Tamerlan” or “Tamberlane” goes back to the Turkic nickname Timur-i-Leng, which means “Timur Limp”. Evidence of Timur’s lameness was found in 1941 after the autopsy of his grave by a group of Soviet archaeologists headed by Mikhail Gerasimov. Traces of two wounds were found on the thigh bone of Timur’s left leg. The causes of Timur's lameness in different sources are interpreted differently. According to some sources, he began to limp as a child when he once fell from a horse, and the nickname Timur-Khromets stuck to him thanks to his peers boys. Other authors argue that Tamerlane’s lameness was the result of a battle wound he received in 1362. Historians disagree on what kind of leg Timur limped on. However, most historians argue that the conqueror had a sore foot, which, however, was quite convincingly confirmed by Soviet archeologists.

In 1346 - 1347 Kazan Khan Chagatay, was defeated by Emir Kazgan and was killed, as a result of which Central Asia ceased to be part of his khanate. After the death of Kazgan (1358), a period of anarchy followed, and the troops of Tuglak-Timur, the ruler of the territories behind the Syr Darya, known as Mogulistan, invaded Maverannahr first in 1360 and then in 1361 in an attempt to seize power.

Timur declared himself a vassal of Tuglak-Timur and became the ruler of the territory from Shahrisabz to Karshi. Soon, however, he rebelled against the rulers of Mogulistan and formed an alliance with Hussein, Kazgan's grandson. Together in 1363, they defeated the army of Ilyas-Khoja, the son of Tuglak-Timur. However, around the year 1370, the allies fell out and Timur, captivating his comrade in arms, announced his intention to revive the Mongolian empire. Tamerlane became the sole owner of Central Asia, settling in Samarkand and making this city the capital of the new state and its main residence.

Great commanders. Tamerlane
Map of Chagatai Khanate

Empire Expansion

The first campaigns of Tamerlane were directed against Khiva and Mogulistan. After 1381, he turned his attention to the west, launching expeditions to Iran, Iraq, Asia Minor and Syria.

The rulers of the conquered principalities were unable to effectively resist the well-organized army of Timur. East Persia and Khorasan were completely subdued in 1382 - 1385; Fars, Iraq, Armenia and Azerbaijan fell from 1386 to 1394; Georgia and Mesopotamia came under the control of Tamerlane in 1394.

Being engaged in the conquest of Asia, Timur did not forget about the struggle with the Golden Horde and personally with Khan Tokhtamysh. In 1391, pursuing Tokhtamysh, Timur reached southern Russia, where he defeated the Horde khan. An attempt by Tokhtamysh to remedy the situation in 1395 and his invasion of the Caucasus did not succeed, and he was finally defeated on the Kura River.

Timur, who had already ravaged Astrakhan and Saray, was distracted from planning a campaign against Moscow by a powerful Persian uprising, which was subsequently repressed with cruelty inherent to Tamerlane. Across Persia, entire cities were destroyed, inhabitants were killed, and their skulls were walled up in the walls of city towers.

Timur defeats the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt Sultan Nasir adin Faraj

Tamerlan's seven-year hike

In 1399, Tamerlane invaded India. According to the results of the brutal plundering of Delhi, 90 elephants were loaded, carrying a variety of goods, from stones to build a mosque in Samarkand to jewels. The famous Seven-Year Campaign of Tamerlan (1399-1403) started with the campaign in India, during which the conqueror engaged in a confrontation with the two most powerful rulers of Western Asia - the Sultan of Turkey and the Sultan of Egypt.

Syria, then part of Egypt, was fully captured by the 1401 spring of the year. The further path of Tamerlane lay to Baghdad, defended by the troops of Sultan Ahmad, who had stubbornly resisted the conquerors. Baghdad was taken as a result of a successful assault in June 1401. The massacre, organized by Tamerlane in the captured city, was terrible. The heads of the murdered citizens were stacked in the 120 towers. Baghdad was completely plundered.

Winter 1401 - 1402's Tamerlane spent in Georgia. And in the spring of 1402, he launched an offensive in Anatolia. In the battle of Ankara 20 July 1402, Tamerlane defeated the army of his main enemy, Turkish Sultan Bayazid (Bayazet), capturing him.

History Inhuman imprisonment of Bayazet in an iron cage intended for wild animals, has gone down in history forever. However, some researchers argue that the cell story is no more than the result of a misinterpretation of the record by the historian Arabshah, which, however, does not diminish Tamerlane’s apparent inhuman cruelty towards the defeated opponents.

Timur ended his seven-year campaign, reaching Samarkand in August 1404. However, by the end of the same year, he started an even more ambitious enterprise - a campaign in China, which gained independence from the Mongols only 30 years before. However, his plans to conquer China were not destined to come true - while in Otrar, on the eastern bank of the Syr Darya River (present-day Southern Kazakhstan), Tamerlane fell seriously ill and died on February 18 of the year 1405.

Vasily Vasilyevich Vereshchagin. Doors of Timur (Tamerlan) .1872

Tamerlane's Legacy

Thanks to his truly outstanding military skills and the incredible strength of the personality, bordering on demonism, Tamerlane was able to create an empire stretching from Russia to India and from the Mediterranean Sea to Mongolia.

In contrast to the conquests of Genghis Khan, the conquests of Tamerlane were not aimed at opening new markets, reviving trade routes. The goal of all the campaigns of Iron Chromzez was the total looting of the vanquished.

Despite the immense size of the Timurid empire, it was not destined to exist for a long time, because Tamerlane did not bother to create a coherent structure of government in the conquered territories, he only destroyed the order that existed before, without offering anything in return.

Although Tamerlane sought to be a good Muslim, he clearly did not feel remorse for the destruction of Muslim cities, massively killing their inhabitants. Damascus, Khiva, Baghdad - these ancient centers of Islam remember forever the cruelty of Timur. The ruthless attitude of the conqueror to the ancient Muslim centers was probably due to his desire to make his own capital, Samarkand, the main city of Islam.

According to a number of modern sources, about 19 million people died at the hands of Tamerlane’s soldiers. Although the number of victims of the conquests of Lame Timur is probably exaggerated, their account clearly goes to millions.

In post-Soviet Uzbekistan, Tamerlane is made a national hero. However, residents of such Uzbek cities as Khiva relate to this undoubtedly great personality quite ambiguously - their genetic memory keeps memories of his atrocities.
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  1. alanz
    April 11 2012 10: 40
    am am am
  2. +12
    April 11 2012 10: 56
    yes !! it was a great lame. although there were pyramids made of skulls as his business card, but he offered to many cities to surrender voluntarily, naturally with complete deprivation of property and independence. Timur especially hated the uprising of cities in his rear, he didn’t go with these rebels , it even reached the point of absurdity, not only was the city literally compared to the land, there was also an order in the army, according to which each soldier had to bring a certain number of severed heads for the pyramid, if this was not done, the head was removed from the warrior himself)) )) therefore, the population of the rebellious city was cut to zero !!!!! soldiers who did not have enough heads had to cut their own slaves to report back. I imagine what a bloody bathhouse was.
    but strangely enough, not wanting it for Russia and Europe, he did an invaluable service. for the night I’ll say that these territories did not interest him at all !!! his army was a huge vent that absorbed the tidbits, his troops constantly needed to be fed with resources, and these resources should have been not small! I recall that Russia was plundered, and Europe was a poor hole, plus all these lands were very far from Samarkand . SO WHY HAS IT BEEN HERE TO TRANSFER? FOR THE PAYMENT? ALL THE RICHES WERE IN THE EAST AND ONLY THERE.
    He helped Russia to defeat Tokhtamysh. I recall that it was Timur who helped Tokhtamysh to enter the throne of the horde, he was practically his brother and completely trusted him. But when the troops went on a long campaign from Samarkand, greed increased their former friendship and the Tokhtamys hordes went to the lame capital . this giving of timur will be remembered all his life.
    lame europe did a real service by smashing the great bayazid. Bayazid’s army was terrifying to Europe. The best cavalry of the crusaders crashed against his troops like water on the rocks !!! the Turk’s plans were to go straight to the Atlantic, and he did it well ,,, BUT !!! Timur’s invasion prevented the implementation of his plan .Turk tried to agree with Timur on a common front to go to Europe, but he refused. Therefore, it is not known where the Ottomans would be if it were not for Timur and his army. It might be in France))))
    1. +1
      April 17 2012 22: 56
      Yes. The picture of the same Vereshchagin is widely known - "The Apotheosis of War". where the great artist just depicted the result of Tamerlane's military actions.
  3. vostok
    April 11 2012 11: 04
    Why did great Asian rulers such as Genghis Khan and Tamerlane not invade Western Europe? It would be interesting? And then Russia is always blown away for all.
    1. -1
      April 11 2012 13: 00
      I wonder how they would get there? Genghis Khan and Tamerlan - the classic examples of a hypertrophic raiding system - raided the poorly protected rear areas, looted, burned and dumped. Such a system was extremely effective before meeting with organized enemy forces, because losses could not be avoided in any case.
      Batu’s campaign in Russia was a typical raid. After the battle on the river. Sith, the Mongols (or those whom we call so), having defeated the Rus army, nevertheless quickly turned back, although rich Novgorod remained.
      Batu also subsequently dumped from Eastern Europe, because oncoming battles with enemy troops did not fit into the concept of the Mongol raids. For the same reason, Tamerlan did not go to Russia, where, unlike Central Asia, it was possible to run into an organized rebuff, which contradicted, I repeat, the concept of the raiding system (he came, robbed and left without entering into an open confrontation with the main enemy forces) .
      In no case do I impose my point of sight, but why for all the time of the Mongol and Timurid campaigns there are practically no references to major battles with their opponents? Because they did not pursue the goal of conquest, but robbery and seizure of prey.
      1. +2
        April 11 2012 20: 07
        As for Genghis Khan, it’s not quite so ... He built an empire with a management system, laws, etc.

        Batu simply did not have time to reach Novgorod. There were practically no roads then, and a large cavalry army on the territory of Russia could only move along frozen rivers ... The battle on the River r. Was already in March.

        But the European campaign of Subudai (an ally of Genghis Khan, the main commander of Batu) was quite successful. For example, the "Organized Enemy Armed Forces" in the form of European armies were utterly defeated. In fact, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Croatia, Dalmatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Bulgaria, etc. were conquered.

        But in 1242 the son of Genghis Khan Ogedei died, and the question arose of choosing a new great khan among the Genghisids. The elections were held in the steppe on the so-called. Great Kurultai ... and it was necessary to go there not with an election program and slogans :) but with a horde, otherwise during the "pre-election debates" it was possible to get shocked :)
        Batu lost the election, Guyuk became the great khan, an enemy and rival who immediately started the war with Batu ... There was no time for Europe ...

        By the way, the Mongols did not have to take Novgorod ... Alexander Yaroslavich (Nevsky) voluntarily "put him under tribute", who got sick of fighting off the European "organized armed forces" in the form of Germans and Swedes ... Formal assignment of Novgorod lands to "ulus" Jochi "put an end to these raids.
        By the way, your words: "We raided the poorly protected rear, plundered, burned and knocked down" are more suited to the behavior of "knight-dogs" on the territory of Russia!
        1. +1
          April 11 2012 21: 36
          All this is an old version that we still studied at school. Do you seriously believe that spring thaw could stop the cavalry army, which before that waved several thousand kilometers off-road, crossing dozens of rivers?
          Then, if the Mongols carried out a rout in Europe, then why on earth did they need to turn back - here it is Europe lying on a silver platter, come and take it :). I repeat once again - the whole semi-official history with a more detailed analysis does not stand up to criticism. The election of the supreme khan, Batu, for the most part did not bother; he still did not shine there. The Mongols did not have a goal of conquest, there was a goal - a raid. Therefore, Batu turned back when the prospect of bloody battles began to shine, in which the Mongols won victories.
          And as for the knight dogs, there was just an invasion with the goal of conquering, followed by cultural assimilation or destruction, and robberies were an accompanying component.
          Ask why A. Nevsky was elevated by the Russian Orthodox Church to the face of saints? Because he defended the Orthodox faith in the fight against the Latins.
        2. 0
          April 11 2012 22: 02
          But the fact that Batu led his army to Russia and then to Europe through then uninhabited spaces where there were no rich cities does not seem strange to you. The question is - why did he need it, or was he so sure that there he would capture a large booty?
          By the way, the Mongols went on a campaign in the fall and winter, not for reasons that the rivers would freeze, but for pragmatic reasons - the crops and fodder were harvested, which means you can feed on enemy territory. As you know, the Mongols did not carry huge supply convoys behind them - they were guided by another war strategy - lightning-fast attacks and mobility.
          1. Brother Sarych
            April 11 2012 22: 22
            Even now in Russia you don’t feed even a cavalry regiment in winter - and then many locals did not know the road from village to village! And even more so, they did not plan to feed tens of thousands of foreign horses from their meager pastures! And then the elevators did not meet along the way either ...
          2. +2
            April 12 2012 23: 34
            Sorry, but a cavalry army of 40-60 thousand sabers can easily move along the steppe ... with difficulty in the mountains and swamps ... but in the woods NO!
            Russia then was completely covered with forests ... the border just passed through the forest-steppe.
            As for nutrition, these are just your fantasies. Read the literature about the organization of the Mongolian troops!
            The main, and replenished, source of food the Mongols always had with them! On average, for each rider who went on a campaign, there were 2,5 horses ... A horse for the Mongol is "friend, comrade and food"! :) accordingly, at each halt a certain number of horses were slaughtered, part of the meat was cooked, part was put under the saddle ...
            In addition, the horses also gave milk, and, you will not believe it, multiplied!
            So during the many years of military campaigns, the Mongolian army was absolutely independent in terms of food! ...
            And the Mongolian horses are not tied to grain fodder)
          3. 0
            April 12 2012 23: 55
            Sorry, but a cavalry army of 40-60 thousand sabers can easily move along the steppe ... with difficulty in the mountains and swamps ... but in the woods NO!
            Russia then was completely covered with forests ... the border just passed through the forest-steppe.
            As for nutrition, these are just your fantasies. Read the literature about the organization of the Mongolian troops!
            The main, and replenished, source of food the Mongols always had with them! On average, for each rider who went on a campaign, there were 2,5 horses ... A horse for the Mongol is "friend, comrade and food"! :) accordingly, at each halt a certain number of horses were slaughtered, part of the meat was cooked, part was put under the saddle ...
            In addition, the horses also gave milk, and, you will not believe it, multiplied!
            So during the many years of military campaigns, the Mongolian army was absolutely independent in terms of food! ...
            And Mongolian horses are not tied to grain fodder :) where can we get feed grain in the steppes? At the pasture ...
      2. +3
        April 11 2012 22: 11
        I wanted to answer, but Serjant quite correctly outlined to You (in general terms) Your wrongness. I can add only a few details. Pay attention to the structure of the armies of Mongol and Tamerlane. And everything will become clear to you. The image of a rider in a sheepskin coat with a bow to the advantage, (this is from the novels of the writer Jan), does not correspond to reality. Mongol and Tamerlan had a large, heavily armed cavalry, which did not stifle (by reservation) the Western and Russian forces. By the way, the approximate composition of the Armed Forces of the West and East was (taking into account national characteristics) about the same. It was simply easier for the nomads to collect the multi-member cavalry, and the Westerners to set up infantry. Yes, goroda (in Russia, in Central Asia, and in Europe) are not taken en masse during raids (well, a couple of settlements and home). Moreover, Genghis Khan and Batu dragged Chinese engineers with him. They built siege machines for them.
        1. Brother Sarych
          April 11 2012 22: 19
          You do not understand the simple thing - there is cavalry made up of ordinary people mounted on a horse, and there is cavalry made of professionals, and they should not be confused! In Europe, the castle usually had about fifteen professional warriors, and there were no more than two or three knights — there was no more food, and no more needed to keep the surrounding area in obedience!
          Why does anyone think that the bare steppe can feed nearly hundreds of thousands of professional warriors? Who makes weapons and from what? It is impossible to fully arm your army with captured weapons - this does not happen, and human resources themselves will not allow to expose such a mass of people, tearing them from their usual work ...
          1. 0
            April 12 2012 07: 57
            Brother Sarych,
        2. 0
          April 12 2012 07: 55
          Baemaley 99
          Your or my rightness is a relative thing. You (or You) saw the Mongolian horses and explain to me - how could this big pony carry a heavy horseman? Only without tales of the super endurance of Mongolian horses.
          1. +4
            April 12 2012 22: 50
            It's not about "special endurance" but about ordinary horsepower :) ... both the Arabian horse, and the average European horse, and the Mongolian horse had approximately the same carrying capacity.

            Baemaley99 is right, the main armed forces of the Mongols were not inferior to the European armies. But in terms of training and tactics were much superior!
            Remember what the strength of the Roman legions was ... In the fact that the commander did not participate in the battle, but controlled the army during the battle! How? There was a clear division of the legion into centuries and maniples ... each unit had its own different standard, which had quite applied value, determining the location of the unit during the battle, which allowed the commander to assess the situation and set new tactical tasks during the battle.
            How did the medieval generals, including ours, acted ... Before the battle, the disposition of all units was determined, tasks were distributed ... The commander himself with his squad "in front on a dashing horse!" Knights and kings performed personal feats of arms ...
            The Mongols themselves, without knowing it, repeated and even developed the military science of the Romans ... Formation of units according to the decimal principle: ten-hundred-thousand-thousand-tumen (10 thousand). Each unit has its own bunchuk (standard), which is a set of colored horse tails. Plus, a streamlined system of commands transmitted through the movement of the bunchuk. To the right and left, rotation, raising, lowering, etc. Each unit included a bunker, which followed the bunch of a superior commander and transmitted commands to a lower one ... The main bunkers were standing at the khan’s tent on an elevation away from the battle. In the dust-fighting clubs of hand-to-hand combat, the bunchers on long poles were perfectly visible. Thus, the commander perfectly controlled the entire course of the battle!
            There were no knightly deeds in sight! It was a professional, well-trained and disciplined army.

            By the way, this military tactics of the Mongols is well described in the "Life of St. Alexander Nevsky", who during his trip to Karakorum witnessed (a military observer :)) the tactical exercises conducted by the Mongols.

            Now, as for "raids, robbed and left" ... You wrote this either in trolling or unknowingly ... :)
            The Mongols formed, as they would say now, a confederal state, where there were uniform federal laws together with local government ... There was a single tax system, 10-20% of property per year. Do not confuse it with the tribute that the Polovtsy and khozars imposed on Russia ... there was a complete chaos! ... At the same time, the Mongols exempted three categories from paying tribute: clergy (moreover, of all confessions ... the then ROC rose strongly, since there was a "tax exemption" as under Yeltsin :)), mentors and healers ... , doctors and teachers :)

            The stump is clear, not everything was good there ... Any resistance was punished with maximum cruelty!
            The Mongols adhered, again to the Roman, principle - divide and rule! In Russia, they skillfully pitted specific princes, used vassal law borrowed from Europe - Russian squads often participated in feudal disputes on the side of a particular khan ...

            In fact, the Battle of Kulikovo, objectively, was an example of such a showdown ... Russia then took the side of the "legitimate" Khan Tokhtamysh, who fought with the usurper Emir (not Khan!) Mamai ... Sorry, but purely formally, it was the execution of vassals commitment ...
            But, on the other hand, on the side of Mamaia, the collaborationist traitors Lithuania and Ryazan ... Oleg and Jagailo ...
            Thus, the Battle of Kulikovo, on the one hand, did not violate the then "international law", on the other, it fully corresponded to the interests of Russia ... Essno, for such a victory over a competitor, Tokhtamysh was expected to receive preferences ... But he turned out to be a complete shit, first he burned Moscow, and then his friend Tamerlane betrayed ...

            And about the Mongols and the history of Russia, dear Prometheus, read more literature ... and not only on the Internet :)
            ...with respect!
            1. +1
              April 13 2012 07: 55
              We speak different languages. You rely on an officious history, what you described to me about the organization of the Mongolian army I read about 25 years ago, I just did not understand why you described it to me.
              I did not raise the question of the superiority or shortage of the Mongolian troops, but I can once again say that there were no aggressive campaigns in the classical form. The Mongol-Tatar yoke, at least for Russia, is a historical myth that was beneficial to justify the political struggle of the Moscow princes with their opponents. Since Ivan Kalita, Moscow has used the Mongols to fight its competitors. You can refer to chronicles, etc. - this does not change the essence of the matter. It has also been proven that the Romanovs copied the annals in their favor to justify the occupation of the throne.
  4. George IV
    April 11 2012 11: 26
    Not only geniuses, but also villains fall into eternity. Known fact.
    Tamerlan is probably also a hero to someone.
  5. Dust
    April 11 2012 12: 14
    Oh, I wish I could learn about all this truth, without any ideological layers ...
  6. predator
    April 11 2012 12: 39
    the author, when you write such articles sometimes it’s not a sin to look into the history textbook!
    In 1391, on the right bank of the Volga on the Kundurcha River, Timur defeated the Golden Horde Khan Tokhtamysh and everything, then turned back, and in Russia, more precisely in the city of Yelets, he was in 1395. Tamerlan inflicted a severe defeat on the Horde Khan - on the Terek in 1395 ( author on Terek, and not on Kura) after which Tokhtamysh was deprived of the throne and forced to wage constant struggle with the khans established by Tamerlane. By this defeat of the army of Khan Tokhtamysh, Tamerlan brought indirect benefit in the struggle of the Russian lands against the Tatar-Mongol yoke.

    In 1395, Tamerlan, marching to Tokhtamysh, passed the Ryazan region and took the city of Yelets, after Tamerlane moved towards Moscow, but suddenly turned and left on August 26. According to church tradition, it was at that time that Muscovites met the revered Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God, transferred to Moscow to protect her from the conqueror. On the day of the meeting of the image of Tamerlane in a dream, according to the annals, the Virgin appeared and ordered him to immediately leave the borders of Russia. At the meeting place of the Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God, the Sretensky Monastery was founded. Tamerlan did not reach Moscow, his army passed along the Don and took it full.

    There is another point of view. According to the Zafar-name (Book of Victories) by Sheref ad-din of Yezdi, Timur ended up on the Don after his victory over Tohtamysh near the Terek River and before the total defeat of the cities of the Golden Horde in the same 1395. Tamerlan personally pursued the retreating after the defeat of the commanders of Tokhtamysh until their complete defeat. On the Dnieper, the enemy was finally defeated. Most likely, according to this source, Timur did not set as his goal a campaign specifically on Russian lands. Some of his units approached the borders of Russia, and not himself. Here, on convenient summer Horde pastures stretching in the floodplain of the Upper Don to modern Tula, a small part of his army stopped for two weeks. Although the local population did not show any serious resistance, the region was brutally ruined. As evidenced by the Russian chronicles of the invasion of Timur, his army stood on both sides of the Don for two weeks, the land of Eletsky was "captured" (occupied) and the prince of Yelets "Izyme" (captured). Some mints in the vicinity of Voronezh date back to 1395. However, in the vicinity of Yelets, which, according to the aforementioned Russian written sources, was subjected to pogrom, treasures with such dating have not yet been found. Scheref ad-din Yezdi describes the great booty taken in Russian lands and does not describe a single combat episode with the local population, although the main purpose of the “Book of Victories” was to describe the exploits of Timur himself and the valor of his soldiers. According to the legends recorded by the Yelets local historians in the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, the Yelts offered stubborn resistance to the enemy. Nevertheless, in the “Book of Victories” there is no mention of this, the names of the soldiers and commanders who took Elets, the first to climb the rampart, personally captivating the Yelets prince are not mentioned. Meanwhile, Russian women made a great impression on the warriors of Timur, about whom Sheref ad-din Yezdi writes in a poetic line: “Oh, beautiful feathers like roses stuffed in a snow-white Russian canvas!” . After the defeat of Bek Yaryk Oglan, Tamerlan himself began methodically ravaging the lands of his main enemy Tokhtamysh. The Horde cities of the Volga region never recovered from the Tamerlanov ruin until the final collapse of this state. Many colonies of Italian merchants in the Crimea and in the lower reaches of the Don were also defeated. The city of Tana (modern Azov) rose from the ruins for several decades.
    By the way, Timur returned the captive family and other family members to Bek-Yaryk, and in the city of Tana he sold all the slave traders to galleys, that was such a humorist!
    April 11 2012 17: 54
    The Türks did not take by numbers, but by their skill .. The skill of fighting, the tactics were excellent. One Tumen 20th cavalry is capable of making transitions of 000 km per day. An army of nomads comes from nowhere and leaves in an unknown direction .. like a cloud driven by the wind. The 100 army of horsemen is a mobile settlement with its forge, yurts, workshops, etc. When the army starts to move, reconnaissance detachments of 20 horsemen are sent to the four directions of the world, which move with the army keeping at a distance of 000-1000 km in such a manner, excluding a sudden attack from an ambush. The reconnaissance detachment, having met with the enemy army and assessing the situation, began to retreat. The enemy, seeing the retreat, was inspired to rush into battle, in such a form the gigantic army was chaotically stretched over a large territory, dispersing its density and ranks. The reconnaissance detachment lured the enemy to its main army. Having reached the main army and merged with it, the horsemen fought in an even dense formation, like a hurricane they mowed down an army of rejection at times superior but disorganized ... and trapped. Having met on the battlefield with a superior the number of troops, the riders turned around and immediately, turning around, they fired a cloud of arrows and so until then they turned around and ran away and fired until the enemy was de-paralyzed then delivered a decisive blow with the cry "ARUACH" ARUAH !!!! (ancestral souls). were made according to a special technology and beat at 20 meters, maintaining the destructive power and piercing chain mail and light armor ... There were only several types of arrows, three, four-sided tips and six-sided long-range armor-piercing arrows, arrowheads which, during the flight, emitted a whistling sound launched simultaneously by signal, suppressed the psyche of the enemy ... This is how they were our ancestors ... ingenuity was appreciatedabove strength.
    1. Brother Sarych
      April 11 2012 18: 16
      If you had thought a little, you would have realized that such a principle is impossible! Elementary there is nothing to eat such a mass of cavalry anywhere! Even in later times, no one was able to drive such masses of cavalry into one place - why did someone decide that this was possible before? And how to manage such a mass of cavalry outside the line of sight?
      And in the "smart" books someone came up with the idea that such masses of cavalry went to Russia in the WINTER !!!!!!!!
    2. 0
      April 11 2012 22: 49
      Quote: KAZAKHSTAN
      One tumen 20 000 horse cavalry is able to make crossings of 100 km per day.

      Quote: KAZAKHSTAN
      The bows were long, multi-layered, made using a special technology and hit 1000 meters, synchronizing the lethal force and piercing the chain mail and light armor ...

      Where have you read this nonsense?
      Bullshit, about the hundred-kilometer crossings of the 20th horse army with convoys and blacksmith workshops, even reluctance to comment.
      But myths about miracle bows constantly have to read and hear. So I’ll tell you a secret that even a modern block bow throwing an arrow at a speed of 100 m / s does not shoot at 1000 meters, and doesn’t penetrate any armor at such a distance. None of the medieval arrows (and modern arrows made of wood) can not withstand the shock load of acceleration up to 100 m / s. Draw your own conclusions.
      1. +2
        April 12 2012 08: 51
        About bows, of course, smiled. This is what a stretch it was necessary to have, and most importantly - strength to shoot an arrow for 1 km, and so that at the same time it retains lethal force - even not every rifle can handle it laughing
        In this case, the bows would prevail on the battlefield until the mass adoption of rifled firearms.
    3. +3
      April 11 2012 23: 53
      Eat Tumen is, in my opinion, 10000 soldiers and not 20000.
    4. Serush
      5 June 2012 20: 45
      Bows per 1000 meters?
      Modern sports bows, as technologists do not try - 93 meters. RECORD!!!
  8. Sirius
    April 11 2012 18: 46
    I read at Gumilyov that Timur’s warriors were super-duper professionals: at full gallop they hit the tip of a spear into a ring thrown up. Or option: shooting at a gallop from a bow.
    April 11 2012 19: 14
    Each rider, in addition to a war horse, led another reserve horse on a leash, during a long transition, horses were changed periodically in order to avoid animal fatigue. A yurt-warm, quickly erected home is assembled and disassembled in an hour.
    And the army control scheme was simple and at the same time effective ... 100 000 army at the time of the battle is commanded by one person - the commander, next to him are 10 ten thousandths ... at the time of the battle the commander is located deep in the rear where the battlefield is seen as palms, watching the battle, he gives orders to 10 thousandths, between the headquarters and the army from every 10 thousandths of thousandths to the army, messengers run for uninterrupted long thread on both sides to deliver oral orders, whose orders are received by 10 thousandths under 10 thousand people below there are centurions, foremen and ... individual riders, the discipline was tough, hence the maneuverability. If the enemy is superior, and the battle is inevitable, maneuvering the army with a wedge first broke the left flank, then gathered together broke the right flank, the remaining were taken into the ring.
    1. Brother Sarych
      April 11 2012 21: 57
      Nikolai Nikolaevich, Jr. and with fewer cavalry, through many years of training with great difficulty, only managed in the parade! On the maneuvers, nothing came close! But in battle this is generally impossible - all this was invented by those who did not even serve in the army and had never seen a living horse, only in the picture ...
    2. -4
      April 11 2012 23: 01
      Kazakh, how old are you? On your posts more than 12 will not give. Good stuff to write!
  10. predator
    April 11 2012 21: 42
    the army turned north from the fortress of Iasi, and passing the cities of Karachuk and Sauran, the edge of the Bet-Pak-Dala desert moved to the Sary-Su river, on the banks of which it reached in early April. Here, the vast expanses of the steppe were covered with tall, lush grass, and therefore Timur ordered a stop for a few days to give horses, which were exhausted by a four-week passage across the terrain almost waterless and devoid of good pastures even at this time of the year, Timur.

    Having rested, they set off further and by the end of April reached the elevated area of ​​Ulug-Dage (Near the present city of Karsakpay, in central Kazakhstan.
    ), where Timur again ordered a short stop. Here, on the top of the low mountain Altyn-Chuku, towering above the boundless steppe, he ordered a stone monument to be laid on stones, on which he ordered to carve an Arabic and Turkic inscription stating that the twenty-third day of the month of the Jumadi was 79 (According to the Christian calendar - April 28, 1391), the gurkhan Timur-bek, the great emir and the Sultan of Turan, who was marching with a two hundred thousand army on a campaign to Tokhtamysh Khan, stayed here
    April 11 2012 22: 26
    Sarych- Do you know which horses we have? like trained sabaki hand! A small kid who did not learn to walk in the saddle already at that age is planted ... Horses graze millions of heads in the steppes, horsemeat is the most delicious food who ate he knows. We are a horse nation)))

    There is such a game - "Kokpar" is called ... two teams of riders on a football field ... against each other, sort of like a polo without clubs, and the point is to lift a goat skin weighing forty kg from the ground and into the opponent's goal throw it ... On TV on weekends show the championship. Look in net like a thread ... Fun))
  12. +4
    April 12 2012 01: 40
    KAZAKHSTAN. Everywhere +. The forum does not know much about our (nomads) culture, way of life, traditions. They don’t know that our horses themselves found food under the snow, like the wild horses of Prezhevalsky. That each warrior had 3-4 horses on a campaign They don’t understand that it was not the military leader who kept the army, but she herself and her booty were divided equally. I am sure that few people know about wolf pack tactics on the forum. When 1000 horsemen were forced to retreat by the thousands of foot army, such as the one of Macedon. (Thousand shares 10 hundred. One hundred is approaching at full gallop to the enemy on a march to shoot from a bow. Having fired from a distance, leaves. Then the next from the other side. While some are resting, others are fired with arrows. So around the clock. Until the enemy begins to understand that neither they won’t be given rest or rest, but they won’t be able to fight directly. Without losing any losses, they don’t understand the difference between multilayer onions and ordinary ones. And let it hit not at 1000m, but much further than usual. Axiom of war : who shoots further, he wins. Anecdote: The British brought out a fast horse, the Arabs are beautiful, the Slavs were draft, but only the Kazakhs decided to bring out a tasty horse.
    1. Brother Sarych
      April 12 2012 08: 21
      There wasn’t this - don’t have to amuse yourself with such tales!
      Damn, the teenagers got ...
      1. +3
        April 12 2012 15: 05
        I am 43. Candidate of Physics and Mathematics. 17 years of teaching experience at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Kaz.Gos.Nats.Al-Farabi University (center.HIGH SCHOOL of Kazakhstan.g.Alma-Ata). To argue with you, dear Brother Sarych, I’m not going to.
        1. Dust
          April 12 2012 21: 35
          That's right, I don’t have to scare me with a mustakillic degree ...
    April 12 2012 01: 51
    The steppe ... the most severe climatic zone, guys, in the desert, terrible heat ... at the North Pole there are eternal frosts ... And in the steppe, in summer it reaches +50, in winter in places it reaches -50 and terrible blizzards, and little water, almost there are no trees, only the horizon, shrubs and an uneven surface. Hence the character of people is hardened and hardy. An ideal place for millions of herds of horses, despite its monotony, it is surprisingly easy to breathe in the steppe! Time in the steppe seems to stop ... most of all I am surprised by one thing - birds of prey! Many thousands of years ago, man tamed the golden eagle ... like a sabaku by God! A large bird with a wingspan of 2 meters obediently obtains food - rabbits, foxes, wolves. After 10 years of "work", the owner lets the bird go freely, this is the unwritten law ...
    April 12 2012 02: 24
    Daur land, I sent you in a personal
  15. sol
    April 12 2012 09: 49
    Quote: Brother Sarich
    If they had thought a little, they would have realized that this is impossible in PRINCIPLE! There is simply nothing to eat for such a mass of cavalry anywhere! Even in later times, no one managed to drive such masses of cavalry into one place - why did someone decide that this was possible before? And how to manage such a mass of cavalry outside the line of sight? And in "smart" books someone came up with the idea that such a mass of cavalry went to Russia in WINTER !!!!!!!!

    Marco Polo, who lived for many years in Mongolia and China under Kublai Khan, gives the following assessment of the Mongolian army: "The armament of the Mongols is excellent: bows and arrows, shields and swords; they are the best archers of all nations." Riders who grew up on a horse from an early age. Marvelously disciplined and persistent in battle, warriors, and in contrast to the discipline created by fear, which in some epochs dominated the European standing armies, they have it based on a religious understanding of the subordination of power and on family life. The endurance of the Mongol and his horse is amazing. On a campaign, their troops could move for months without a transportable supply of food and fodder. For the horse - pasture; he does not know oats and stables. An advance detachment with a force of two or three hundred, preceding the army at a distance of two transitions, and the same lateral detachments performed the tasks of not only guarding the march and reconnaissance of the enemy, but also economic reconnaissance - they let know where the pasture and watering place was better.
    Nomadic herders are generally distinguished by a deep knowledge of nature: where and at what time the herbs reach greater wealth and greater nutritional value, where are the best water pools, on which hauls it is necessary to stock up on food and for how long, etc.
    The collection of this practical information was the duty of special intelligence, and without them it was considered inconceivable to proceed with the operation. In addition, special detachments were put forward, which had the task of protecting fodder places from nomads not taking part in the war.
    Unless strategic considerations interfered with this, the troops lingered on places rich in fodder and water, and marched through forced march areas where these conditions were not present. Each equestrian warrior led from one to four clockwork horses, so that he could change horses during the campaign, which significantly increased the length of the transitions and reduced the need for rests and days. Under this condition, marching movements lasting 10-13 days without days were considered normal, and the speed of movement of the Mongolian troops was amazing. During the Hungarian campaign of 1241, Subutai once went with his army 435 versts in less than three days.
    1. 0
      April 12 2012 10: 24
      I want to ask you as a specialist - how much can a horse trot nonstop? I really do not know.
    2. Brother Sarych
      April 12 2012 10: 27
      Did Marco Polo tell this in the taverns of the Middle East?
      It is practically proved that he did not go anywhere further than the Mediterranean coast and simply retold the stories he heard ...
      1. 0
        April 12 2012 11: 23
        It looks like it. At that time, even traveling within one's own country was a feat, not to mention a "cruise" through dozens of countries and tribes that were not distinguished by their peacefulness and tolerance to the traffic.
        1. +1
          April 16 2012 14: 25
          Quote: Prometey
          I really do not know.

          Bro, take care of business, start learning materiel, I mean the history at least at the secondary school level. And then it’s just indecent to read your reasoning and questions. And bear in mind: a stupid question can not be a smart answer.
    3. +1
      April 12 2012 23: 05
      Marco Polo was in Mongolia and China a little later, and Kublai Khan was in Beijing, and had nothing to do with the events in Russia and Europe ...
      It is much more interesting to read the materials of another traveler - Plano Karpini, who just met with Batu (Batu) in Sarai and with Guyuk in Karakoram ...
    April 12 2012 13: 55
    PROMETHEUS ... Hospitality is a special feature of the steppe dwellers ... A lonely unfamiliar traveler will be given a night's lodging, fed nourishingly and put to the most honorable place, while they will lie down somewhere on the edge, and in the morning they will put together everything they need for the road, even the last will be given. the honor of meeting the guest and refusing his hospitality, you can offend the owner. Only in this way it was possible to survive in the steppe and everyone understood this. Today, for example, you are a rich man, and tomorrow your herds will be swallowed by jute (snowstorm) and, left with nothing, you will go to your relatives and they will feed your family and you. Marco Polo is a real historical figure, his book "about the diversity of the world" I advise you to read ...
    The thoroughbred Akhal-Teke horses, Arabian horses were brought to the competition ... amazingly beautiful horses! The price per individual reaches a million dollars, but the 70 km race was won by a seemingly unpretentious horse of the famous "Adai" breed, which grew up in the harsh climatic conditions of western Kazakhstan, it is distinguished by its special endurance and unpretentiousness
    April 12 2012 14: 10
    The uniqueness of purebred horses
    adai breed lies in their high
    adaptability to local natural
    climatic and feed conditions. About
    their stamina and unpretentiousness widely
    it is known. Today we got
    the opportunity to meet rare
    qualities of Mangystau horses and
    register their achievements, -
    noted the region KrymbekKusherbayev.
    The distance of 90 kilometers was divided into
    4 phases - 30, 30, 20 and 10 km. This is the first stage
    state run total
    the length of which, according to international
    standards, is 160 km.
    On each segment, during the mandatory
    stops, the horse is checked by a veterinarian
    teams and then veterinary experts
    commissions that issue an opinion on
    state of a horse and its abilities
    continue the contest. Horses and rider
    given 40 minutes to rest. According to the conditions
    state test, the rider cannot
    to be replaced, he and his uniforms are not
    should weigh less than 70 kg. Also prohibited
    use of a whip.
    At the end of the distance run
    each participant - a horse was given a passport
    Equestrian Federation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Winners
    got a cup of akim of Mangystau region and
    cars, prize winners
    places - medals and diplomas of participants
    state test - remote
    1. Serush
      5 June 2012 21: 05
      In 1775 (spring), the Kalmyks quarreled with Catherine 2 and decided to migrate to their homeland, in the Mongolian steppes. The Volga spilled. Half of the 250 managed to cross. To the destination, they rode 000, after NINE months ........ And this is summer. Not fighting with anyone ....
      1. Marek Rozny
        April 13 2013 18: 35
        The Kazakhs killed Kalmyks on the way. And both of these peoples remember this "dusty campaign". The Kalmyks are the same Dzungars with whom the Kazakhs waged a centuries-old war of mutual destruction. As a result, the Dzungars disappeared as a people.
  18. Kostyan new
    24 May 2012 21: 44
    cannibal and .....
  19. 0
    9 March 2016 22: 49
    Tamerlane's seven-year campaign (1399-1403) belay 1399 + 7 =? ... 1403 ??? belay request