Military Review

Abrau-Durso: a village erected by a warrior, a wine that has become a symbol. Part of 1

46
Looking in the direction of political squabbles on the New Year holidays, and even on the eve of Christmas, I somehow do not really want to. Therefore, I offer to dear readers history and a photo walk (photo of the author) on a landmark place these days - on Abrau-Durso. After all, Abrau is not just the birthplace of champagne. The settlement was founded by a personnel officer of the Russian army. Few people know, but the tragedies of our history could have repeatedly erased Abrau from the face of the earth, but first things first ...


Officially, Abrau-Durso was founded in 1870, according to the “royal command to establish a new special unit.” The management of the estate was entrusted to General Dmitry Vasilyevich Pilenko, the first head of the Black Sea region. The first agronomist to make out in Abrau-Durso a unique monument of nature, created for winemaking, was Fedor Heyduk. Czech by birth, he saw in Russia and only in Russia he supported Slavs and worked extremely fanatically. He raised not only viticulture on the Black Sea coast, but also gardening, and tobacco growing, etc. Together with Heyduk, his compatriots reached the Novorossiysk district, founding the villages of Glebovka, Kyrylivka, Mefodiyevka, and so on. And Haiduk was generally named after Fyodor Heyduk, however, in the Russian manner.

Abrau-Durso: a village erected by a warrior, a wine that has become a symbol. Part of 1


Fedor Geyduk and General Dmitry Pilenko

General Pilenko, meanwhile, rebuilds Novorossiysk, Anapa and, of course, Abrau. Dmitry Vasilievich founded the first Novorossiysk schools, wrote a lot about the features of the local climate and landscape. That it can be considered the founder of Abrau-Durso.



Abrau-Durso in the 19 century

Suddenly, in the 1876 year, on the eve of the next Russian-Turkish war, General Pilenko, the support and Comrade Heyduk, fell into disfavor. And, accordingly, Geyduk himself fell into disgrace. A few years before, he had managed to purchase abroad and plant vines of the Riesling and Portugiser varieties. The war and the disgrace of the main enthusiast led to the desolation of gardens and vineyards. The edge itself is also empty. The new manager and high authorities were in no hurry to revive the unique area, and the grapes gave, with complete indifference from the new “owners,” a wonderful harvest. There was only a question, what to do with it.

Heyduk bought the harvest and created the first Abrau wine, which, to everyone's surprise at the wine exhibition in Yalta in 1884, easily bypassed the recognized Crimean wines. At the same time, unique Abrau cellars with an amazing microclimate were dug. Despite this, the wild inertia of thinking of the authorities, slander, envy and death of his beloved wife, as well as the rumor that the Black Sea region is going to be abolished with the infusion of this special land into the continental Kuban , we are not better, not worse - we are just different) forced Heyduk to leave Novorossiysk. As a result, the legendary agronomist and servant of the Fatherland, whose surname was thoroughly washed out during his lifetime, died from a stomach ulcer in 1890 on the way to the Far East and was buried in Vladivostok.



One of the industrial buildings of the plant

The fate of General Pilenko was somewhat different. Leaving the post of chief of the Black Sea region in 1876, he takes command of the Kuban Cossack division and sets off for the Russian-Turkish war. After two years of fighting, he retires with the rank of lieutenant general. Cavalier of the orders of St. Anna, St. Stanislaus, of sv. Vladimir, winner of many medals (“For the conquest of Chechnya and Dagestan 1857-59”, etc.) and crosses settles in his estate Khan-Chokrak (Crimea) and starts ... to grow grapes and plant gardens. Dmitry Vasilyevich will die in the 1895 year, immediately after his beloved wife. They will be buried next to each other in the garden laid down by the efforts of the tireless general.

But what about the vineyards of the Black Sea? The powerful groundwork of General Pilenko and the agronomist Heyduk bore fruit. The authorities finally realized what resource they could lose. In 1891, Prince Lev Golitsyn (who had already become a noble and experienced wine-maker) became the main wine-maker of Abrau. True, by this time the line of wines of Abrau had already taken shape, and the prince, a big fan of champagne, was laying vineyards of champagne varieties and would improve the existing cellars. In 1890, a factory building, new basements, tunnels and a highway to Novorossiysk are being built. And already in 1896 the first champagne "Abrau-Durso" goes on sale.



View of Lake Abrau from the east

In 1905, the French champion Dravigny became the main champion of Abrau. In his years fell one of the most difficult periods of our history. At the same time, “Abrau-Durso” becomes the court champagne, and the Dravigny is awarded with a gold watch and a gold cigarette case from the hands of Nicholas II himself. Now our champagne conquers even the overseas market. He is preferred even in the USA, despite the price.

But the war that flared up in Europe again hampered the development of the region. In 1916, all French champagne specialists working in Abrau were recalled by the French government to their homeland. The First World War completely erased all the dreams of turning Abrau into Champagne. During the following years, new runs of champagne were not pawned. The status of “Abrau” champagne was steadily declining, and accordingly the status of the power challenging the primacy in the art of winemaking. Nobody thought about it then, like many other things. It is difficult in the situation of a series of tragedies and the death of an entire empire to understand that the production of your own champagne is not just prestige, but also a complex industrial cycle, level of education, and so on.



Around the same time, when the war was raging in our area and its constant companion - hunger, the future major general and legend of the Soviet Union arrived at the vineyard aviation Vladimir Kokkinaki. In a strange way, but the history of Abrau and viticulture is closely intertwined with the service people of our Fatherland. The history of Kokkinaki and his work on plantations is a vivid example for the “Bulk-crunches” who like to fantasize about the great aristocratic Russia and the bloody “reds”. In the terrible heat without protective equipment, Vladimir, then still a very young boy of 11 years old, worked from morning to night. And when he was "promoted", holding a bottle of sulfur from pests on the boy’s fragile shoulders, his skin began to slide in the literal sense. But this did not bother anyone. Moreover, the assault was also not an out of the ordinary event then. Such victims were forged by a whole industry of the South of Russia.



Finally, the chaos of the civil war began to subside, Soviet power was finally established in Abrau. And these people, who are accustomed in certain circles to blame for illiteracy, immediately realized the full potential of champagne production. In 1920, the decision was made on the basis of the state farm "Abrau-Durso". Edward Wedel stood at the helm, an experienced winemaker of the so-called "quiet" wines. A research work in the field of improving the industrial production of champagne was headed by a truly outstanding son of Russia Anton Frolov-Bagreyev.



His story is in unison with the history of our country. In 1905, he was suspected of revolutionary activity, according to some sources, not without the help of French colleagues, who saw a competitor in a smart young Russian winemaker. And a competitor who not only wants to repeat the French technology, but surpass them. By the way, the winemaker’s entire fault before the authorities was that he signed a petition to the specific department of the tsarist government to improve the material and legal condition of the workers of the factory of sparkling wines. They say the glory of Russian champagne, we got our hands for you, do not judge me and do much good to us. And we already know what orders were going on in this “champagne” house.

Abrau is slowly but surely winning his position. Moreover, the state farm is turning into a real research center through the efforts of Frolov-Bagreev, who was finally able to return to his native heartlands thanks to Soviet power. Anton will become the founder of the technology of sparkling wines and the founder of the exclusively Soviet national school of champagne.

And again the war, which ruined Abrau to the extreme ... But this is already in the next section.
Author:
46 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. parusnik
    parusnik 9 January 2018 12: 14
    +5
    I recommend ... Brut Abrau-Durso ... All with the past holidays and no matter how ridiculous it sounds with the Old New Year coming ... drinks smile
    1. Vard
      Vard 9 January 2018 12: 27
      +1
      Alas ... after all this was bought by the son of the former Samara governor Titov ... Almost everything that is produced there ... is made from wine materials produced in South Africa ...
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 9 January 2018 12: 32
        +3
        Lord ... and there’s nothing to drink ... And what a brut it was .. I met the New Year with a bottle from old stocks ....
        1. Monarchist
          Monarchist 9 January 2018 14: 16
          +3
          Sailboat, and I met with Derbentsky (given by friends), and last year I used “Abrau”. A friend “crush” on ““ Golitsin ”and for five years now, except“ Golitsin ”does not use another.
          1. long in stock.
            long in stock. 9 January 2018 15: 54
            +4
            Yes. The Golitsinsky is now significantly better than Abrau. But the brut was beautiful ...
        2. Proxima
          Proxima 9 January 2018 20: 03
          +3
          Quote: parusnik
          Lord ... and there’s nothing to drink ... And what kind of brut was ....

          God be with him, with this booze drinks What a lake there !!! I, a resident of Novorossiysk (lived for 5 years), enjoyed this unique reservoir, and what baths are there along the coast fellow What a chic water! NATURE! The combination of mountains and forests and water surface! And all this contrasts with the arid steppes! Unique place!
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 9 January 2018 22: 01
            +4
            God be with him, with this booze
            ..I understand the irony .. Champagne in the morning drink aristocrats or degenerates ... wink ... I’m not a drinker .. I collected a collection of Brutov, so sometimes it’s nice to drink with visiting comrades in arms .. True, some comrades prefer stronger drinks .. I collected a collection of cognacs, our Taman ones, which have not been used in bottles for 15 years ... Yes and Brutus I’m not younger ... I treat, only the old ...
            1. Proxima
              Proxima 9 January 2018 22: 30
              +1
              Quote: parusnik
              Gathered a collection of cognacs, our Taman, which some bottles for 15 years already ...

              Probably "Chateau Taman" or "Temryuk" winked
      2. Eastern wind
        9 January 2018 16: 44
        +1
        Not everything and not from South African wine materials ... They are made from wine materials produced in Chile, but vintage and aged make (at least they did) from their own grapes, but the price scales for 800 rubles per bottle.
        And about Titov - true, alas. Read in the second part.
        1. mar4047083
          mar4047083 9 January 2018 17: 43
          +2
          Quote: East Wind
          but the price scales for 800 rubles per bottle.
          But is wine prepared using classical technology cheaper? Write how they make a real brut and questions will disappear.
          1. Eastern wind
            9 January 2018 18: 03
            +1
            I am not a championist, not a food technologist, and certainly not a consultant on demand. Ask yourself. Although even without special knowledge it is clear that the whole thing is in endurance, assemblage, which the method dictates, but they are different (charm, champenoise ...). Try to search, maybe like it ...
  2. maxim1987
    maxim1987 9 January 2018 12: 16
    +1
    the beginning is wonderful. Waiting for 2 parts. I especially liked how they poked their faces in the guano of "sectarians 1913"
  3. Des10
    Des10 9 January 2018 12: 17
    +3
    Thank you for the story, but now Abrau-Durso, unfortunately, produces so many champagne that is not provided with its own vineyards ... However, this is the lot of almost all foreign wineries.
    1. urman
      urman 9 January 2018 14: 01
      +1
      Now there is a shortage of natural wine in the Kuban, completely powder.
      As the current head of the mines of the agricultural farm said, we cannot yet compete with the winemakers, although I had to say, thanks to me.
      Humpback was just a baby, in the matter of destruction, vineyards and orchards, compared with him.
      1. Curious
        Curious 9 January 2018 15: 14
        0
        And how is wine made from powder?
        1. urman
          urman 9 January 2018 16: 30
          0
          Probably from milk powder. In short, the chemistry is solid, there is no natural wort in those counts, in crust, the shops are inundated.
          1. Eastern wind
            9 January 2018 16: 53
            +2
            There is no natural wine, for example, YuVK make a good assamble wine, such as Germanassa, but the price always bites. A powder wine does not exist. Simply, these are substandard unstressed drinks. By the way, it is legal, only in the name on the bottle you need to add - a wine drink. It is released by many, Abrau too. Just need to read carefully. But this all concerns factory production, of course, and not a kettle in the garage of Uncle Vasya or Makhmud from Central Asia.
            1. urman
              urman 9 January 2018 17: 02
              0
              We call it powder, chemistry is present there and alcohol is added.
              Of course I have a little bit of paint, you can buy good, really wine, in Vityazevo and Gai Kodzor there are private wineries that have their own grapes.
              Well, the price really bites.
              You can find good home-made wine from pure wort, but now it’s very rare.
              Whereas earlier in every third yard, one could buy excellent home-made wine.
              I myself didn’t buy it before, I made it from a ton or more, the grapes were cheap, the last one ended about 10 years ago, and the aged accumulated.
              1. Servisinzhener
                Servisinzhener 10 January 2018 11: 17
                0
                And garage wine from Semigory? wink
                1. urman
                  urman 11 January 2018 01: 49
                  0
                  BADLY !!!!!!!!!
                  1. Servisinzhener
                    Servisinzhener 11 January 2018 09: 09
                    0
                    And why? And which producer do you think is good or a specific name? I would like a reasonable answer.
        2. mar4047083
          mar4047083 9 January 2018 17: 56
          0
          I don’t know how, but they do. It is called a wine drink. Ingredients: ethyl alcohol, sugar, flavor identical to natural, drinking water, corrected. Once I saw a wine made from dry wine material with the addition of natural wine, I can’t explain how this was done. Modern science works wonders. The tricks of biblical prophets look pale against the backdrop of advances in the food industry. Have you seen meat glued from scraps with the addition of vegetable protein?
          1. Curious
            Curious 9 January 2018 22: 18
            0
            The fact is that the swill that you describe is not called wine. This "artificial wine" is banned for production and absolutely base graders go to it. Volumes of such slops are insignificant.
            Those who produce wine on an industrial scale use completely different methods: diluting quality wine with “fruit-profitable” products, gallization, shaptalization, petiotization, shelization, the addition of preservatives and dyes, fake bouquet and falsification of the process.
  4. urman
    urman 9 January 2018 12: 31
    +5
    The article is interesting informative.
    Just what is happening there right now?
    The state farm used to have both vineyards and a wine factory.
    Now the winemaker went to the relatives of Tkachev and the wine growers themselves,
    the price of the berry is imposed on them whatever they want, s / n, respectively, no people really go to the vineyard to work.
    With the damned Soviets, we have wine growers in Anapa, with a good harvest in two seasons,
    They built one and a half floor capital houses exclusively for salaries and premium houses for the year. This is how they lived badly. And now, the former leader, one of the largest landowners in Russia. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\
    as well as the rumor that the Black Sea District is going to be abolished with the injection of this special land into the continental Kuban (as a local resident I confirm that the Black Sea and Kuban are different and poorly combined, we are no better, no worse - we are just different) \\\\ \\\\\\\
    Kuban’s authorities should not be allowed into power, from a word in general, instantly all relatives and godfathers will be in bread positions.
    They will sell everything, Anapa is an example, they live by the principle after us at least a flood, the mentality strongly reminds, the former country in the neighborhood.
    1. Rusfaner
      Rusfaner 9 January 2018 14: 07
      +2
      Let your words be to God’s ears!
      I regularly visit both Abrau and Anapa - there is no Master who would try for his grandchildren. From Anapa you can make a pearl (30 km of sandy beaches!), But no ...
      1. urman
        urman 9 January 2018 14: 29
        +1
        Quote: Rusfaner
        From Anapa you can make a pearl (30 km of sandy beaches!), But no ...

        And they make mini Shanghai, selling land to the right and left, Anapa was famous not only for the beaches, but also for providing children's health resorts, with their own fruits, vegetables, juices. Now everything has been destroyed and is slowly turning into a stone jungle.
        1. Rusfaner
          Rusfaner 10 January 2018 07: 25
          +2
          "That's right!" - Sukhov.
          The whole "golden" kilometer from the water is built up with all kinds of crap and mansions of "orphans". From the High Bank to Dzhemete, the potential developer of good hotels will no longer “squeeze” - “Shanghai”, as you call ...
    2. Servisinzhener
      Servisinzhener 10 January 2018 11: 20
      0
      What kind of Black Sea district are going to be abolished? Looks like I missed something ...
      1. urman
        urman 10 January 2018 13: 50
        +1
        Quote: Servisinzhener
        What kind of Black Sea district are going to be abolished?

        Despite this, the wild inertia of the bosses' thinking, slander, envy and the demise of his beloved wife, as well as the rumor that the Black Sea District is going to be abolished with the injection of this special land into the continental Kuban \\\\\\\\\
        You simply did not carefully read the article.
        The fact is that before the revolution, the Black Sea coast was a separate district, the Black Sea Cossack army, then they united everything after the PR, OW THE IDEA apparently hovered and then, then rounded up.
        STILL in the 90 years, I remember in the wake of general mayhem, it was in the air, such an idea, when the Black Sea is not like the Kuban (in fact it is that they say it's time to create a separate area.
        Well, the glory of the pogue didn’t get to this, as they say, died so died.
        Although I personally agree with the author, the mentality is different (all my life I have been on business trips) and I like to observe the difference in characters and types of people living in our great homeland.
        Well, as they say, we drove through. now everything is mixed up
        1. Servisinzhener
          Servisinzhener 10 January 2018 14: 19
          +1
          Thanks for the explanation. There was such a thing throughout the nineties in style: Tail is not a dog. There is normal wine in the Krasnodar Territory, but naturally not a bottle for 150-200 rubles. Like the production of any other country for the same price.
          1. urman
            urman 10 January 2018 14: 47
            +1
            Quote: Servisinzhener
            There is normal wine in the Krasnodar Territory,

            It's not the price, but how to find it!
            To just go in and take without looking at the glasses laughing
            Previously, it was like, I went in and took it, whatever it was, (in a bouquet)
            Well, quality, just a different class!
            And now ? With a magnifying glass, you need to take (age, vision).
            What should I do? If I don’t like beer, do not like vodka? laughing
  5. XII Legion
    XII Legion 9 January 2018 13: 36
    15
    Imperial vineyards laid such an initiative
    Thank you!
  6. Monarchist
    Monarchist 9 January 2018 14: 05
    +1
    Dear "Wind", you made a small mistake: "in 1976 on the eve of the next Russian-Turkish war," you must read 1876.
    I did not know that at the beginning of winemaking in the Kuban there were Czechs
    1. Eastern wind
      9 January 2018 16: 55
      +1
      Sorry, typo, of course. Czechs have generally done a lot in Novorossiysk, even now many citizens with Czech surnames can be found. Truth in Czech, they will not even be able to say hello.
    2. urman
      urman 9 January 2018 17: 27
      +1
      Quote: Monarchist
      behind the start of winemaking in the Kuban were Czechs

      Ever since the time of Catherine, different, Christian peoples moved to the Black Sea region.
      Anapa district
      Dzhiginka - Germans,
      Vityazevo - Greeks,
      Varvarovka - Czechs,
      Guy Kadzor - Armenians,
      Su Psekh - Russian peasants,
      Gostogaevskaya, Anapskaya (Nikolaev) - Cossacks.
      Sukko - forgot.
  7. Monarchist
    Monarchist 9 January 2018 14: 17
    +1
    Quote: parusnik
    I recommend ... Brut Abrau-Durso ... All with the past holidays and no matter how ridiculous it sounds with the Old New Year coming ... drinks smile

    Join congratulation
  8. Olgovich
    Olgovich 9 January 2018 14: 30
    0
    a vivid example for the "Bulkhorsts" who like to fantasize about the great aristocratic Russia and the bloody "Reds". Moreover, the assault was also not an out of the ordinary event then. Such victims were forged by the entire industry of the South of Russia.

    Damned capitalists! am Whether it's business in 20 years , 1933, not so far from Abrau, on the Don:

    1) At midnight, one at a time, the collective farmers were summoned to the komsomod, first interrogated, threatening to torture, and then tortured: they put a pencil between fingers and broke joints, and then put a rope loop around his neck and led him to the ice hole in Don.

    2) On the Grachev collective farm, an authorized representative of the Republic of Kazakhstan during interrogation hung farmers by the neck to the ceiling, continued to interrogate the half-strangled, then on a belt led to the river, kicked him on the road, put him on his knees on ice and continued interrogation.
    3. At the Vashchayevsky collective farm, collective farmers were doused with kerosene on their legs and skirts, lit, and then extinguished. In the same collective farm, the interrogated was put into a pit, half buried and continued the interrogation.
    4. On the Napolovsky collective farm, an authorized representative of the Republic of Kazakhstan, a candidate member of the Bureau of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Plotkin, was forced to sit on a hot stove bench during interrogation. The planted man shouted that he could not sit, hotly, then they poured water from a mug under him, and then “cooled off” they brought them out into the cold and locked them in a barn. From the barn again to the slabs and again interrogated.

    5. members of the bureau of the Republic of Kazakhstan Pashinsky during interrogations at the headquarters of the convoy forced the collective farmers to drink mixed water with lard, with wheat and kerosene.

    6. In the Lebyazhensk collective farm, they were put against the wall and shot past the head of the interrogated of shotguns.

    7. In the same place: rolled up in a row and stamped on their feet.

    8. On the Arkhipovsky collective farm, two collective farmers, Fomin and Krasnov, after nightly interrogation were taken three kilometers to the steppe, stripped naked in the snow and allowed to run to the farm at a trot

    Etc. (Letters of Sholokhov to Stalin)
    1. Curious
      Curious 9 January 2018 15: 21
      +3
      I will continue historical research.
      Prince Dolgorukov talks about General M.I. Leontyev, who held two cooks, a Frenchman and a Russian. When the master was dissatisfied with dinner, he called the guilty to him. The Frenchman got off with a severe reprimand, the Russian was beaten in the presence of the master with a whip, after which he was forced to swallow first a piece of bread with salt and pepper, then herring and two glasses of vodka. After this unfortunate cook, they were locked in a punishment cell for a day, preventing him from drinking. Leontiev boasted that he borrowed such a method of "teaching" a Russian person from his father. “This is the only way to manage them,” he explained.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 10 January 2018 11: 29
        0
        Quote: Curious
        I will continue historical research.
        Prince Dolgorukov talks about General M.I. Leontyev, who held two cooks, a Frenchman and a Russian. When the master was dissatisfied with dinner, he called the guilty to him. The Frenchman got off with a severe reprimand, the Russian was beaten in the presence of the master with a whip, after which he was forced to swallow first a piece of bread with salt and pepper, then herring and two glasses of vodka. After this unfortunate cook, they were locked in a punishment cell for a day, preventing him from drinking. Leontiev boasted that he borrowed such a method of "teaching" a Russian person from his father. “This is the only way to manage them,” he explained.

        T. lover of the mat, leave me alone, how much can you? How else are you ..?
        Click on the "Quote" button, and not "reply": when you click "Answer" I get a signal about the answer, I open, thinking that there is an interesting interlocutor, but I come across ... You.
        Save me from yourself
    2. long in stock.
      long in stock. 9 January 2018 15: 57
      +3
      olgovich when you can mix SALO water and kerosene then write. I understand everything, but then the brains must be present ..
      1. urman
        urman 9 January 2018 17: 16
        +1
        In olgovich, this is already a fetish, some kind, he reminds me of an amnuel very much.
        I can directly hear how she screams.
        1. urman
          urman 9 January 2018 17: 20
          +1
          What’s interesting to me is that at first such people shout that about the damned Bolsheviks and then they shed tears over them, innocently shot at 37.
          Remember the press of late 80 to early 90, how many, there were tears, about the disposal of the ITS of TRUE Leninists.
        2. long in stock.
          long in stock. 10 January 2018 15: 29
          +1
          obsessive psychosis syndrome .. he is an old sick man .. his girls do not like ..
  9. feokot1982
    feokot1982 9 January 2018 18: 34
    +2
    The article is excellent, but the photos do not convey the beauty of this place. Add my
  10. Captain Nemo
    Captain Nemo 9 January 2018 20: 53
    +3
    I consider two varieties of champagne for the drink of the gods. Brut from Abrau-Durso and Brut from the New World.
    Thanks to the author
    1. Curious
      Curious 9 January 2018 22: 01
      0
      What champagne manufacturers have you tried?