As noted earlier, the myth of the “Mongols from Mongolia” was thought up in the conceptual and ideological center of the West, which stores the “keys” of stories, in papal Rome. Russian superethnos (Russ) has existed since the very beginning of the appearance of the white race on the planet, our history has already at least 40 - 45 thousand years. but the true history of Russia and super-ethnos was “circumcised” and distorted in the interests of the masters of the West and their lackeys, serfs in Russia, who want at any cost to become part of the “world civilized community”, at least at the price of surrender of the motherland. Since the true story is dangerous to the owners of the West, claiming world domination. And Russians try to plunge Russians into ignorance, turn them into "ethnographic material." Finally dismember and assimilate, turn into slaves a new world order, as the Russian- "Ukrainians". This is beneficial to both the masters of the West and the East. Russians are perfectly assimilated, they become Chinese, Turks, Arabs, Germans, French, Americans, etc. At the same time, they bring in fresh blood, often being creators of creators, giving impetus to the development of civilizations, countries and nationalities of which they become.
In the West, they cannot recognize that Russia-Russia, as a geopolitical reality, has always existed, and appeared before the most western project and civilization. Moreover, the superethnos of the Rus always occupied the territory of Northern Eurasia.
Under the term "Mongols" in the XIII - XIV centuries. In no case should real Mongoloids be taken living in the lands of present-day Mongolia. The self-name, the real ethnonym of the autochthons of present-day Mongolia is Khalkha. They did not call themselves Mongols. And they never seized China, did not reach the Caucasus, Persia-Iran, Asia Minor, the Northern Black Sea region and Russia. Khalkhu, Oirats are anthropological Mongoloids, then they were a poor nomadic community, consisting of separate genera. They were primitive shepherds and hunters who were at a very low primitive communal level of development and under no circumstances could create even the simplest proto-state education, not to mention the kingdom and empire of the global level of significance. For this, we needed a state tradition, a high level of spiritual and material culture, a developed economy capable of equipping the armies of tens of thousands of soldiers. Primitive Mongoloid tribes were at the level of the development of the then Indian tribes of the Amazon or North America. That is, even with the most fantastic luck and lucky circumstances, they could not crush China, Khorezm, the kingdom of the Caucasus, the powerful tribes of the Polovtsy and the Alans, defeat Russia and invade Europe.
Anthropological studies of burial grounds of the XIII - XV centuries. also show the absolute absence in Russia of the Mongoloid element. Modern genetic studies confirm the absence of the Mongoloid element in the Russian population. Although if the myth of the "Mongol" invasion was true - with hundreds of thousands of invaders, thousands of destroyed and burned Russian villages and cities, tens of thousands of people taken into slavery. With a long “Mongolian” yoke (up to 1480 of the year) with attendant invasions, raids, battles, the withdrawal of the masses of people in full, etc. However, any war (just look at the massacre in modern Iraq and Syria) is accompanied by massive violence against women and by girls. Women are always booty of a successful conqueror. However, the Mongol element is not! This fact, which is impossible to challenge. The Russians, in spite of the false myths that concoct in the West, were and remain the Northern Caucasians.
Thus, the "Mongol" invasion was not. And the "Mongol" empire was not. But the cruel war as such was. There were bloody and fierce battles, sieges of cities and fortresses, pogroms, fires, looting, etc. There was an Horde-Rada, tribute-tithing, labels, treaties, tsars-khans, joint campaigns of Russians and "Mongols", etc. Everything described by the chronicles was, this is confirmed by the data of archeology.
However, the Mongols did not invade Russia. In the forest-steppe zone of Eurasia from the Caucasus and the Black Sea to Altai and the Sayans, including Inner Mongolia, at this time there lived the late Russes of the Scythian-Siberian world, the heirs of the Great Scythia, the Aryan and the Boreal world. Hundreds of powerful genera united by language (Russian is the true keeper of ancient history, therefore, they are trying to distort and destroy it, which would deprive us of the last source of spiritual power), by the Boreal-Aryan traditions of superethnos, by a single pagan faith. Only the Rus could put thousands of well-armed and trained fighters, warriors in many generations. The mighty fair-haired and light-eyed Rus-northerners. Hence the myths of the late Mongolian and Turkic nationalities about high, fair-haired (red), light-eyed giant ancestors, it is a memory that part of the Rus was assimilated by the later Mongolian and Turkic peoples, giving them khan, princely and noble families.
Only these Ruses were able to make such a great march, largely repeating the glorious deeds of distant ancestors, which brought development impulses to China, reached the Indus and created Indian and Iranian civilizations, laid the foundations of Rome in Europe through the Etruscan races, Ancient Greece (all the gods of Olympus are of northern origin), Celtic (Scythian-chipped) and Germanic worlds. That's who the real "Mongols" were. Rusam of the Scythian-Siberian world, the heirs of the Great Scythia, the Aryan world and Hyperborea - the great northern civilization that occupied the territory of modern Russia, could not be resisted by anyone. They crushed and conquered China, giving it the ruling elite and the Russian guard guarding the emperors. They subjugated Central Asia, returning it to the bosom of the great northern empire. Since ancient times, Central Asia has been a part of Great Scythia.
In a campaign to the west, the Scythian-Siberian Rusians defeated the Tatars of the Urals and the Volga region, annexed them to their Horde (from the Russian clan - horde, ordnung). Other fragments of the Great Scythia - the Tatar-Bulgars (Volgaris), Polovtsy and Alans defeated and subjugated to themselves. Moreover, the Tatars were then pagans of the common Boreal (northern) tradition, and not so long ago separated from the Boreal ethno-linguistic and cultural community and Mongoloid impurity did not yet have (unlike the Crimean Tatars genus). Until the XIII the differences between the Russians and the Volgar Tatars were extremely insignificant. They appeared later - after the Islamization of the Bulgars-Volars and parallel Mongolization as a result of the penetration of Mongolian carriers into the Volga region.
Thus, the "Tatar-Mongol" invasion is a myth invented in papal Rome to destroy and distort the true history of humanity and Russia. It was an invasion of Scythian-Siberian pagan Russians, who dragged into their army the pagans of the Tatar-Volgaras, the pagans of the Polovtsi (also close relatives of the Russians of Ryazan and Kiev), the Alans, and the inhabitants of Central Asia who had not yet lost their Scythian roots. As a result, a fierce clash occurred between the pagan Russes of Asia and the Russo-Christians (mostly dvoyverov) Ryazan, Vladimir-Suzdal and Chernihiv, Kiev, Galitsko-Volyn Rus. Tales about the "Mongols from Mongolia", like the beautiful, but historically false novels of V. Yang, must be forgotten.
The battle was fierce. Rusas fought with the Rus, carriers of the oldest military tradition of the planet. As a result, the Scythian-Siberian Russes took up and, relying on the conquered kingdoms and tribes, including Russia, created the Great "Mongolian" empire. Later, this empire, under the conceptual and ideological influence of the hostile centers of the West and the East, began to be reborn and degrade. The main role in the degradation of the Golden (more correctly, White) Horde was played by Islamization and arabization. A huge influx of Arabs attracted by gold led to the victory of Islam over the ancient boreal tradition. The elite of the Horde chose to accept Islam, destroying noble births that remained faithful to the old faith, and repelling from themselves the masses of ordinary Horde, who remained faithful to the old tradition. Also, on the outskirts of the empire, the process of assimilation was actively going on - the Rus after a few generations became Chinese, “Mongols”, Turks, etc. This led to the collapse of the empire. And the history of the Eurasian Empire-Horde came to us in the "crooked mirrors" of Muslim, Chinese and Western sources, where they tried to clear the silence about the moments they did not need.
However, the northern empire and tradition did not perish. The period of dual faith in Russia ended with the emergence of fiery Russian Orthodoxy, which absorbed much of the ancient northern tradition (Almighty - Rod, Jesus - Horse, Mother of God - Mother Lada, Mother, George the Victorious - Perun, cross and fire cross - swastika-kolovrat - have millennial roots in superethnos, etc.). Kulikovo Field has shown that a new center of attraction has emerged for the entire Russian, including the Horde, who did not accept the Islamization of their elite. For a half century, this new center was able to restore the main core of the empire. The first king-emperor of the new Russian empire should recognize Ivan Vasilyevich the Terrible (hence to him such hatred from the Russian Westernizers and the masters of the West). In his reign, Russia began to restore positions in the south, in the Caucasus and in the Caspian Sea, with one blow returned all the Volga region (Kazan and Astrakhan), opened the way to Siberia.
The indigenous population of these territories, the descendants of the Scythian-Sarmatian population, returned under the hand of a single imperial center and tradition. It is now becoming clear that in the late Middle Ages, as before, the entire inner continental Eurasia, as Western sources called it the “Great Tataria” from the Danube, the Dnieper and the Don to Siberia, was inhabited by descendants of the Scythian-Sarmatians, that is, the Russ, direct Russian brothers from Novgorod, Moscow and Tver. Not surprisingly, then in the eyes of Western Europe, the concepts of "Russia" and "Tataria" meant the same thing. We have always been barbarians, wild “Mongol-Tatars” for the inhabitants of the West. Although in the XIV - XVI centuries. Siberia was inhabited by no “Tatars” or “Mongols”, but white people, surprisingly similar to the ancient Scythians and modern Russians (one kind and tradition).
Milestones of the invasion
At the meetings of the "Mongolian" nobility 1229 and 1235. it was decided to go west. The rate was located in the lower reaches of the Yaik. Separate groups of "Mongols" began the conquest of the Transcaucasus and the North Caucasus. Tabriz was seized in 1231, and Ganja in 1235. Many Armenian and Georgian cities were captured: Kars, Karin (Erzerum), Ani, Tbilisi, Dmanisi, Samshvilde and others. Subudei's detachment made a trip to the country of aces (Alans) in 1236. Then Mengu Khan and Kadan went to the Circassians.
In 1229, the Great Kahan (Kagan) Ugedei sent troops of the western part of the state - the Juchi Ulus - to help the advanced detachments. The "Mongols" carried out a reconnaissance march on Yaik, defeated the troops of the Polovtsi, the Saxins and the Bulgarians-Bulgarians. The Bulgarians-Volgari, realizing the danger from the east, made peace with Vladimir-Suzdal Russia. In 1332, a large "Mongol" army reached the border of Volga Bulgaria. But the Bulgarians repelled this blow. For several years, the "Mongols" fought with the Bulgarians, who put up stubborn resistance. Volga Bulgaria successfully defended itself by erecting powerful fortified lines along the southern frontiers. At the same time, the Horde continued to crush the resistance of the Polovtsy, the struggle against which lasted for several years.
In 1235, according to Rashid-ad-Din, Ogedei II arranged a large council (kurultai) "regarding the destruction and extermination of other recalcitrant peoples, the decision was made to take possession of the Bulgars, Asov and Russia countries, which were located next to the Batu campsite, were not yet conquered and were proud of their multiplicity. " To help Batu sent 14 noble khans, the descendants of Genghis Khan. The number of invading army reached 150 thousand soldiers. Usually, each of the Chingizid princes commanded tumen-darkness, that is, 10, thousand cavalry corps.
Thus, the "Mongols" gathered a huge army, which included troops from all uluses (regions). At the head of the troops stood the grandson of Genghis Khan, Batu (Batu). In 1236, the Horde troops came to Kama. All summer, the detachments moving from different uluses moved to their destination, and in the fall, “within the borders of Bulgaria, the princes joined together. From the multitude of troops, the land groaned and hummed, and wild animals and predatory animals were dumbfounded by the multitude and noise of the hordes. In the late autumn the fortifications of Bulgaria-Bulgaria fell. In fierce battles Volga Bulgaria was completely devastated. The storm was taken the capital of the Bulgarians (Bulgar), famous for the inaccessibility of the area and a large population. In the Russian chronicle it was noted: "And I took the glorious great city of Bulgaria (Bolgar) and beat the weapon from the elder to the young and to the real child, and took the goods many, and burned the city with their fire, and capture all their land." Other major Bulgarian cities were also destroyed: Bular, Kernek, Suvar and others. At the same time, the Mordovian and Burtass lands were devastated.
In the spring of 1237, the army of Batu, completing the pogrom of Bulgaria, moved into the Caspian steppes, where the struggle with the Polovtsy continued. The conquerors forced the Volga and a wide front (round up) combed the steppes. The raid was grandiose in size. The left wing of the invading army went along the coast of the Caspian Sea and further along the steppes of the North Caucasus to the lower reaches of the Don, the right wing moved northwards along the Polovtsian possessions. Here the corps of Guyuk Khan, Monke Khan and Mengu Khan attacked. The struggle with the Polovtsy lasted all summer. At the same time, the troops of Batu, Horde, Berke, Storm and Kulkan conquered land on the right bank of the Middle Volga.
In the winter of 1237, the invaders entered the Ryazan principality. Russia, divided by the feuds of the princes, did not deploy a single army and was doomed to defeat. Separate Russian squads and rati offered fierce and stubborn resistance in the field and on the walls of cities, in no way inferior to the militant invaders, but suffered defeat, inferior to the large and disciplined army. "Mongols" had the same organization (decimal system), weapon, but they had the opportunity to crush individual centers of resistance, breaking cities, lands and principalities separately. In addition, under the conditions of the “war of all against all”, the centuries-old system of defense from the steppe in the south was broken. Individual princes and lands could not support her full-fledged work. The single defense system of the country was replaced by the defense of each principality separately, and the tasks of defense against an external enemy were not the main ones. Fortifications were built mostly from their own. The steppe no longer seemed so dangerous as before. For example, in the Ryazan land from the steppes, the principality covered only Pronsk and Voronezh advanced far to the south. But from the north, from the direction of Vladimir-Suzdal Russia, Ryazan had a whole chain of strong fortifications. The exit from the Moskva River to the Oka was covered by Kolomna, Rostislavl fortress stood slightly higher along the Oka River, Borisov-Glebov, Pereyaslavl-Ryazansky, Ozhsk were located downstream the Oka. To the west, on the Sturgeon River, Zaraysk was located, to the east and north-east of Ryazan - Izheslavets and Isady.
The defeat at Kalka did not teach the Russian princes much; they did little to organize the defense and form a unified army, although they were well aware of the approaching formidable invading army. The news of the appearance of the “Mongols” after Kalki on the frontiers of Volga Bulgaria reached Russia. They knew in Russia and about the fighting on the border of Bulgaria. In 1236, the Russian chronicles reported the defeat of Bulgaria. Vladimir Grand Prince Yury Vsevolodovich was well aware of the threat: the main stream of refugees from the destroyed Volga region was in his possession. The Volgar-Bulgars then fled to the Rus in masses. Vladimir's prince "Velma was glad of this and ordered them to be raised to cities near the Volga and to others." Yuri Vsevolodovich was aware of the conquering plans of the “Mongolian” khans from Horde ambassadors, who repeatedly traveled to the west. They knew in Russia about the place where Horde troops gathered to march on Russia.
About where the troops of Batyi were gathering in the autumn of 1237, the Russians themselves “handed the words to the Hungarian monk Julian”. Hungarian monk Julian twice - in 1235 - 1236 and 1237 - 1238, traveled to Eastern Europe. The official purpose of the long and dangerous journey was the search for the Hungarians, who lived in the Urals and kept paganism to bring them to Christianity. But, apparently, the main task of the monk was strategic intelligence, undertaken by the papal throne to study the situation in Eastern Europe on the eve of the Horde invasion. Julian and his companions visited the Taman Peninsula, Alanya, the Lower Volga region, Bulgaria and the Ural region, Vladimir-Suzdal and South Russia.
Thus, there was no talk of a strategic suddenness of the invasion. It was possible that the fact of the winter offensive was new, the Russian princes got used to the autumn raids of the Polovtsi. After the defeat of Volga Bulgaria, the emergence in the Russian lands of the masses of refugees from the Volga region and the war in the Polovtsian steppes, which had a lot of ties with Russia, the closeness of the great war was obvious. Many advised the Grand Duke of Vladimir "to strengthen the cities and to agree with all the riches to the resistance, if the wicked Tatars came to his land, but he hoped for his strength, like before, it despised." As a result, each land met with the army of the invasion of Batu one on one. 100-150 thousand Horde army received complete superiority over individual cities and lands.
The story of the ruin of Ryazan Batu. Miniature. Facial arch of the XVI century.
The fall of Ryazan
Ryazan was the first to meet the invasion. In winter, 1237 of the year, the invaders entered the Ryazan principality: "That same summer, for the winter, coming from the eastern countries to Ryazan land, a forest of godless Tatars and pochashe voevati Ryazan land and the captives of (and) ...". The enemies reached Pronsk. From here they sent ambassadors to the Ryazan princes, demanding tithing (a tenth of the whole) than they owned. The princes of Ryazan, headed by Grand Duke Yuri Igorevich, gathered a council and gave an answer: "But if there is no us all, then all yours will be." Yuri Igorevich sent for help to Yuri Vsevolodovich in Vladimir and Mikhail Vsevolodovich in Chernigov. But neither of them helped Ryazan. Then the prince of Ryazan called princes from his land and from Murom. In order to draw time, they sent an embassy with Prince Fedor Yuryevich to Batu. Prince Fedor came to the river. Voronezh to the king Batu, Horde received gifts. But soon the dispute broke out and the ambassadors were killed.
Meanwhile, the land of Ryazan was preparing for an unprecedented battle. The men took axes and rattles, went to the cities in the militia. Women, children and old people went to the deep forests, to the Meshcherskaya side. For the border land of Ryazan, the war was common, the villages quickly became empty, people were buried in secluded places, behind impassable forests and marshes. After the departure, the steppe dwellers returned, rebuilt again. Before the terrible external threat, the Ryazan people did not flinch; the Russian people got used to meet the enemy with their breasts. The princes decided to bring the army into the field, towards the enemy. Upon learning of the death of the embassy, Prince Yuri began to collect troops, and told other princes: “We'd rather die than be in the foul will!” The combined army of Ryazan land moved to the border. There were professional squads of princes and boyars, skillful fighters, well trained and armed, there was a city militia and Zemstvo army. The troops were led by Yuri Igorevich with nephews Oleg and Roman Ingvarevichi, Murom princes Yury Davydovich and Oleg Yuryevich.
According to historian V.V. Kargalov, the people of Ryazan did not have time to reach Voronezh and the battle took place on the border of the principality. According to the contemporaries, “they began to fight hard and courageously, and was slashing evil and terrible. Many shelves have fallen strong Batu. But Batu's strength was great, one Ryazan fought with a thousand, ... All the Tatar regiments marveled at the fortress and courage of Ryazan. And they barely overpowered their strong Tatar regiments. ” “Many local princes, strong and voivods, and the host: Ryazan bastards and rezvetsy. All the same, they died, and they drank a single cup of death. None of them returned: all the dead lay together ... ". However, Prince Yury Igorevich with a few warriors managed to break through and gallop away to Ryazan, where he organized the defense of the capital.
Horde cavalry rushed into the depths of Ryazan land, to the townships of Przemska, who were left without dead guards. “And they began to fight the Ryazan land, and ordered Batu to burn and whip without mercy. Both Pronsk hail, Belgorod hail, and Izheslavets ruined to the ground, and killed all the people without mercy, ”wrote the Tale of the Ruin of Ryazan by Batu.” Having defeated the towns of Przeczyn, the Batu army moved across the ice of the Proni river to Ryazan. 16 December 1237 Horde laid siege to the capital of the principality.
The Russian city was protected with all the skills of that time. Old Ryazan stood on the high right bank of the Oka, below the mouth of the Proni. On three sides the city was surrounded by powerful earthen ramparts and moats. On the fourth side to the Oka was a steep river bank. The ramparts reached a height of 9 - 10 m, with a base width of up to 23 - 24 m, the ditches in front of them were up to 8 m depth. On the shafts were wooden walls of log cabins filled for strength with rammed earth, clay and stones. Such walls were very resistant. The problem was that the main forces of Ryazan had already died in the battle of Voronezh.
The ranks of defenders during the assaults quickly thinned, and there was no replacement. Ryazan stormed day and night. "Batyovo army was replaced, and the townspeople fought continuously, - wrote a contemporary, - And many citizens were beaten, and others were wounded, and others from the great works were exhausted ...". The city beat enemy assaults for five days, and on the sixth of December 21, 1237 took it. Residents died or were captured. Prince Yuri Igorevich and the remnants of his squad were killed in a fierce street battle: "Wsi umrosha ...".
Then other Ryazan cities fell, and "not a single one from the princes ... you will not help each other ...". However, when the Horde moved farther north, they were suddenly attacked from the rear by a Russian squad. He was headed by voivode Evpaty Kolovrat, who was in Chernigov during the siege of Ryazan, trying to get help. But Mikhail of Chernigov refused to help, because “Ryazan did not go with them to Kalk”. Kolovrat returned to Ryazan and found ashes. He assembled 1700 fighters and began to beat the Horde.
“The Tale of the Ruin of Ryazan, Batu” says: “... chased after the godless king, Batu, to avenge Christian blood. And they caught up with him in the land of Suzdal, and suddenly attacked the camps of Batu. And they began to whip without mercy, and the Tatar regiments mixed up. ... The soldiers of Evpatiy beat them so mercilessly that their swords were dulled, and they took Tatar swords, cut them, passing Tatar regiments. Tatars also thought that the dead rebelled, and Batu himself was afraid. ... And he sent to Yevpaty the brother-in-law of his Household ruler, and with him many Tatar regiments. Khoztovrul praised Tsar Batu Yevpaty Kolovrat with the hands of the living to take and bring to him. And the shelves came together. Yevpaty hit the Khoztovrul-bogatyr and cut him with a sword in two to the saddle; and he began to infect the Tatar force, and beat many bogatyrs and Tatars, cut them in two, and others before the saddle. And they informed Batu. When he heard this, he grieved for his brother-in-law and commanded to impose many vices on Evpatiy, and began to beat on him, and barely managed to kill so strong-handed and audacious in heart and lvivogorostnogo Evpatiya. And they brought him dead to the king of Batu. Baty, seeing him, was surprised with his princes his courage and courage. And he commanded his body to give to his remaining squad, which in that battle was captivated. And ordered them to let go ... ". And the Tatar princes said to Batu: “We with many kings in many lands, visited many quarrels, and did not see such bastards and rezvetzs, and our fathers did not tell us. These people are cruel and have death, so hard and courageously fight, one with a thousand, and two with darkness. None of them can leave alive from the battlefield. And Baty himself said: “Oh, Evpaty Kolovrat! You beat up many strong heroes of my horde, and many regiments fell. If I served such a person, I would hold him against my heart! ”
Kolovrat. Artist Ozhiganov I. Ye.
To be continued ...