Military Review

How was Moldavian statehood reborn

40
History The original Moldavian principality was cut short in 1861, with its entry into Romania. The Moldovan Democratic Republic, proclaimed in December 1917 in Bessarabia, was absorbed by the same Romania. The revival of the Moldovan statehood occurred only in the USSR thanks to the decision of the Allied Center, which overcame the stubborn resistance of Kiev.


The ideas of creating the Moldavian Republic as part of the Soviet state began to speak out in periodicals and scientific works from the beginning. 20-s of the twentieth century. They were popular among Moldavian and Romanian political émigrés in the USSR, supported by members of Soviet elites of Moldavian origin. According to the memoirs of Marshal Semyon Budyonny, Grigory Kotovsky, at one of the meetings held in 1923, in the presence of Mikhail Frunze (probably the most senior Moldavian in the USSR of those times), said: “Only the Moldavian Republic will enable our people to overcome the heavy need and with the help of Russian the proletariat to build a bright life! I want to write a letter to the Central Committee about this, I dream to talk personally with Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. I am deeply convinced that Lenin will understand the aspirations of the Moldovans and will support us. ”

How was Moldavian statehood reborn


February 5 The Central Committee of the RCP (B) received a memorandum on the need to create a Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic. The document was developed by an initiative group of ten people, including Grigory Kotovsky. The creation of the Moldavian Republic on the Left Bank of the Dniester (which was then completely controlled by the Ukrainian SSR) was justified by the expediency of “attracting the attention and sympathies of the Bessarabian population”, as well as the spread of the Soviet national policy to the Moldovans of Transnistria.

March 7 of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (B) U supported the idea of ​​creating a Moldovan administrative-territorial entity in Transdniestria, but only as an autonomous region within the Ukrainian SSR. After the internal affairs bodies counted just 147,4 thousand people in Moldovan settlements on the left bank of the Dniester, Kharkiv (until 1934 of the year is the capital of Ukraine) expressed more evasive attitude towards Moldovan autonomy. The resolution of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (B) U of 18 of April said: “Consider the creation of the Moldavian SSR inappropriate. Offer the NKVD to continue the further development of the question of the possibility of creating an administrative unit with a predominance of the Moldovan population ... ”

By the summer of 1924, the consideration of the issue of Moldovan statehood had moved to Moscow. The General Secretary of the RCP (B.), Joseph Stalin, instructed the main lobbyist of the Moldavian Republic, Mikhail Frunze, to work this question out. At that time, his military and political career went sharply up the hill: in 1924, Frunze headed the headquarters of the Red Army, was elected a candidate member of the Politburo and the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (B).

The military leader criticized the position of the Communist Party of Ukraine. “In the region of Transdniestria, I had to repeatedly visit in person, and I state that there is a continuous strip to the north of Tiraspol with the prevailing Moldovan population. As an administrative center one could give the city of Tiraspol, ”he wrote in his note addressed to Stalin. In conclusion, it was reported that the Moldovan population of Transnistria was very interested in the creation of autonomy and is awaiting a positive decision.

29 July 1924, the political decision to establish the Moldavian Republic was made. The Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP (B) decided: “a) Consider it necessary, primarily for political reasons, to single out the Moldovan population into a special autonomous republic within the Ukrainian SSR and to propose the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine to give appropriate directives to the Ukrainian Soviet organs. b) To invite the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine to make a message to the Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP in a month about the progress of work on the organization of the Moldavian Autonomous Republic. ”



All R. August in Odessa, the Organizational Commission for the creation of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic began its work. She defined the boundaries of autonomy, organized a campaign among the residents of the republic being created. The initiative to create the MASSR found support among the Moldovan population on the left bank of the Dniester, and received wide media coverage.

19 September 1924 was decided by the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (B) U to form the MASSR within Ukraine, and a few days later (25 of September) Moscow approved this decision. When discussing in the Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP (b), the decision to create the MASSR was supplemented with a clause that the western border of autonomy was not determined by the Dniester (the actual border of the USSR with Romania before 1940), but by the Prut and Danube rivers (since the USSR considered Bessarabia a Soviet territory forcibly rejected Romania in 1918 year).

The legal formalization of the creation of autonomy took place at the session of the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee in Kharkiv on October 12 of 1924. The structure of the Moldavian Republic included 11 administrative districts of the Ukrainian SSR, on whose territory more than 570 thousand people lived. Moldovans made up about 30% of the population of the MASSR, and most of the inhabitants (almost 58%) were Ukrainians and Russians. The city of Balta became the first administrative center of the autonomy, then the capital of the MASSR was Birzul and Tiraspol. Autonomy had its own government bodies, budget, legislation. The party organization of the republic received the status of the Moldavian regional committee as part of the CP (b) U.

The next step in the revival of the Moldovan statehood was made in the summer of 1940, when Bessarabia was annexed to the USSR, on the basis of which the Moldavian Union Republic was founded. In Soviet historiography, the opinion was completely dominated that the creation of the MSSR was the only possible outcome of the settlement of the territorial dispute over the Dniester-Prut area.

Meanwhile, a Soviet note to the Romanian government on the eve of the Prut campaign of the Red Army in June 1940 of the year accused the kingdom of violating the unity of Bessarabia, "inhabited mainly by Ukrainians, with the Ukrainian Soviet Republic." 29 June 1940, the day after Bessarabia came under the control of the USSR, the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (B) U Nikita Khrushchev arrived in Chisinau. He was the highest-ranking representative of the civilian authorities of the Soviet Union, speaking at the one hundred thousandth rally in the capital of Bessarabia.

With the consent of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), the Ukrainian party-state bodies quickly established control over the newly annexed region. On July 3, county committees of the Communist Party of Ukraine were established in Bessarabia, as well as executive committees of county workers' councils. The personal composition of the heads of these bodies was determined in Kiev, mainly from among the party and Soviet workers in the eastern and central regions of the Ukrainian SSR, as well as the Jewish Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Of the 52 members of the county party committees, only seven were Moldovans. Only four Moldovans were included in the county executive committees (with their total number of 75 people). The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the MASSR was entrusted to approve the composition of only the volost and city executive committees.

The fact that the formation of the MSSR was not obvious at the end of June - the beginning of July 1940 was evident in the materials of the Soviet press. Here are excerpts from the article “Meeting of the Liberators” on the front page of Pravda in July 1 1940: “On June 29, Chisinau woke up earlier than usual. In the houses where the urban poor and the working people live, since the dawn no one has left. All took to the streets and squares. People stopped talking in a low voice, the sadness disappeared, covering for years the faces of hundreds and thousands of oppressed Ukrainians. Ukrainian, Russian, Jewish languages ​​are loud. In many places, sings of Soviet songs, the Internationale.

On the second page of the same newspaper it was reported about the celebratory rally of Soviet writers in Kiev: “The first person to receive the floor was the poet-order-bearer Academician Pavlo Tychina.

“The historical task has been solved - Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina are attached to the Soviet land,” he said, and then spoke about the history of Bessarabia and Bukovina, all threads connected with the Ukrainian people, with its culture. ”

The ideologies of these publications echoed official statistics. The Soviet authorities could not accept the data of the Romanian population censuses, and according to the latest statistics of the Russian Empire, by the beginning of the revolutionary events of 1917, Moldovans did not have an absolute majority among the inhabitants of Bessarabia (their share was 47,6%). The Moldovan population dominated only three of the seven pre-revolutionary counties of the Bessarabian province. For objective reasons, this census did not take into account the demographic indicators of Northern Bukovina, which in 1940 entered the USSR together with Bessarabia, but until 1918, was part of Austria-Hungary. In this region, the Ruthenians and Ukrainians constituted an absolute majority.

Thus, of the three criteria for the formation of a union republic formulated by Stalin (the marginal position of the republic, the compact majority of the nationality giving the name of the republic, and the number of population exceeding 1 million people), Bessarabia corresponded to only two. In the case of the unification of Bessarabia and Transnistria (MASSR) in the united republic, the share of the Moldovan population became even smaller. Meanwhile, this union began immediately after the Red Army occupied the right bank of the Dniester. Soon after 28 June 1940, the powers of the Moldovan regional party committee, the government bodies of the MASSR were extended to Bessarabia. These party and state structures became the highest decision-making bodies for the liberated region for the transitional period. Everything went to the fact that Bessarabia will become part of the Moldavian Autonomous Republic, which, in turn, will remain part of Ukraine.

Ukrainian researchers studying the issue of joining Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina in the 1940 year note that at least until July 6 in the Soviet press there was no material about workers' initiatives to declare Allied Moldova [v]. Joint appeals of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bols U) and the CPC of the Ukrainian SSR, as well as the Moldavian Regional Committee of the CP (B) U and the CPC MASSR, on the creation of the Moldavian SSR were made simultaneously (July 10). These appeals were addressed to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and gave a start to mass demonstrations of workers in support of the creation of the Union Moldavian Republic.

Only the decision taken at the level of the Allied Center could change the initial plan for the integration of Bessarabia with Ukraine. Obviously, it was not taken at the initiative of the Ukrainian leadership. Indeed, during this period, the first secretary of the Central Committee of the CP (b) U professed offensive tactics in territorial disputes with neighbors. According to the memories of the head of the Communist Party of Belarus Panteleimon Ponomarenko, at the end of 1939, Nikita Khrushchev even tried to attach to Ukraine most of Belovezhskaya Pushcha, the western Belarusian cities of Brest, Pinsk, Kobrin.

2 August 1940, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR approved the law on the formation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic and its admission to the USSR. On August 14, the Central Committee of the RCP (B.), On the basis of the Moldavian Regional Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine, established the CP (B) of Moldova. Work began on the creation of government bodies of the new union republic.

In July, 1940, the struggle for the territorial demarcation of Ukraine and Moldova. The Moldovan authorities offered the option of uniting the MASSR with all Bessarabia. In this case, Moldova would become the sixth largest republic of the Soviet Union with a population of 3,5 million people, second only to the RSFSR, Ukraine, Belarus, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan in terms of demographics. Initially, this project was supported in Moscow, but caused objections from the Ukrainian authorities. In addition, within the framework of this territory, the titular people of the republic would not constitute a compact majority.

As a compromise, Moldavia proposed to transfer to Ukraine three districts of the former MASSR, a number of territories in the north and south of Bessarabia with the predominant Slavic population, however, Izmail wanted to retain. The Ukrainian authorities insisted on the transfer of eight of the eleven districts of the USSR and Izmail to the Ukrainian SSR and access to the Danube.

As a result, the Ukrainian version of the distinction prevailed. The Ukrainian SSR acquired a large part of Transnistria (with the towns of Kotovsk and Balta), the northern and southern parts of Bessarabia with the cities of Khotyn, Izmail, Akkerman (in the future - Belgorod-Dniester), almost 190 km of sea coast and all the Danube during the Soviet territory (170 km) . The Ukrainian authorities were in such a hurry to consolidate the territorial acquisitions that they issued maps of the new borders of their republic even before the adoption of the relevant law by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in November 1940 of the year.

For obtaining the status of a union republic, Moldova paid a high price, while Ukraine became the main beneficiary of this transaction. The RSFSR, by the way, had no less rights to the South Obessarabian lands than the Ukrainian SSR. Even according to Romanian statistics beg. The 1930s of the Russians (including the Old Believers - Lipovans) were the most numerous ethnic group of Izmail district (about 29% of the population). In Izmail itself, the proportion of Russians reached almost 60%. In the neighboring Akkerman district about a quarter of the inhabitants were Russians (this is also the highest figure among ethnic groups). Nevertheless, the RSFSR claims to Southern Bessarabia did not present.

From the point of view of the Russian-Ukrainian relations, it looks curious how the leadership of the Ukrainian SSR argued its claims to the South Obessarabsky counties. The certificate of Mikhail Grechukha, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR, for example, noted: “There are 368.252 people in Akkerman district, of which: 39,1% are from Ukrainians and Russians, 41,3% are from Bulgarians, Germans, Gagauz and Jews, and only 19,6% are Moldovans. Based on this, I believe that the Akkerman district should also be fully connected to the Ukrainian SSR. ” The number of a single Ukrainian population in this Black Sea county was only 14%.

The leaders of the Moldavian SSR 1940 – 1950-ies realized that the new borders within Bessarabia restrain the social and economic development of the republic. In 1946, a memorandum was sent to Joseph Stalin, the head of the Communist Party and the chairman of the Moldovan government, asking for the return of the southern and northern parts of Bessarabia to the republic. The appeal was argued by the absence of the Black Sea and Danube ports in Moldova, the lack of acreage, rich fish reservoirs, deposits of building materials, and brown coal. All this was abundant in the Bessarabian lands, which ceded to Ukraine. However, then, to revise the territorial delineation of Chisinau politicians did not have enough influence and perseverance.



Gerasim Rud, who headed the Council of Ministers of the MSSR in the post-war period, spoke about the circumstances of the participation of the Moldovan leadership in the Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU in 1946 in the year on the issue of republican borders. “The report at the Plenum was made by N.S. Khrushchev. The report proposed to approve the boundaries such as they now exist. Stalin leads the meeting. He asks: “Everybody agrees with such a holding of borders?” In response, one can hear: “What difference does it make, Joseph Vissarionovich? After all, these are administrative boundaries. We are one state. ” Closing the meeting, Stalin said: "Everyone is free, the Moldovan delegation, please stay." He approached each of us, asked how much and how we work, and then said: “And you agree with such a border? I give you one day. You can make your suggestions. The Central Committee will consider them. ” He further described cases when such proposals were and how the Central Committee reacted to them. And now none of us decided, - said G.Ya. Rud.
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  1. moskowit
    moskowit 30 December 2017 06: 56
    +2
    "Here is a brother, how ..." (from the movie "Seven Brave")
    Interesting, detailed material .... Thank you ...
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 30 December 2017 08: 01
    +1
    Interesting stuff, thanks ...
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 30 December 2017 09: 16
    +7
    One caveat: the USSR demanded that Romania return the Bessarabian province of the RSFSR.

    And she was returned on June 28-30, 1940. And just a MONTH from the Russian territory, WITHOUT the wishes of its inhabitants, they did. .... never existed .... Moldova! fool
    Even during the Romanian occupation, Chisinau, despite criminal prosecution for the use of the Russian language, spoke RUSSIAN!
    , Bessarabia was circumcised, taking its integral parts in the south and north, the Gagauz and Bulgarian peoples were wildly cut. Tarutino, Shevardino, Borodino, Maloyaroslavets-steel in general ... Ukraine! fool
    From the multinational Novorossiysk Bessarabian province artificially made almost mononational so-called Moldova, where wild nationalists-nat intelligentsia were carefully nurtured, so ardent that even with Romanians didn’t happen!
    The creation of the MSSR, the transfer of the Russian South of Bessarabia (as well as the whole of New Russia) to the so-called Ukraine-a crime against Russia and the Russian people, against its centuries-old labors and efforts.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Town Hall
      Town Hall 30 December 2017 09: 50
      +3
      Quote: Olgovich
      From the multinational Novorossiysk Bessarabian province artificially made almost mononational so-called Moldova, where wild nationalists-nat intelligentsia were carefully nurtured, so ardent that even with Romanians didn’t happen!




      And what does this "wild nationalism" show up in? Someone is beating? .. pogroms? .. Polkyshineva and 90% of Balti do not speak Russian like 30 years ago?

      You have some kind of mess in your head ...
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 30 December 2017 11: 53
        +1
        Quote: Town Hall
        And what does this “wild nationalism” show up in? Someone is beating? .. pogroms? ..

        Leonid Larry, poetess. nourished and carefully nurtured "nat frame", the author of verses about Lenin curled in 1989:"Let me have my hands elbows in blood, but I will throw invaders, aliens and mankurts beyond the Dniester, I will throw them out of Transnistria, and you - Romanians - are the real owners of this long-suffering land, get their houses, their apartments, along with their furniture ... We will make them speak Romanian, respect our language, our culture ... "
        And there are many thousands of such "tiligents" raised by Soviet power. And they have not gone anywhere, raising Russophobia and hatred of Russia already at the state level.
        Quote: Town Hall
        You have some kind of mess in your head ...

        Judging by the answer, you don’t see it at all ...
        1. Town Hall
          Town Hall 30 December 2017 12: 19
          +2
          Quote: Olgovich
          Leonid Larry, poetess. nourished and carefully nurtured "nat frame",


          Do not write fakes for the night .. yes and in the afternoon too.


          To this day, hundreds of thousands of Russians, Ukrainians, and other peoples live in Moldova. They live peacefully, nobody kills anyone because of this and does not rob. And this is a fact. And your interesting nonsense hysteria is exclusively your personal problem. Well, there may be your psychologist.


          As for Bessarabia, it’s supposedly part of the mythical hyperboreinovorosia-say that Smiled, not say anything ... Read at least a couple of chapters of the class history textbook for the 5th or something ...
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 30 December 2017 12: 27
            +2
            Quote: Town Hall
            Do not write fakes for the night .. yes and in the afternoon too.

            What's the fake? Refute.
            Quote: Town Hall
            To this day, hundreds of thousands of Russians, Ukrainians, and other peoples live in Moldova. They live peacefully, nobody kills anyone because of this and does not rob. And this is a fact. And your interesting nonsense hysteria is exclusively your personal problem. Well and your psychologist can be.

            Yes, nothing happened! fool Then to you-to the psychiatrist
            Quote: Town Hall
            the calculation of Bessarabia is supposedly part of the mythical hyperboreinovorosia-say that Smiled-say nothing ... Read at least a couple of chapters of the class history textbook for the 5th or something ..

            I do not advise you to read anything, it will not help. One chatter -in reply. request
            1. Town Hall
              Town Hall 30 December 2017 12: 37
              +4
              Quote: Olgovich
              I do not advise you to read anything, it will not help. One chatter is the answer.




              My young friend .. break away from Klava and sit down for textbooks. Bessarabia of the century from the 13-14th part of the Moldavian Principality. Its main cities and fortresses are Khotin, Soroka, Orhei, Chisinau, Kiliya, Chetatya Alba (now Belgorod-Dniester ) existed at a time when not only mythical hyperborean russia, but Russia itself as a state and nation did not exist. Learn the materiel at least in minimal volumes ...
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 30 December 2017 12: 55
                +2
                Quote: Town Hall
                My young friend .. break away from Klava and sit down for textbooks. Bessarabia of the century from the 13-14th part of the Moldavian Principality. Its main cities and fortresses are Khotin, Soroka, Orhei, Chisinau, Kiliya, Chetatya Alba (now Belgorod-Dniester ) existed at a time when not only mythical hyperborean russia, but Russia itself as a state and nation did not exist. Learn the materiel at least in minimal volumes ...

                My old (marasmus? request ) my friend, Belgorod (namely Belgorod, and not the Fourth Alba) existed when Mold. principality and not, um, it smelled.

                The principality itself was a vassal of Porta. The territory between Prut and Dniester was 60% in DIRECT Turkish government (learn what paradise, Khotin is). lower part to Causeni-Tatar Nogai horde.
                And only RUSSIA, as a result of many difficult wars, drove out the Turks, drove out the Nogais (some went to the Caucasus, becoming Chechens, they had to be left here), freeing Bessarabia, saved the Orthodox population from extermination, settled the desert southern lands of the Wild Field with Bulgarians, Gagauz, Russians , Germans, Serbs, Swiss, etc. This is the Novorossiysk Territory (Maloyaroslavets2, Tarutino, etc.)
                Do not teach, anyway, will not reach No.
                1. Town Hall
                  Town Hall 30 December 2017 13: 10
                  +1
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  The principality itself was a vassal of Porta.




                  And what? ... Russia was worse than a vassal of the Horde ... and what does this have to do with the historical affiliation of Bessarabia?


                  The Turks practically didn’t climb into the principality’s domestic politics .. Taxes were low .. much lower than subsequently as part of the Republic of Ingushetia ... they also respected religion and did not impose anything.


                  Quote: Olgovich
                  And only RUSSIA, as a result of many difficult wars, expelled the Turks,



                  Someone asked Russia about this?))


                  Quote: Olgovich
                  saved the Orthodox population from extermination,




                  Hahaha ... by 1812, Moldova was already a vassal of Porta for 300 years ... Even the Turks didn’t genocide anyone, they didn’t touch the churches, they practically didn’t get into the affairs of the country.


                  Quote: Olgovich
                  settled the desert southern lands of the Wild Field by Bulgarians, Gagauz, Russians, Germans, Serbs, Swiss, etc. This is the Novorossiysk Territory (Maloyaroslavets2, Tarutino, etc.)




                  Exactly ... RI did exactly what the Turks never did — the Colonization of the ancestral Moldavian lands by the Russians, the Bulgarians, whose Gagauz was not born there, forcible Russification, the extermination of the Moldavian language.

                  And then Comrade Stalin - even with mass deportations and organized hunger.


                  So relax
                  1. RUSS
                    RUSS 30 December 2017 17: 29
                    +1
                    Quote: Town Hall
                    ... they also respected religion and did not impose anything.

                    And the Gagauz?
                  2. co-creator
                    co-creator 30 December 2017 17: 57
                    +4
                    Quote: Town Hall
                    .RI took up exactly what the Turks never did — the Colonization of the ancestral Moldavian lands by the Russians, the Bulgarians, whose Gagauz was not born there,

                    And when did Moldovans live in southern Bessarabia? Never. Muslim tribes settled there Porta, after whose departure RI later settled the Bulgarians, Russians, etc. Southern Bessarabia has never been native Moldovan land.
                    Quote: Town Hall
                    forced Russification, extermination of the Moldavian language.

                    How did they destroy the Moldavian language?
                    Quote: Town Hall
                    by 1812, Moldova was already a vassal of the Ports for 300 years ... Even the Turks didn’t genocide anyone, they didn’t touch the churches, they practically didn’t get into the affairs of the country.

                    So they and the Bulgarians until the first third of the 19th century did not touch and did not genocide. Moldovans and Wallachians were very lucky that their lands by this time were either Russian or were actually under the control of European powers.
                    Quote: Town Hall
                    And then Comrade Stalin - even with mass deportations and organized hunger.

                    Old tales about the main thing.
                    1. alatanas
                      alatanas 3 January 2018 18: 22
                      +1
                      So they and the Bulgarians until the first third of the 19 century did not touch and did not genocide

                      It was after the Russo-Turkish wars from the 18 century that the Bulgarian population moved with Russian troops so that they would not be "genocide" for helping the Russians, and which RI settled in Bessarabia.
                      1. co-creator
                        co-creator 3 January 2018 18: 27
                        +2
                        Quote: alatanas
                        It was after the Russo-Turkish wars from the 18 century that the Bulgarian population moved with Russian troops so that they would not be "genocide" for helping the Russians, and which RI settled in Bessarabia.

                        In the 17-18th CENTURY, the Bulgarians moved quite a bit and they fled not from genocide, but to fellow believers first of all. Genocide began precisely in the 19th century when self-awareness began to appear among peoples. The Bulgarians wanted equal rights with the Turks, and the Turks wanted to make everyone Muslim or Turks.
                  3. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 30 December 2017 21: 16
                    +1
                    Quote: Town Hall
                    So what? ... Russia was worse than a vassal of the Horde ...

                    Yes, you sho? lol fool
                    Quote: Town Hall
                    .and what does this have to do with historical affiliation Bessarabia?

                    Is history when you have it? Is it just Mold a principality? lol fool
                    Quote: Town Hall
                    The Turks practically didn’t climb into the principality’s domestic politics .. Taxes were low .. much lower than subsequently as part of the Republic of Ingushetia ... they also respected religion and did not impose anything.

                    Once again for tankers ghimpu: 60% of the territory Bessarabia was pure TURKISH territory, obeyed DIRECTLY to the Port through PARADISES (Khotinsky, for example, Izmail). Not yet understood?
                    Quote: Town Hall
                    Someone asked Russia about this?))

                    A million times! Moreover, Moldovan volunteers have ALWAYS fought against Russia against the Port and NEVER against it. By the way, where did he ask, didn’t ask? We fought with PORT, it was here, the principality wasn’t in fact
                    Quote: Town Hall
                    Hahaha ... by 1812, Moldova was already a vassal of Porta for 300 years ... Even the Turks didn’t genocide anyone, they didn’t touch the churches, they practically didn’t get into the affairs of the country.

                    Ho ho: if you were to teach not only the History of Romanians lol , then you would know: EVERYTHING whom Russia did not have time to free were CUT TO in 1915-1922: Armenians, Greeks, Assyrians, even Jews. And for many centuries they lived in Port, paid small taxes and the churches calmly had autonomy! But cut out! Moldovans didn’t succeed, they lived quietly and grew under the canopy of Russia.
                    Quote: Town Hall
                    Exactly ... RI did exactly what the Turks never did — the Colonization of the ancestral Moldavian lands by the Russians, the Bulgarians, whose Gagauz was not born there, forcible Russification, the extermination of the Moldavian language.

                    PARADISE-learn, the Nogai horde is not "colonization", not. lol fool
                    . What, by the way, are “the primordial Moldavian lands”, my friend? Bujak ?! These were TURKISH lands and Tatar. To be Moldavian, it was necessary to protect them from the Turks, and not slavishly serve them, what you did.
                    The number of Moldovans has increased AT TIMES under the Russian Empire, lived in their faith and with their own language, were full subjects of the Empire. NEVER they against Russia, did NOT rebel
                    Quote: Town Hall
                    And then Comrade Stalin - even with mass deportations and organized hunger.

                    Russians are the most affected people from both deportations and starvation.
                    Quote: Town Hall
                    So relax

                    Tighten up! yes
                2. Curious
                  Curious 30 December 2017 19: 32
                  +2
                  "... my friend, Belgorod (namely Belgorod, and not the Fourth Alba) existed when Moldavia was a principality and didn’t, um, smelled."
                  And to Belgorod, when there was still a lot of smell, in the VI century. BC. was Thira, founded by the Miletus Greeks. Thus, the Greeks are first in line. Then, from the XNUMXst century BC. a city within the state of Burebista. Here the issue is complicated, since many in Europe can claim the inheritance of the Geto-Dacian tribes.
                  Then came the turn of the Romans, i.e., Italians also entered the city queue. Next are the Goths and Huns.
                  And from this moment, from the XNUMXth century. AD everything is very variable.
                  Some suggest that on the ruins of ancient Tyra, the Slavic tribes of the Ants base their residential formation. Others believe that geto-dacians build their “dava” on the same ruins. Someone is convinced that in the VII century. the settlement subjugated by Asparuh is included in the borders of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. You can read about the Slavic tribes of the Tiberts and the streets that founded the city of Belgorod here in the second half of the 1st millennium, which is of particular importance in the defense of Kievan Rus. According to some historians, in the X century. the path of the soldiers Oleg, Igor and Svyatoslav ran through Belgorod. There are also allegations that after the collapse of Kievan Rus, Belgorod (Fehervar) belongs to the Hungarian kingdom for some time, and then it is part of the Principality of Galicia-Volyn, where it remains until the Tatar-Mongol invasion.
                  But there are no exact scientific data that would allow one to choose from all versions and discard the rest. This is provided that you are not an adherent of the theory of superethnos. Then everything is clear.
                  And even the Black Sea Dniester-Danube expedition of the Institute of Archeology of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, equipped in 1977-1980. almost nothing was found specifically for the search for the medieval Slavic layer in Belgorod.
                  And only starting from the XIV century. we can talk about the exact mention of the Italian trading post at the mouth of the Dniester under various names: Mo (n) Castro, Monte Castro, Asprokastro, Albi Kastri, Belgorod, Ackerman, etc.
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 30 December 2017 21: 26
                    0
                    Quote: Curious
                    "... my friend, Belgorod (namely Belgorod, and not the Fourth Alba) existed when Moldavia was a principality and didn’t, um, smelled."
                    And to Belgorod, when there was still a lot of smell, in the VI century. BC. was Thira, founded by the Miletus Greeks. Thus, the Greeks are first in line. Then, from the XNUMXst century BC. a city within the state of Burebista. Here the issue is complicated, since many in Europe can claim the inheritance of the Geto-Dacian tribes.
                    Then came the turn of the Romans, i.e., Italians also entered the city queue. Next are the Goths and Huns.
                    And from this moment, from the XNUMXth century. AD everything is very variable.
                    Some suggest that on the ruins of ancient Tyra, the Slavic tribes of the Ants base their residential formation. Others believe that geto-dacians build their “dava” on the same ruins. Someone is convinced that in the VII century. the settlement subjugated by Asparuh is included in the borders of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. You can read about the Slavic tribes of the Tiberts and the streets that founded the city of Belgorod here in the second half of the 1st millennium, which is of particular importance in the defense of Kievan Rus. According to some historians, in the X century. the path of the soldiers Oleg, Igor and Svyatoslav ran through Belgorod. There are also allegations that after the collapse of Kievan Rus, Belgorod (Fehervar) belongs to the Hungarian kingdom for some time, and then it is part of the Principality of Galicia-Volyn, where it remains until the Tatar-Mongol invasion.
                    But there are no exact scientific data that would allow one to choose from all versions and discard the rest. This is provided that you are not an adherent of the theory of superethnos. Then everything is clear.
                    And even the Black Sea Dniester-Danube expedition of the Institute of Archeology of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, equipped in 1977-1980. almost nothing was found specifically for the search for the medieval Slavic layer in Belgorod.
                    And only starting from the XIV century. we can talk about the exact mention of the Italian trading post at the mouth of the Dniester under various names: Mo (n) Castro, Monte Castro, Asprokastro, Albi Kastri, Belgorod, Ackerman, etc.

                    Leave me alone, comrade.
                    Do you really have not a bit of pride: you, and you again with your "answer"request
                    Do not read!
                    1. Curious
                      Curious 30 December 2017 22: 14
                      +1
                      Yes, I am completely uninterested in whether you are reading or not. Yes, and read, you will understand a little. Therefore, it is written not for you, but for those who fit into your comments. Not everyone, after all, still knows their price. The fact that this is exclusively sanitary treatment.
                      1. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 30 December 2017 22: 21
                        0
                        Quote: Curious
                        Yes to me ...., you read or not read. Yes, and read, you will understand a little. Therefore, it is written not for you, but for those who fit into your comments. Not everyone, after all, still knows their price. The fact that this is exclusively sanitary treatment.

                        I do not read.
              2. Olgovich
                Olgovich 30 December 2017 21: 51
                0
                Quote: Town Hall
                from the 13-14th, an integral part of the Moldavian Principality. Its main cities and fortresses - Khotin, Soroka, Orhei, Chisinau, Kiliya, Chetaty Alba (present-day Belgorod-Dniester) - existed at a time when not only the mythical hyperborean Russia, but Russia itself as a state and nation did not exist. Teach materiel at least in minimal volumes ...

                Chisinau 13th, 14th century ?! fool lol To school, my friend! Up to 1812g s 15th century it is a "corral for cattle" (kishle), a "quiet farm", but then, yes, the city is similar to all the cities of Novorossia with its layout and architecture - Bender, Tiraspol, Odessa, Nikolaev, Simferopol, etc.
                Russia, chop on the nose, more than a thousand years!
                1. Town Hall
                  Town Hall 30 December 2017 23: 10
                  +2
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  Chisinau 13th, 14th century ?!



                  Listen. Such illiterate Natsik as you scribbling around the clock around the Internet the same nonsense calculated on the same aggressive and ignorant audience as you yourself, like dogs uncut. Trying to conduct any meaningful conversation with such intimate obsessed people do not respect yourself. So do not write me more.
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 31 December 2017 10: 47
                    0
                    Quote: Town Hall
                    Listen. Such illiterate Natsik as you scribbling around the clock around the Internet the same nonsense calculated on the same aggressive and ignorant audience as you yourself, like dogs uncut. Trying to conduct any meaningful conversation with such intimate obsessed people do not respect yourself. So do not write me more.

                    You, like all the Nazis of the republics of the USSR, cover up your LITERACYLESSNESS with the usual empty TREATMENT. In response to irrefutable facts.
                    So what is there, by the way, with Chisinau of the 13-14th century? Have you found? fool lol
                    And the “original Moldavian” lands in Bujak :? Also? laughing

                    Your trouble is in your “Romanian History” textbook. And there is also a REAL story.
                    PS I did NOT write to you. You yourself stuck like burdock ...
      2. co-creator
        co-creator 30 December 2017 18: 00
        +3
        Quote: Town Hall
        And what does this "wild nationalism" show up in? Someone is beating? .. pogroms ?.

        Ask the residents of Bender about pogroms, killings and rape.
    3. Town Hall
      Town Hall 30 December 2017 09: 52
      +1
      Quote: Olgovich
      And she was returned on June 28-30, 1940. And just a MONTH from the Russian territory, WITHOUT the wishes of its inhabitants, they did. .... never existed .... Moldova!



      Die ardor .. You clearly drift .. it seems that you have no idea about the history of Bessarabia
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 30 December 2017 11: 54
        +1
        Quote: Town Hall
        Moderate ardor

        belay fool lol
        Quote: Town Hall
        .You clearly brings .. it seems that you have no idea about the history of Bessarabia

        You refute, not chatter do it
        1. Town Hall
          Town Hall 30 December 2017 12: 21
          +1
          Quote: Olgovich
          Quote: Town Hall
          Moderate ardor

          belay fool lol
          Quote: Town Hall
          .You clearly brings .. it seems that you have no idea about the history of Bessarabia

          You refute, not chatter do it



          What to refute?. Your nonsense about Bessarabia / Hyperborea / Novorossiya mythical?)) ... fire ... it's better to refute about the Martians ...
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 30 December 2017 12: 32
            +1
            Quote: Town Hall
            What to refute?. Your nonsense about Bessarabia / Hyperborea / Novorossiya mythical?)) ... fire ... it's better to refute about the Martians ...

            Refute the facts of history.
            But the Martians, of course, are closer to you. lol
            So what's your empty about nothing comments?
            Isn't it easier to be SILENT if there is nothing to say? request
  4. captain
    captain 30 December 2017 10: 38
    +3
    The guys from the leadership of the CPSU overdid it, now we have trouble.
    1. Rastas
      Rastas 30 December 2017 13: 40
      +3
      Natsik of all stripes work on the same manuals. Russian Natsiks shout about the destruction of the Russian world, which supposedly was in Moldova, Moldavian Natsiks shout about the Russian occupation of Moldova in the 40-year-old oppression of Moldavians. Russian Natsiks are screaming about the Russian east of Ukraine, which the damned Bolsheviks gave to Khokhlov, and Ukrainian Natsiks saliva in response to the originally Ukrainian Belgorod, Voronezh, Kuban, which the same evil Bolsheviks gave to Russia. In general, would take all such crazy Natsik to the reservation. Let them solve their problems there. And they do not interfere with normal people.
      1. ALEA IACTA EST
        ALEA IACTA EST 30 December 2017 14: 16
        +5
        Moldova went to Russia at the cost of the blood of its best citizens and can only be Russian, and Ukraine is generally real Russia, part of the "metropolis" that some organisms with tails on their heads have invaded and devastated.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 30 December 2017 21: 29
        0
        Quote: Rastas
        In general, would take all such crazy Natsik to the reservation. Let them solve their problems there. And they do not interfere with normal people.

        To you, "normal" fool -Place will NOT be.
      3. Antares
        Antares 1 January 2018 23: 23
        0
        Quote: Rastas
        In general, would take all such crazy Natsik to the reservation. Let them solve their problems there. And they do not interfere with normal people.

        They are a tool, although they sincerely believe in their ideas.
        It’s not possible to bring it together, they are constantly needed by some politicians to solve some ....
  5. Prisoner
    Prisoner 30 December 2017 16: 04
    +1
    The title of the topic somehow cuts the rumor. How can one revive what was not? what It seems more appropriate to ask how it was created at all.
  6. Nemesis
    Nemesis 4 January 2018 20: 47
    0
    The requirements for the creation of a national republic in Russia are separatism, while the demands for economic and political assistance from Russia are consumer attitudes towards Russia ... It was the Nazis who destroyed the USSR ....
  7. alatanas
    alatanas 5 January 2018 15: 55
    0
    co-creator,
    As if they didn’t have co-religionists in Bulgaria, in your opinion.
    1. co-creator
      co-creator 9 January 2018 18: 15
      +1
      Quote: alatanas
      co-creator,
      As if they didn’t have co-religionists in Bulgaria, in your opinion.

      who did not have fellow believers?
  8. alatanas
    alatanas 9 January 2018 12: 43
    0
    co-creator,
    co-creator,
    From the 1398 year, after each uprising and after each Russo-Turkish war, there were relocations to Wallachia, Moldova and Transylvania (Catholics in the Banat region). After the Russo-Turkish war 1806-1812, the city of Bolgorod was founded in 1813 by the Bulgarians.
    1. co-creator
      co-creator 9 January 2018 18: 20
      +1
      Quote: alatanas
      co-creator,
      co-creator,
      From the 1398 year, after each uprising and after each Russo-Turkish war, there were relocations to Wallachia, Moldova and Transylvania (Catholics in the Banat region). After the Russo-Turkish war 1806-1812, the city of Bolgorod was founded in 1813 by the Bulgarians.

      That's right, but in the first third of the 19th century these were very small streams and those who usually had no land in Bulgaria or simply wanted to live among their co-religionists usually migrated. In Bulgaria itself, the Bulgarians lived prosperously under the Ottomans and can be said autonomously roughly like Muslims in the Republic of Ingushetia. The genocide of the Bulgarians began only in the middle of the 19th century when the Bulgarians had their own political elite and self-awareness. Instead of equalizing the rights of the Slavs with the Muslims, the Turks began to cut them, that's all.
      1. alatanas
        alatanas 10 January 2018 13: 51
        0
        Read the story and do not write infidelity about the life of the Bulgarians during the Ottomans until the 19 century. And what kind of political elite appeared exactly in the 19 century?
  9. Alexander Morozov_3
    Alexander Morozov_3 27 May 2020 12: 30
    0
    Good article. It shows how artificially, from a finger, this state was actually created by Russia. Without any need and from good intentions only, without ethnic conditions (Moldovans have never been the majority of the population of this region) and historical foundations. From time immemorial, Russian and other nations lived between the Prut and the Dniester and this territory was part of Russia and the Russian principalities to all Moldova. Admit a mistake. We formed and rebuilt this flourishing province of Russia - the MSSR, and all the nations on its territory lived in friendship. But suddenly one of them was given the title. Moldavians. What for? How did they take advantage of this? What came of this? The Russians raised Moldavian poets and writers, and they hated the whole world from their worthlessness and uselessness, hence all their wild aggressiveness. Who remembers the Moldovan bookstores and the rubble of literature in Moldovan that no one bought or read? But then they, for all these gigantic circulations, regularly received royalties for this waste paper. Larry and Vier. Pen and ax workers. They stirred up and quarreled everyone. Spilled rivers of innocent blood. Destroyed the economy. Where are the magnificent electronic and radio engineering factories of Chisinau? What is the matter with them now? They destroyed everything. We Russians need to recognize our mistake. To eliminate Moldova, artificially created by us in Bessarabia, historical Moldova is located in Romania, you just have to admit it and not fantasize anymore and return what is natural and right on this earth. To form the Bessarabian province between Prut and the Dniester, a region within Russia without the titular nations, the Russian language is the lingua franca. And everything will work out. And for Romanians - there is Romania. Go home, if your house is there, and not here, and if you are Romanians, life without Romania is not sweet for you, to Burebista and other Dacians, even crawling, even cancer. If you do not want to live humanly. This is the only way to bring peace back to this earth.