Military Review

Black Sea Shipyard: TAKR Riga - Leonid Brezhnev

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Long and difficult was the path of the Soviet aircraft carrier from design panels to the slipway, and from there to the water. He was constantly not a place in the shipbuilding programs, and the finished projects now and then returned for revision and processing. We must not forget about the opposition opposing the appearance of ships of this class in the Navy of the USSR. Opponents of aircraft carriers enough and in the state leadership, and in the military. When it seemed that the business got off the ground and the construction of the first Moscow-Leningrad helicopter carriers began, and then the heavy Kiev-carrying aircraft cruisers, the development of the Soviet aircraft carrier again made a sharp turn.


Black Sea Shipyard: TAKR Riga - Leonid Brezhnev

TAKR "Leonid Brezhnev" before descending


"Battle" for an aircraft carrier

Throughout the 70s. in the military environment did not stop the struggle for the appearance of this class of ships in the Soviet navy. Defense Minister Grechko and Fleet Commander Admiral Gorshkov advocated the construction of aircraft carriers armed with horizontal take-off and landing aircraft. Their opponents were Marshal Ogarkov, Chief of the General Staff, and Ustinov, Secretary of the Central Committee for Armaments (and future Minister of Defense of the USSR). By the mid 70's. the scales began to lean toward a group of supporters of the development of the carrier fleet, but the death of first Marshal Grechko, and then the Minister of Shipbuilding Boris Butoma, who also advocated the construction of these ships, made adjustments.

It was decided to abandon the projects of the 1160 ships and its reduced version of the 1153 cipher "Eagle" in favor of the gradual development of heavy aircraft-carrying cruisers 1143. In the autumn of 1977, the Nevskoye PKB was ordered to develop a technical proposal, and the research institutes of the Air Force and Navy received technical specifications for the development of a ship equipped with aerofinishers and catapults. His air group along with the VTOL and helicopters had to consist of aircraft horizontally taking off and landing.

A promising heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser was supposed to give stability to the naval connections of the Soviet fleet in remote regions of the oceans, to provide cover for the deployment and patrol areas of nuclear submarines, destroy surface and air targets. If necessary, strike on coastal objects.

Neva PKB, having worked hard, issued to the surface five variants of technical proposals. One of them involved the construction of a ship with an atomic power plant. For further work, the smallest displacement variant was recommended, which had a boiler-turbine power plant and was equipped with one steam catapult. His air group was to consist of MiG-18, Su-28 or Yak-29 and 27 helicopters of 141 – 14 aircraft.


TAKR - draft design 1143.5, 1979 Nevskoe PKB


After the corresponding decree of the Council of Ministers in October 1978, the full-scale design of the new ship began. As has already been the case on several occasions, the forming and final draft has been constantly amended and recommended, often contradictory. In the summer of 1979, the town of Gorshkov demanded that the designers of the Nevsky PKB strengthen the anti-aircraft armament of the ship. At the end of autumn, a proposal to increase the air group was made to the draft already approved for final consideration.

The problem was that the main dimensions of the ship were limited by the length of the stocks of the Black Sea Shipbuilding Plant and the Northern Dry Dock in Sevastopol, and Gorshkov’s proposal on the air group immediately increased the standard draft displacement to 65 thousand tons, which was greeted with hostile opponents. In aggravated contradictions, Marshal Ustinov, at the beginning of 1980, signed a directive proposing to reduce the displacement by 10 thousand tons and abandon the catapult. Takeoff from the deck was to be carried out from a springboard. The air group was supposed to be 40 aircraft and helicopters.

Certain danger for carrier ships lurked in the work begun as early as 1977 on the initiative of the Deputy Chief of the General Staff Admiral Nikolai Nikolayevich Amelko on the landing helicopter carrier of the 10200 "Halzan" project, which the Chernomorsudoproject Nikolaev was engaged in. It was based on the 1609 container ship “Atlantic” with a gas turbine power plant, which the Black Sea Shipyard built in those years.

With a draft displacement of 30 thousand tons, this helicopter carrier had to carry from 14 helicopters in the landing version to 28 in the anti-submarine. In addition, the landing option involved placing on board about 50 tanks and a battalion of marines. Such ships were considered by Admiral Amelko as a cheap alternative to specially built aircraft carriers. They were to be built in Nikolaev, at the Black Sea plant, after the ships of Project 1143.

A struggle broke out around two actually competing vectors for the development of aircraft carriers in the Soviet fleet, in which not only military departments were involved, but also the military-industrial complex. In the end, in 1980, Gorshkov and his supporters were able to keep the direction of heavy aircraft-carrying cruisers equipped with a springboard, and they decided to abandon the Halzan project. However, the "carrier-based" battles at the top did not go unnoticed for the entire development program.

As a result, the design period of the new heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser was shifted by two years, as well as the beginning of its construction. While at the top they decided once again whether to be or not to be an aircraft carrier, and if to be, how much, the Black Sea Plant worked on the construction of the fourth ship of the 1143.4 project "Baku". He was supposed to be launched in 1982 year, and on the vacant space and planned to lay a new heavy aircraft carrier with a springboard and aerofinishera.

Design work

The draft design of the new ship was ready for the 1980 summer, but at that moment the conditions and requirements of the customer changed once again, and the project was not approved. Changes and recommendations fell as if from a horn of plenty - the composition and number of the air group were constantly changing. Corrected in the direction of increasing anti-aircraft missile weapons: planned to install 8 fire modules of the anti-aircraft artillery complex "Dirk". On the deck it was supposed to place four cable arresting equipment and an emergency barrier. The shock anti-ship complex "Basalt" also "moved" several times from place to place. Its presence remained an integral part of the project.

The requirements for a future aircraft carrier were strict. When the desired was finally embodied on paper, it turned out that it was impossible to keep within the allotted displacement limit, besides, “cut off” by Ustinov. In the autumn of 1981, the city of Ustinov gave the go-ahead to increase the displacement by 10 th. Tons, which made it possible to significantly improve the project. Air Group expanded to 50 aircraft. Instead of "Basalt" it was decided to arm the ship with a more sophisticated complex "Granit", the launchers of which were located below the deck.

The question of the possibility of taking off the MiG-29 and Su-27 airplanes from the springboard was promised by the relevant departments to work out carefully. In 1982, a unique complex (later NITKA) was commissioned in the Crimea, where the development of take-off and landing on the deck of an aircraft-carrying cruiser began. The Black Sea Shipyard took direct part in the creation of this complex. Its construction began in 1977 near the village of Novofedorovka, Saksky district in the Crimea.


General view of the ground test aviation training complex - THREAD


The idea of ​​creating such an object arose in the mid-70s, when active design work was underway on aircraft carriers 1153 code "Eagle". An additional incentive for the emergence of the future NITKA complex (Ground Test Training Complex Aviation) was a visit by Admiral Gorshkov during his visit to the United States the American Lakehurst complex in New Jersey. Now in Crimea, a ground-based analogue of the future aircraft carrier was created with all the associated attributes: aerofinisher, take-off springboard and catapult. All take-off and landing blocks with a total mass of 12 thousand tons were made at the Black Sea plant, and then transported by sea to Novofedorovka, where the final assembly and assembly took place. All construction work at the facility was supervised by the senior builder of the Black Sea Plant, Aleksey Ivanovich Seredin.


Springboard T-2 (THREAD)


Considering the springboard as a successful and last but not least cheaper substitute for a catapult, the General Staff ordered that all design work on it, which had been going on since 1972, be stopped. This decision was controversial, because, despite all the seeming advantages of the springboard, the ejection take-off has its advantages.

The future ship was planned to be equipped with onboard underwater constructive protection against torpedo explosions - a large design and research work was carried out. For practical tests at the Black Sea Plant, two compartments weighing 450 tons each were manufactured, which were then welded to the tank of the Kazbek tanker (also built by CSV) and tested in explosions. By March 1982, work on the project was generally completed, and 7 in May of that year was officially approved by a decision of the USSR Council of Ministers. He received the digital designation 1143.5.

Building

September 1 1982 on the “zero” stocks of the Black Sea Plant was laid order number XXUMX, the fifth in a row heavy aircraft carrier of the project 105. The commander-in-chief of the USSR Navy admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union Sergey Gorshkov arrived at the laying ceremony in Nikolaev. Originally it was called "Riga". However, after the death of Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, 1143.5 November 10 of the year 1982 November "Riga" was renamed "Leonid Brezhnev".

The construction of the hull was already carried out using the “block” method. In September, the bottom sections were installed on the slipway, and in December, the assembly of blocks on the pre-assembly site began. 26 February 1982. The first unit has already been installed on the slipway. According to the plan, the ship hull was to be assembled from 24 blocks, each weighing 1400 tons. The construction schedule was tough: complex drawings for each unit were produced monthly, and in total for all specializations.


TAKR "Leonid Brezhnev" on the stocks, the view from the stern. Photo from the book of Balakin S. A., Zablotsky V. P. “Soviet aircraft carriers. Aircraft-carrying cruisers of Admiral Gorshkov "


Two 900-ton cranes of the KONE company, which were controlled from a single master crane console, allowed this scheme to work synchronously and accurately, which made it possible to install 1400 tons of blocks on the slipway and almost immediately start welding the assembly seam. From the assembly and welding shop №11, where the sections comprising the future block were welded, metal structures were delivered to the pre-platform site of the zero stocks by special trailers. These machines manufactured by the Finnish company Hollming were received by the plant from the Baltic Shipping Company in the framework of equipment exchange. Each of these trailers (workers nicknamed them "centipedes") was able to transport structures weighing up to 350 tons.

About 1143.5, thousands of enterprises of the entire Soviet Union, took part in the creation of the heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser of the 3,5 project. Electronic computers of the Black Sea Shipyard and Nevsky PKB were connected by a communication line by telephone cable, forming a single system that allows you to process a huge amount of design documentation. This approach greatly facilitated the construction and installation work - on the stocks, they had already begun cable installation. The formation of the hull went simultaneously in two directions from the mortgage block - to the bow and stern and at the same time upwards.

Of the entire rather significant range of weapons provided by the project, a block of launchers of the Granit complex was mounted during the slip-way period. In order not to please the probable enemy reconnaissance satellite into the “photo session”, the launchers were assembled secretly, and the ship was being loaded onto the ship under construction at night.

In 1985, the Leonid Brezhnev was already being prepared for launching. The ship of such a mass was lowered for the first time at the enterprise, for which the necessary preparatory work was done. For a more even distribution of the load, they decided to descend the order on four lanes. Such in the domestic shipbuilding was carried out for the first time. Decades earlier, it was planned to descend the battleship Sovetskaya Ukraine in a similar way, but this ship was never completed.


"Leonid Brezhnev" comes off the stocks


December 4 The Leonid Brezhnev 1985 was solemnly launched. The next day, it was moored at the North Embankment of the Great Bucket for completion. Ahead of the new Soviet heavy aircraft carrying cruiser waited for numerous new equipment, a new name and an extensive range of tests.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
CSY: aircraft carriers and espionage
CSY: rolls of the project "Atlantic"
ChSZ: military weekdays of dry-cargo ships of the Nikolaev construction
CSY: reconstruction of the plant and the transition to large-block assembly. TAKR "Baku"
CSY: the development of heavy aircraft-carrying cruisers. "Minsk" and "Novorossiysk"
CSY: TAKR "Kiev"
CSY: research vessel "Akademik Sergey Korolev"
CSY: whalers and anti-submarine cruisers
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  1. novel66
    novel66 15 January 2018 15: 43
    +3
    Decades before, it was planned to launch the battleship “Soviet Ukraine” in a similar way, but this ship was never completed.
    is something wrong with the name?
  2. 16112014nk
    16112014nk 15 January 2018 16: 23
    +1
    ... descent of the battleship "Soviet Ukraine ...
    As you call the ship, so it will sail! yes
  3. Conductor
    Conductor 15 January 2018 16: 55
    +3
    Why not having a developed merchant fleet aircraft carriers?
    1. albert
      albert 15 January 2018 18: 11
      +3
      The Union actually had a large merchant fleet.
      1. Comrade Kim
        Comrade Kim 17 January 2018 21: 13
        0
        Listed 348 pages.
        Example:

        http://fleetphoto.ru/list.php?rgid=26&sort=bu
        ilt
        "The USSR merchant fleet in 1960 took the 11th place in the world in total tonnage, in 1973 - 5, and in the cargo-passenger one - 3. Another pride, measured mainly in statistics, is the icebreaker fleet of the USSR, the largest fleet in the world The most powerful icebreaker in the world was Lenin, built in 1959. In the 70s it was surpassed by the icebreaker Arktika, after Brezhnev’s death, who received the new name Leonid Brezhnev. Three more atomic icebreakers were built before the end of the Soviet era: Siberia, Russia, and the Soviet Union.
        The volume of sea passenger traffic by the Soviet fleet - domestic and international - by the mid-70s was about 40 million people a year. Internationally used mainly by foreign citizens "
    2. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 15 January 2018 18: 31
      +2
      Quote: Conductor
      Why not having a developed merchant fleet aircraft carriers?

      Then, that the USSR built the Navy for specific tasks that it had to solve in the event of a war with NATO and merchant ships (which, by the way, were in the USSR) had nothing to do with it
    3. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 15 January 2018 18: 32
      +2
      Quote: Conductor
      Why not having a developed merchant fleet aircraft carriers?

      To keep the "bastions" in the non-nuclear period of the great war.
      And as for the undeveloped merchant fleet - just the USSR shipping companies and fishing fleets were quite large. The heirs of the USSR throughout the 90s ate these remnants of their former luxury.
    4. Dedall
      Dedall 15 January 2018 22: 08
      +2
      You are mistaken, dear! The merchant fleet of the Soviet Union was, as I recall, the third largest tonnage in the world. This is due to its sale, half of the current oligarchs built their first cottages.
  4. Old26
    Old26 15 January 2018 17: 19
    +3
    Quote: novel xnumx
    Decades before, it was planned to launch the battleship “Soviet Ukraine” in a similar way, but this ship was never completed.
    is something wrong with the name?

    Be sure to cling to any name where the word "Ukraine" appears? The Soviet Union, as well as Soviet Belarus, and also with Soviet Russia, were also not completed. Is something wrong with these names either ???

    Quote: Conductor
    Why not having a developed merchant fleet aircraft carriers?

    The USSR did not have a developed merchant fleet ????

    Author! You overlooked another name for the ship. It was laid as Riga. Then he received the name Tbilisi (the name Riga passed to the next aircraft carrier) and only then he received the name Leonid Brezhnev
    1. Conductor
      Conductor 15 January 2018 17: 26
      0
      What was it? name, all sorts of whalers are not necessary.
      1. albert
        albert 15 January 2018 18: 12
        +1
        The supertankers of the Crimea series, 150 thousand tons of displacement each. Have you heard about these?
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 15 January 2018 19: 22
        +2
        Quote: Conductor
        What was it? name, all sorts of whalers are not necessary.

        If, as of January 1, 1990, the USSR sea fleet consisted of 17 shipping companies, 1800 vessels with a total deadweight of 22,4 million tons, 67 ports and 26 ship repair facilities, 1 by January 1, 1992, the Russian fleet had only 799 ships with a total deadweight of 10,6 million tons

        Here, for example, the NMP (according to aunt Wiki):
        On the eve of the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Black Sea Shipping Company was the most powerful in Europe and one of the largest in the world. It included about 360 ships of various classes. This number included: 21 passenger vessels with a total capacity of 12 thousand passenger seats, serving 14 ocean and 20 domestic lines; 260 modern universal vessels of various classes with a displacement of 5 million tons.
        1. Conductor
          Conductor 16 January 2018 05: 36
          0
          I surrender, I admit, I was wrong. Just the merchant fleet is a complete ignoramus.
    2. Plombirator
      15 January 2018 18: 25
      +4
      No, did not miss. "Tbilisi" ship was already after having visited "Leonid Brezhnev." But about it in the following part.
  5. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 15 January 2018 17: 41
    +8
    Certain danger for carrier ships lurked in the work begun as early as 1977 on the initiative of the Deputy Chief of the General Staff Admiral Nikolai Nikolayevich Amelko on the landing helicopter carrier of the 10200 "Halzan" project, which the Chernomorsudoproject Nikolaev was engaged in. It was based on the 1609 container ship “Atlantic” with a gas turbine power plant, which the Black Sea Shipyard built in those years.
    With a draft displacement of 30 thousand tons, this helicopter carrier was supposed to carry from 14 helicopters in the landing variant to 28 - in the anti-submarine one. In addition, the landing variant provided for the deployment of tanks and a battalion of marines on board 50. Such ships were considered by Admiral Amelko as a cheap alternative to special aircraft carriers. They had to be built in Nikolaev, at the Black Sea Plant, after the ships of the 1143 project.

    The most interesting thing is that the initial version of “Khalzan” - a cheap mass helicopter carrier PLO based on a container ship for the Argus research project — did not threaten the construction of 1143 in any way. Because it was stipulated in the statement of work that the helicopter carrier should be built on the same slipways as that of civil project (for needed cheap and massive ship).
    Ruined "Halzan" craving for the better. At first, it was recorded in TK that the helicopter carrier should also be an amphibious assault. Then the Navy demanded: once the helicopter carrier has become an amphibious assault force, it must satisfy all the requirements for the protection and survivability of first-line ships. As a result, all of the Navy’s Wishlist did not fit into the civilian roller corps - and became the closest suitable corps ... pr. 1143. And this meant that the Khalzans would occupy the Stapel 0. And unofficially nikolayevets said that even if the "Wishlist" cut down to the volume of the civilian corps, then they will not be able to build 1143 in parallel with the "Khalzan".
    Amelko and Co. arranged such an option - for he was guaranteed to ruin the unloved by his boss AB. And, EMNIP, while Gorshkov was on vacation, the Defense Ministry struck a positive response to the Khalzan project from a specialized naval research institute and the inclusion of helicopter carriers in the resolution of the SovMin on the plan for the construction of ships for 1981-1990. Upon Gorshkov’s return to the Navy command and the very same Research institutes staged "morning of the execution". And then Gorshkov achieved the unthinkable - the decree of the Council of Ministers was canceled. And the construction of 1143 was continued.
    1. Plombirator
      15 January 2018 18: 28
      +3
      Thanks for the detailed addition!
  6. Old26
    Old26 15 January 2018 19: 11
    +1
    Quote: Plombirator
    No, did not miss. "Tbilisi" ship was already after having visited "Leonid Brezhnev." But about it in the following part.

    So the memory began to fail me. And it would be interesting to hear about "Kherson" and "Kremenchug." Almost nothing about them

    Quote: Conductor
    What was it? name, all sorts of whalers are not necessary.

    I can hardly ship, especially lying on a bed in a hospital, and even more so on a tablet. But the elementary question typed in a search engine suggests that on January 1, 1990, the USSR civilian fleet consisted of 1800 vessels in 17 shipping companies. Or is it not considered to be? With 1800 ships ??
  7. faiver
    faiver 15 January 2018 19: 51
    0
    very interesting to read
  8. The Siberian barber
    The Siberian barber 16 January 2018 13: 24
    +1
    Thanks to the author!)
    Reading a series of articles devoted to the development of the aircraft carrier fleet of the USSR, I caught myself thinking that pride and bitterness "go near" ...
    Pride, from the fact that the Country paid close attention to EVERYTHING, which concerned ALL aspects of defense, and the Navy, in particular, did not spare funds for this .. And I was THERE ..
    Bitterness, from what is at this stage: "there is no money, but you hold on, THERE ..."
    I'd like to believe that time will pass, and the pennants of our country with you will again be constantly present in all corners of the World Ocean, not just as "traveling salesmen", but as real strength. ..and again they will go trains, with children from Murmansk to Novorossiysk, to children's health resorts, free of charge, not for money, but because the fathers of these children defend their Motherland
    Sorry for the pathos ..
  9. xomaNN
    xomaNN 19 January 2018 12: 59
    0
    A ship named L. Brezhnev would be doomed because of its name. Prototype associations are unimportant smile