Military Review

Fight in the Polish swamp

19

Portrait of Alexei Shcherbatov workshop of George Dow. For courage in the battles of Golymin and Preussis-Eylau, he was awarded the Order of St. George of the IV degree


In the battle with the French at Golymin, which took place on December 26 of 1806, the Russians were greatly helped by the peculiarities of the Polish landscape.

By diplomatic means to limit Napoleon’s conquering plans and his desire to “cut and redraw the map of Europe as he wishes,” Russia, like other European states, did not have the opportunity.

The only way to stop the French aggression was military action. The formation of anti-French coalitions, which took place before Napoleon became the sovereign ruler of France, was continued in subsequent years, and Russia was a full-fledged participant, with the exception of the fifth, of all coalitions.

In the war of the Third Coalition, Russia suffered great losses (the battle of Austerlitz), but continued the war against the greatly strengthened France as part of the Fourth Coalition, which also included Prussia and Great Britain.

In October 1806, at the battle of Jena and Auerstedt (Thuringia), Corsican troops easily defeated the Prussian army, frozen "in the forms bequeathed by Frederick the Great", after which the hostilities were moved to the east.

Napoleon's army was strengthened; in December, 80 of thousands of recruits joined it, which they quickly equipped and sent to East Prussia. Napoleon was looking for a general battle with the Russians, but instead there were battles with separate units. December 24 - a battle near Charnov, December 26 - two battles at once, near the city of Pułtusk and at Golimin.

As the historian Jean Toulard, the theater of war, who was expecting Napoleon, “did not match his genius or the conditions in which the Great Army was used to maneuver and fight. In addition, the Russians burned everything during the retreat, which created additional difficulties with food. On the contrary, the Russian army, numerous and stubborn, operated in the geographical and climatic conditions that were familiar to it. Instead of the planned blitzkrieg, the French got stuck in the mud, experienced supply difficulties, suffered from cold and damp, and in the rear areas were subjected to indiscriminate attacks by Prussian partisans. ”

It was difficult for Napoleon to understand the situation, he made a mistake by deciding that the main forces of the Russians were located in Golymin, while they were at Pultusk. He sent Marshal Lannes to this town with an 20-thousand army, and three corps under the command of Augereau, Davout and Soult, with a total of 38 thousand men, were sent to Golemynu.

This settlement had a detachment of prince 10-12-thousandth detachment of prince Dmitry Golitsyn, assembled from regiments of different divisions, on the day of the attack the French troops joined the detachment of prince Golitsyn several more scattered detachments that were cut off from their divisions.

Russian detachments took up a position in front of Golymin, covered by a bend of a swampy river, the left flank was the Kostroma Infantry Regiment under the command of Prince Alexei Shcherbatov, the right flank - three squadrons of the Pskov Dragoons and the Order of the Cuirassians. In the center is the Dnieper Musketeers and the Tauride Grenadiers, the regiments reinforced by dragoons and cuirassiers. The first strike was taken by the Kostroma regiment, Prince Shcherbatov, in order to maintain the fighting spirit of the soldiers, among whom there were many recruits, he himself took the regimental flag, and restored the quivering system.

The French tried to seize our artillery, which inflicted heavy damage, however, this did not succeed in making the body of the Augereau. Marshall notes that "the Russian canister and impassable swamp forced the division to retreat."

At three o'clock in the afternoon, detachments of Count Palen and Chaplits came to the aid of Golitsyn and Dokhturov, fresh forces helped restrain the advance of the French, who were joined first by Davout corps, and later by Soult corps along with Napoleon.

Fights were transported to the streets of Golymina and turned into desperate melee fights. The Russians managed to carry out an organized retreat and escape from the superior enemy forces. In this battle, the loss of the Russian side amounted to about a thousand people, the French about the same.

The hopes of Napoleon in the encirclement and destruction of the Russian army under Golymin and Pultusk were defeated.
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http://rusplt.ru/wins/polskom-bolote-32163.html
19 comments
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 3 January 2018 07: 18
    +8
    The hopes of Napoleon in the encirclement and destruction of the Russian army under Golymin and Pultusk were defeated.

    Yes ... the Russian army always won battles when it fought ...
    not by the rules of the enemy.
    And now it is also relevant for RUSSIA as many centuries ago ...

    if we conduct ourselves in politics, war, economics by our own rules, we will surely win.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 3 January 2018 07: 20
    +7
    Alexey Shcherbatov participated in the battles of Brest, Kobrin and Gorodechnaya. He distinguished himself in the battles of Borisov and Studenka, in the siege of Thorne and in the battles of Königsvarta and Bauzen, and was seriously wounded in the latter, then distinguished himself in battles on the Katzbach River and near Levenberg, took part in the siege of Soissons and the capture of Paris.
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 3 January 2018 09: 57
    +1
    Russia has done everything to stop the Corsican monster before it invades Russia.
    Allies failed ....
    1. AKC
      AKC 3 January 2018 11: 00
      +3
      Why a monster? I think you need to get away from the cliches. In honor of the monster, they will not name the cake, cognac. I haven’t heard a code about Hitler’s cake. or brandy Pol-pot!
      The Russian people expelled Napoleon, because the Frenchman cannot be the Russian Tsar. Only a German can be a Russian Tsar. (Lotman Yuri Mikhailovich).
      1. Rastas
        Rastas 3 January 2018 11: 42
        +4
        The article has one myth emanating from the time of Tsarist historiography about the war of 1805. In general, this war was not waged against any expansion of Napoleon, but in the interest of preserving the influence of English capital, which had put together an anti-French coalition. It is no coincidence that Napoleon, at the conclusion of peace with his opponents, set them the condition of a commercial blockade of England.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 3 January 2018 12: 38
          +3
          Quote: Rastas
          the war was not waged against any expansion of Napoleon,

          Well, yes, the expansion (of the occupation of Europe), it turns out, was "NOT" fool
          1. Rastas
            Rastas 3 January 2018 15: 35
            +2
            The struggle of English and French capital for markets. The natural continuation of any bourgeois revolution. The Netherlands and England after their revolutions went actively to conquer the colonies, in the 19th century after the victory of the North in the US civil war, expansion of the western territory of America began, Japan after the Meiji revolution invaded Korea and China. France in this series was no exception. Moreover, the allies of Russia were by no means peace-loving, but they themselves went to war with France, as a dangerous competitor.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 3 January 2018 12: 36
        +1
        Quote: AKC
        at. In honor of the monster, they will not name the cake, cognac. I haven’t heard a code about Hitler’s cake. or brandy Pol-pot!

        Cake is yes, evidence of "respect"! lol
        In France, Napoleon is FORGOTTEN completely, in the textbooks about his campaigns, practically NOT a word, only his affairs in the civilian sphere are mentioned.
        And rightly so, France became depopulated after his adventures, having suffered a grave defeat.
        1. Rastas
          Rastas 3 January 2018 15: 50
          +3
          How do you know what is forgotten? In Venice, during an excursion, the Venetian, talking about the fall of Venice, said that with the Russians she could rebuke Napoleon without fear. And with the French, on the second remark to Napoleon, French tourists begin to grumble.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 4 January 2018 06: 50
            +2
            Quote: Rastas
            How do you know what is forgotten? In Venice, during an excursion, the Venetian, talking about the fall of Venice, said that with the Russians she could rebuke Napoleon without fear. And with the French, on the second remark to Napoleon, French tourists begin to grumble.

            I wrote, from where: in French TEXTBOOKS it doesn't exist. In journalism, only negative reviews about military campaigns. He is no longer a hero
        2. katana
          katana 3 January 2018 16: 47
          +2
          Quote: Olgovich
          Quote: AKC
          at. In honor of the monster, they will not name the cake, cognac. I haven’t heard a code about Hitler’s cake. or brandy Pol-pot!

          Cake is yes, evidence of "respect"! lol
          In France, Napoleon is FORGOTTEN completely, in the textbooks about his campaigns, practically NOT a word, only his affairs in the civilian sphere are mentioned.
          And rightly so, France became depopulated after his adventures, having suffered a grave defeat.

          NAPOLEON has not been forgotten anywhere. Many peoples of the world remember the GREAT FRENCH.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 4 January 2018 06: 51
            +2
            Quote: katana
            NAPOLEON has not been forgotten anywhere. Many peoples of the world remember the GREAT FRENCH.

            Do not write Nonsense without owning the question.
            1. Minion
              Minion 4 January 2018 08: 30
              0
              + Ol'govich Lyubezny, it seems to me that you are very stupid, but why should everyone around you know about this.
      3. Monarchist
        Monarchist 3 January 2018 14: 53
        +4
        AKS, do you want such a cake?
        I would not be so categorical: where is the guarantee that some kind of fanatic of fascism, and they are in different variations of "carts and carts", does not decorate the cake with a similar name? I remember in the New Time there was a note that in the center of Singapore was the Adolf Hitler cafe "and" branded "drink with the name of the Fuhrer. Kslov has a version that the famous drink:" bloody Mary "is named after the English Queen Mary.
  4. Monarchist
    Monarchist 3 January 2018 14: 32
    +1
    Quote: Olgovich
    Russia has done everything to stop the Corsican monster before it invades Russia.
    Allies failed ....

    Olgovich, apparently, you did not read K. Marx, he wrote that the Russians enter the war when the allies do everything.
    But seriously and without ernism, the Russians always had to be content with very mediocre allies. We look at the history: “The great embassy” of Peter 1, they were looking for allies in the war with Turkey, and the result was “shish with poppy seeds.” Peter the first was seen as a monkey at the fair, they told “forty barrels of prisoners” and .... everything. North the war, who was Peter's ally? The Elector of Saxony August is “strong”, and looking to betray that ally (Comrades, I recommend the book “Fiscals of Peter the Great“ Nedushkin, it’s small but interesting) We go further Austerlitz and subsequent events, many allies helped Russia ? And the so-called "Crimean War", something I do not remember significant assistance. Once again, I recall the words of EIV Alexander 3: "Russia has only two faithful allies: its army and navy"
  5. Monarchist
    Monarchist 3 January 2018 15: 03
    +1
    Quote: Rastas
    The article has one myth emanating from the time of Tsarist historiography about the war of 1805. In general, this war was not waged against any expansion of Napoleon, but in the interest of preserving the influence of English capital, which had put together an anti-French coalition. It is no coincidence that Napoleon, at the conclusion of peace with his opponents, set them the condition of a commercial blockade of England.

    Have you looked into history for a long time? I remember at the beginning of the "Syrian operation" the librarians commented in almost the same way, but instead of English capital they talked about the vested interests of the military and the president
    1. Rastas
      Rastas 3 January 2018 15: 26
      +1
      Before you bring any historical parallels, indicate what I'm wrong?
  6. Monarchist
    Monarchist 3 January 2018 15: 24
    +2
    “It did not match either his genius or the conditions in which the Great Army was used to maneuvering and fighting,” of course Napoleon was used to fighting on a schedule: until six I was fighting with Josephine in bed, from six I sent matchmakers to Franz Joseph, from 10 to 12 a band of Prussians. I have always been interested: why are cockroaches and Germans equally great?
    But Russians do not like fighting. Consequently, Napoleon can go to the international court of human rights: the Russians didn’t like the war anyway, which means that all the victories of the Russian troops are not considered valid. I think Manstein and Halder would also have signed up to such a complaint.
  7. Curious
    Curious 3 January 2018 16: 03
    +3
    In France, Napoleon is FORGOTTEN completely, in the textbooks about his campaigns, practically NOT a word, only his affairs in the civilian sphere are mentioned.
    This fact in no way detracts from the significance of Napoleon's personality. It only says that the commenter is at odds with his own logic. For the sake of momentary political and ideological interest at all times and in all countries, many historical figures were undeservedly hushed up and unjustly extolled. France now, like all of Europe, suffers from tolerance. Yes, and Olgovich are found not only in Romania. That is why Napoleon in France is now in disgrace.