The text of the article - the text, and we now look at the exhibition of the museum I.N. Ulyanova through the eyes of an ordinary visitor. Let's start with the street. Go to him you need from the public transport stop "Grammar school №1". And the arrow, only it is not very visible from afar.
We go along the steps, then along the path between the pines and we see this gate in the fence.
And here is the museum.
And the entrance to it ... And do not think that there once was an institute laundry.
Let's start with the most banal statement: many famous people are associated with the Penza region, and it is quite true. They say (and very conclusively!) That even the great AV Suvorov was born here, and not in Moscow, in his family estate Marovka, but about this some other time. Anyway, and among them Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, who entered the history as an outstanding teacher, democrat, educator and father of Vladimir Ilyich.
He arrived in Penza after graduating from Kazan University and for eight years, from 1855 to 1863 years, served as a senior teacher at the Penza Nobility Institute.
Actually, the exposition dedicated to the stay of I.N. Ulyanova in Penza, located in two halls of the first floor. In Soviet times, they managed to stretch it on all two floors, but not so many exhibits of those years were preserved. Here is the restored interior of the time. True, it is too empty. In real life this does not happen. Always, where are some little things.
Who knows, maybe I.N. Ulyanov?
A reduced copy of the monument to spouses Ulyanov by sculptor A.A. Fomina.
Well, and the biography of I.N. Ulyanov began in Astrakhan in 1831. His father was Nikolai Vasilyevich Ulyanov, one of the serfs of the Nizhny Novgorod province, who was the first of Ulyanovs to be freed. In 1808, he was accepted into the petty-bourgeois class, in the workshop of craftsmen-tailors. He had four children: Basil, Maria, Fedosya and Ilya. N.V. died. Ulyanov in 1836, when his youngest son, Ilya, was only five years old, and the elder Vasily, seventeen. After the death of his father, Basil assumed all cares about the maintenance of the family. But, apparently, he kept it well, if in 1843 Ilya Ulyanov was able to enter the Astrakhan gymnasium, which he graduated with a silver medal and in the same year entered the Kazan University in the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics. That is, with all the restrictions that allegedly existed in the field of education for the people, even the children of tailors could even study in gymnasiums, and then everything depended only on them. By the way, after all, both my grandfather, his sister, and both his brothers all managed to finish the gymnasium (true grandfather was an external student), being children of the master of railway workshops, but of the master, but ... and nothing more. Not a nobleman! The usual hard worker who has achieved a hard place a little higher than the rest of the workers. That is who wanted, that ... achieved!
By the way, the Kazan University in those years experienced a real dawn, because it was headed by the famous mathematician, the creator of non-Euclidean geometry, Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky.
He precisely used this device. He is from the physics office.
Mirrors Pictet. Used for experiments with thermal (infrared) rays.
Kazan University Ilya Nikolaevich graduated brilliantly. In 1854, he presented to the Scientific Council of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics the scientific work “Olbers method and its application to the definition of comet 1853 Klinkerfus”, and she received a high rating. In 1855, he passed the exams for the title of teacher of mathematics, and then physics, after which Lobachevsky won him a place at the Penza Nobility Institute.
There are a lot of devices in the museum, and they are very diverse. It means that Ilya Nikolayevich conducted his studies at a high pedagogical level.
Penza of that time was a typical provincial city. In 1855, its population was only about 23 thousand people. There were wooden houses on the streets. Almost entirely brick houses were built up only Moskovskaya Street, where most of the shops, shops and trading establishments were located. The street rose steeply uphill and ended with the Cathedral Square, on which stood the Cathedral, surrounded by three main buildings in the city - the house of the governor, the bishop's house and two buildings of offices.
On these stands is the whole history of Penza education in the 60-s of the XIX century.
The Penza Nobility Institute, where Ulyanov began his work, was opened on January 1 1844 in honor of the visit to Penza in 1837 by the heir Alexander Nikolayevich.
A replica of the uniform of a student of the Nobility Institute.
It was a class secondary school, in which only the children of nobles studied. At the age of 10 - 12 years after passing the entrance exams on "sacred history, reading, writing, the first four rules of arithmetic". The maintenance fee was high - 114 rubles 28 kopecks a year in silver and on the initial acquisition of 28 rubles 57 kopecks in silver. Studying at the institute was seven years old. Initially, he owned a two-story wooden building, where from 1844 to 1851 was a boarding school at the gymnasium. But by the arrival of Ilya Nikolayevich, a beautiful three-story building had already been prepared for him, the construction of which had just been completed.
But in such paper dolls then girls played. From my granddaughter's paper dolls, they differ only in that they are printed on a color printer.
Together with the main building, two more small two-storied economic buildings were built on either side of it. In the building, located on the right, there was a coach house with a stable, hayloft and barn. In the building on the left, the first floor was set aside for a laundry and drying bathhouse, where students' and apartment teachers' clothes and clothes were washed, and room warders' apartments were on the second floor. And it is precisely this building that is currently adapted for the museum of I.N. Ulyanova.
Rising to the second floor, we find ourselves in the museum of the peasant, merchant and noble life of Penza. And here, too, there is something to see, and the museum is decorated very modern.
Here are utensils, and samples of needlework of the Penza and Mordovian peasants, and their national clothes ...
The institute, according to the tradition of that time, was surrounded by a vast courtyard and park. And behind the park was a country forest - Zaseca.
Our local Tatars: he.
The museum will tell you that Ilya Nikolayevich was a follower of the pedagogical methods of Ushinsky and Pirogov, read Russian Pedagogical Bulletin, Magazine for education, Detsky Mir, KD Ushinsky, that is, the teacher was an advanced teacher who loved teaching and children.
Our local Tatars: she.
But who was this diva, I somehow did not record, but in any case, her costume is impressive!
The study of mathematics and physics in those years was distinguished by formalism and isolation from life. But Ulyanov opposed cramming and believed that students should be conscious of their learning attitude and develop their thinking, as well as opposed to corporal punishment. He also attached great importance to visualization in training, which is proved by the fact that he always accompanied his physics lessons with various experiments, so they were interesting and fascinating.
Costumes in the fashion of the time ...
In the summer, under his leadership, the students of the institute were engaged in shooting plans and leveling the terrain, were trained to work with a compass, astrolabe, leveling ruler, other geodetic tools needed by surveyors, whose profession was very important for agrarian Russia and enjoyed great respect.
Isn’t it so easy to fall in love with such a beautiful woman and in such a dress!
In addition, Ilya Nikolayevich showed his students a mirror telescope and a microscope, an electric telegraph model, an air pump (with which he dismantled the lack of sound conductivity of a vacuum). For experiments with infrared rays, Pictet mirrors were used, and glass plates were used to prove the presence of partial attraction of bodies. In his physical office there was a “Franklin Wheel” - a device for generating electricity, Magdeburg hemispheres - for conducting experiments with atmospheric pressure, and there was also an electromagnetic Clerk machine, an electrodynamic Lenz machine, Newton rings, a Voltaic electroplated column, a water freezing device, a stereoscope Blyuster "with twelve mathematical and two photographic paintings", an electric gun and paintings to show them through the "magic lantern".
The cabinet is annually replenished with the latest instruments and tools. There were also quite rare devices for that time, for example, the “Orerri Planetarium” manufactured by the English company “Dollond” and representing a model of the solar system. In the center is the Sun, and at some distance from him known at that time: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus. This device was extremely accurate.
Needless to say, Ilya Nikolayevich, who managed with all these devices, was kind to the students, quickly won their sympathies, and his superiors paid attention to him. Very soon he entered the list of teachers of the nobility institute, awarded with bronze medals on Vladimir ribbon in memory of the 1853-1856 war of the year. He received awards in March 1861.
It is interesting that, directing I.N. Ulyanov to Penza, Lobachevsky commissioned him, along with performing his direct duties, to also conduct meteorological observations. Of course, they were held in Penza and before I.N. Ulyanova, since the 1820-ies, but did not differ in regularity and were not always carried out in good faith. Only with the arrival of Ulyanov in Penza did systematic and strictly scientific meteorological observations begin here, conducted from 1855 to 1859 a year.
The weather station at the institute (observatory) did not have a special room, while there was also no site with thermometric booths. During the period of operation, meteorological instruments were located in a physical office. Only a few of them (the Reaumur thermometer, in the warm season of the psychrometer) were hung on the north side of the building and protected from rain and snow by a canopy in the form of a wooden box that had a grid on one side. Ilya Nikolayevich determined the direction and speed of the wind with the help of a yellow copper weather vane.
Then they got married and they had children. And the children wore just such children's clothes.
He sent the results of his observations to the Observatory of Kazan University and to the Agricultural Society of Southeast Russia, who were very interested in his research.
It is significant that at the same time I.N. Ulyanov also showed a penchant for scientific work by writing a scientific article on the benefits of meteorological observations for Penza.
It is pleasant to know that the Russian teachers of provincial educational institutions and the children of artisans at that time had a level of education that most of the graduates of our modern universities did not dream of today. For example, they freely read books in French and thus increased their level of education. For example, Ilya Nikolayevich in the 1861 of the year read in the original, that is, in French, the works of French physicists Francois Arago, de la Riva and several others.
Ulyanov’s second work, On Thunderstorms and Lightning Rods, which he read at a solemn event at the 23 institute in November 1861, should have promoted ignorant prejudice against lightning rods and promoted their widespread adoption. He noted that the peasants suffer most from thunderstorms, because of ignorance of the laws of nature, they are afraid of installing lightning rods.
Well, and then the romantic part of Ilya Nikolayevich’s life began in Penza - in 1861, he met his future wife Maria Alexandrovna Blank.
The future mother of the leader of the world proletariat was born in St. Petersburg 6 March 1835 in the family of a doctor, Alexander Dmitrievich Blanca, a native of bourgeois who graduated from the medical-surgical academy, and more than 20 years working in St. Petersburg, Smolensk and Perm provinces. In 1847, he retired, bought a small estate in Kazan province (Kokushkino village) and started farming. He became a widow early and stayed with his son Dmitry and five daughters in his arms. Ekaterina Ivanovna Essen’s sister helped him raise them.
Children's dishes and children's toy porcelain set.
Beautiful porcelain knick-knacks that decorate dressers and secretaries.
In 1850, one of Maria’s sisters, Anna, became the wife of Ivan Dmitrievich Veretennikov, a teacher at the Perm gymnasium. And in the 1861 year, the Veretennikovs moved to Penza, because her husband was appointed inspector of the Penza Nobility Institute. In the evenings, teachers from the institute and the gymnasium began to gather at his apartment, and among them was Ilya Nikolayevich, who paid attention to Maria who was visiting her sister. And she stayed with her in Penza for a long time and it was, of course, not by chance, because at that time it was in this way that the young people in their circle got acquainted. That's how Ilya Nikolaevich and Maria Alexandrovna met, and at the beginning of the summer of 1863, they announced their engagement. It should be noted that the girl had a very good education at that time and even passed the exam for a home teacher in 1863. Owned German, English and French. She knew both Russian and European literature well, played the piano and, like any future owner of that time, was trained not only in handicraft, but also in housekeeping.
Here are presented various well-known Penza residents and their equally well-known relatives.
However, after the reform of 1861, the position of the institute deteriorated sharply, funding was significantly reduced. There was not enough money for the most necessary needs, delays in staff salaries began, in a word, everything, as in the 1991 year, or rather after it. The Institute was barely making ends meet. Therefore, student performance fell, and problems began with discipline. As a result, the trustee of the Kazan District offered the Ministry of Public Education to close it, and it was closed on 12 in August 1863, after which I.N. Ulyanova was sent to work in Nizhny Novgorod.
Beautiful couple, is not it? This is the way to show the clothes of the past and its life. Rusty glands and faded rags today are not interesting to anyone except specialists.
What a train !!!
So he gave Penza his life for eight years, which is quite a lot. Here he began his teaching career, met his faithful companion and mother of his children, found many friends, relations with whom he then maintained throughout his life. After Penza he served in Nizhny Novgorod, in Simbirsk he was already an inspector, director of public schools, participated in the creation of schools not only in Russians, but also in Mordovian and Chuvash villages. "For excellent, diligent service" the tsarist government awarded him the Order of St. Stanislav 1 degree, St. Anna 2 degree, St. Vladimir 3 degree, he received hereditary nobility, that is, all his descendants from the moment of birth were considered nobles. Well, in Penza, in memory of his years in 1970, in front of the building of the former Institute of the Nobility, a monument was erected to the Ulyanovs couple by sculptor A.A. Fomina.
P.S. A tour of the museum for all of us was conducted by its head Larisa Vladimirovna Panova, for which she thanks a lot!
Pss So, you will be in Penza - welcome to the Museum of I.N. Ulyanova!