Military Review

One hundred years of Soviet Ukraine

85
December 25 marks one hundred years of Ukrainian statehood. Until 1917, there was no state with such a name. All modern история Ukraine, like the very notion of "Ukraine", is a direct derivative of Soviet power. It was 25 December 1917, the 1 th All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets, held in Kharkov, proclaimed Ukraine the Republic of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies.


The All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets was initiated by the Bolsheviks in the difficult period of the collapse of the Russian statehood. The Bolsheviks hoped that the Congress of Soviets would be able to prevent the secession of Ukraine and swallow the Ukrainian Central Council. Recall that 7 (20) in November 1917, Malaya was glad to accept a wagon, declaring Ukraine a republic in federal ties with Russia. The structure of Ukraine included 8 of the former provinces of the Russian Empire with a predominantly Ukrainian population. Supporters of Ukrainian nationalist organizations were able to provide at the Kiev Congress a most serious numerical superiority over the Bolsheviks. Without an invitation to the congress, 670 delegates from the Selyanskaya Spilka (Peasant Union) and 905 delegates from Ukrainian army organizations, most of whom supported the nationalists, arrived. Thus, the 125 Bolshevik delegates were in an absolute minority among the 2 thousands of other participants in the congress and could no longer push their positions. Once in the majority, supporters of the Central Council were able to easily neutralize the resistance of the Bolsheviks.

One hundred years of Soviet Ukraine


The Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR sent a “Manifesto to the Ukrainian people with ultimatum demands on the Central Rada”, which said that the latter was not recognized for its ambiguous and bourgeois position, manifested, inter alia, in obstructing the activities of the Bolsheviks in Ukraine, moving parts from the front into the European part Russia and the Caucasus, and so on. Naturally, the Central Rada Manifesto did not recognize and put forward counterclaims, which included recognition of the Ukrainian People’s Republic, division of finances of the former Russian Empire, Ukraine’s participation in negotiations with Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. In turn, the Bolsheviks could not go to meet these requirements - a stalemate was obtained.

Under these conditions, the Bolsheviks had no choice but to assemble a new congress of Soviets in Kharkov. Impressive forces were sent to Kharkov - 1600 soldiers and sailors under the command of Rudolf Sivers, and then another 5000 soldiers under the command of Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko and Mikhail Muravyev. Although the main task of troops deployed in Ukraine was to prepare for hostilities against Kaledin's troops, it turned out that the presence of a significant number of pro-Bolshevik forces allowed the Ukrainian commandant of Kharkov to be removed and a congress of Soviets held in Kharkov.

The congress held 24-25 December 1917 of the year (11-12 December) and gathered 127 people - delegates of the Kiev Congress of Soviets and 77 representatives from the Soviets of Donetsk-Krivoy Rog region, who were at that time in Kharkov at the Third Regional Congress of the Donbass and Krivorozhie Soviets. At this congress, the creation of the Ukrainian People’s Republic of Workers ', Peasants', Soldiers 'and Cossacks' Deputies composed of the federated Russian Soviet Republic was proclaimed. At the same time, the congress declared that all power in Ukraine had been taken over and deprived the Central Rada and the General Secretariat of authority. Created by the Central Rada, the Ukrainian People’s Republic was declared illegitimate. Thus began the history of Soviet Ukraine, to which, no matter how the Ukrainian nationalists tried to prove the opposite, and modern Ukrainian statehood goes back.



A CEC of the UNRS was formed, which consisted of 40 people, including 35 Bolsheviks. The CEC was chaired by 31-year-old Yefim Grigorievich Medvedev - a member of the Ukrainian Social Democratic Labor Party (its left wing, blocked with the Bolsheviks). In the past, an electrical engineer who worked at the Kharkov tram depot, a participant in strikes and strikes, the revolutionary events of 1905, worker Medvedev was a wonderful personification of the transfer of power in the republic into the hands of the working people. The All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee (VUTSIK) was considered the main body of Soviet power in Ukraine and, by virtue of its authority, managed all spheres of public life. 18 (31 December) 1917 of the year at the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee was created the Regional Military Revolutionary Committee to Combat Counter-Revolution, which was to deal with the direct creation of the Red Guard detachments to protect the revolutionary gains throughout Ukraine.

As the government of the UNRS, the People’s Secretariat was created, which included secretaries for the main areas. It makes sense to list them in full, especially with references to nationality, in order to dispel famous myths about who made the revolution.

The Russian worker Fyodor Sergeyev, the legendary Artyom, became the secretary for trade and industry. Vladimir Khristianovich Aussem, a native of the intelligentsia family of Flemish origin, who began his revolutionary activities at the end of the 1890, became the people's secretary of finance. Labor and labor relations were supervised by secretary Nikolai Alekseevich Skrypnyk, Little Russia, son of a railway employee, also from the end of 1890-ies participating in the activities of social democratic organizations in St. Petersburg and Yekaterinoslav, and in the days of the October Revolution 1917, former member of the Military Revolutionary Committee of Petrograd Council. Yevgeny Petrovich Terletsky, Little Russia, the son of a village priest and a graduate of the Poltava Theological Seminary, who has been a member of the Socialist Revolutionary Party since 1911, was appointed secretary for agriculture.

The Secretariat of Education was headed by Vladimir Petrovich Zatonsky (in the photo) - Russian, the son of a parish clerk from the Podolsk province, a teacher of physics at Kiev University, who previously belonged to the Mensheviks, but after the October Revolution he joined the Bolshevik Party. In March 1918, it was Vladimir Petrovich Zatonsky who replaced Yefim Medvedev as chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.

Sergey Sergeevich Bakinsky was appointed people's secretary on inter-ethnic affairs. Under this pseudonym lived Ludwig Markovich Bernheim - a German, born in Riga, a member of the revolutionary movement from the beginning of the twentieth century (for which he was expelled from the university) and a member of the editorial board of the newspaper Pravda. Yevgenia Bogdanovna (Gotlibovna) Bosch, an ethnic German, daughter of the German colonist Gotlib Bosch and noblewoman Maria Parfentevny Krusser, became the people's secretary of the interior affairs of Ukraine. In the RSDLP, Bosch entered the 1901 year, and by the Second Party Congress moved to Bolshevik positions, and by the 1917-1918 years. she was in ultra-left positions.

- Vasily Matveevich Shakhrai

The Little Russian Vasily Matveevich Shakhrai, a World War I participant, an ensign of the Russian army and a former teacher of the Vilna military school, was appointed people's secretary on military issues. He went down in history as an ideologist of Ukrainian national communism. Subsequently, this circumstance led to the exclusion of Shakhrai from the ranks of the RCP (B.) And dismissal from the Soviet authorities. Yakov Martyanov, a Russian secretary of post and telegraph, became the people's secretary of the post.

Vladimir Sergeevich Luxemburg, the people's secretary in judicial matters, a representative, a surname dating back to the house of the Habsburgs and the son of an honorary citizen of St. Petersburg, who, despite his aristocratic background, was still a very remarkable person, even when he was a student (he studied at the Faculty of Law) contacted the revolutionary movement and soon became an active participant in the Bolshevik Party. In the period between the February and October revolutions, he was a member of the judiciary commission of the executive committee of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies.

The Jews in the People’s Secretariat were two people — the people's secretary for food issues, Emmanuel Viktorovich Portugalis — an Odessite, a revolutionary from the beginning of the twentieth century, and the people's secretary for foreign affairs, Ivan Yulianovich Kulik (real name is Israel Yudelevich Kulik), a prose writer and poet. Thus, the first part of the Ukrainian government consisted of the Great Russian and Little Russian majority, several Germans and two Jews. Actually, these were the main ethnic groups of the then Ukraine. All these people were convinced that Ukraine should remain a part of Soviet Russia and, as the majority of them were natives and residents of Ukraine, they had every right to their point of view.

It is worth noting that at the dawn of the existence of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic, debates in party circles about the future of Ukraine as part of the Soviet state did not cease. A number of prominent figures of the Ukrainian revolutionary movement who stood at the origins of the creation of the first Ukrainian Soviet government, advocated the construction of a state according to confederative principles, with a wider autonomy of Ukraine. So, for example, from these positions Nikolay Skrypnyk, who later, in 1927-1933, acted as people's commissar of education of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and personally oversaw the creation of the Ukrainian national education system, spoke.

In the early years of its existence, the Ukrainian Soviet Republic had a hard time. She defended her right to exist in bloody battles with Austro-German troops, Ukrainian nationalists, white guards, anarchists of Nestor Makhno, detachments of all kinds of "lords atamans." Nevertheless, with the help of Soviet Russia, the Ukrainian Soviet Republic survived. It was then, in December 1917, the foundations were laid for the future political and economic development of Ukraine for virtually the entire twentieth century.

Thanks to the Soviet power, Ukraine not only gained the status of a republic as part of a federal state, but also gained its state borders. So, already in 1917, the lands of Donbass were incorporated into Ukraine, which were settled and settled already during their entry into the Russian Empire. The territory of Ukraine grew due to the policy of Joseph Stalin, aimed at expanding the borders of the Soviet Union. In the 1939 year, after the occupation of Poland by Hitler's troops, the lands of Eastern Galicia became part of the Ukrainian SSR. By the way, it was the Red Army, which today they love to throw mud in Ukraine, and ensured the reunification of Galicia with the rest of Ukraine. In 1940, the lands of Northern Bukovina and Southern Bessarabia, which were previously part of the Romanian state, were included in Ukraine. During the Great Patriotic War, the territory of Ukraine was liberated from the Nazi invaders by the victorious Red Army, which included people from all nations of the Soviet Union, including millions of people who had never lived in Ukraine. In the 1945 year, following the results of the Second World War, the Transcarpathian region was inhabited by Ukraine, populated by Rusyns and Hungarians and formerly belonged to Czechoslovakia, and after the partition of Czechoslovakia in the 1938 year - Hungary.

A separate issue - the national policy, which in Ukraine, as in other republics that were part of the USSR, was seriously “limping”. But it was a feature of the entire Soviet system, and not only Ukraine. Having prevented Ukraine’s disconnection from Russia in 1917, the Soviet government failed to ensure the complete elimination of nationalist sentiments in the republic. These sentiments were strongly heated from the outside, and their main distributors were residents of the regions that were part of Ukraine late. When Ukrainian politicians today speak of the “Soviet occupation” of Ukraine, they forget that Soviet Ukraine was created by the Ukrainians themselves, and the lands of Galicia were not part of Ukraine at all and belonged to Poland until 1939. It is also forgotten that ethnic Ukrainians and natives of Ukraine traditionally played a huge role in Soviet political life.

Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev and Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev headed the Communist Party and the Soviet state, there were a lot of Ukrainians among the representatives of the political, military, economic elite of the Soviet Union. Therefore, it is ridiculous to think that the Soviet Union, they say, occupied Ukraine and suppressed the desire of Ukrainians for independence. The Soviet Union just gave Ukraine statehood. For the Ukrainian state, oddly enough, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin and other Soviet statesmen did much more than all the ideologues and practices of Ukrainian nationalism in the entire history of its existence. Modern Ukrainians should be erected, and not demolished monuments to the leader of the world proletariat.
Author:
85 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. populist
    populist 25 December 2017 06: 38 New
    13
    December 25 marks one hundred years of Ukrainian statehood

    The creation of Ukraine was a strategic mistake and a split of the Russian people. It was necessary to create cultural autonomy, both according to Stalin's plan, and on a much smaller territory.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 25 December 2017 07: 06 New
      +3
      And if you start to remember what role the representatives of Ukraine played in the posts of the USSR --- then it is not known what dill is. they will agree. In short, in any case, Russia will always owe it. Such are their thoughts.
    2. Mu Dialer
      Mu Dialer 25 December 2017 07: 11 New
      +6
      The strategic mistake was the overthrow of the king, although he was a stupid rag - and then the derivatives of all this action went on, and they still are.
      1. Conductor
        Conductor 25 December 2017 11: 42 New
        +4
        Rather, not the overthrow of the king, but the elimination of the autocracy.
    3. venaya
      venaya 25 December 2017 07: 15 New
      +6
      Quote: populist
      The creation of Ukraine was a strategic mistake and a split of the Russian people.

      Why did you consider the separation “a strategic mistake? First you should find out who, what forces were specifically interested in this diversion. You understand, the slogan”Divide and Conquer"- this is not a simple set of words, but a centuries-old task of all, absolutely all enemies of Russia, no matter what slogans, ideas, party tasks, preferences, etc., were covered. All this vile history has numerous examples in the past. Yes, and Now all this has not ended yet. I myself believe that it is necessary to constantly develop plans to counter such trends and naturally try to bring them to life, as far as possible.
    4. Finches
      Finches 25 December 2017 08: 50 New
      +5
      100 years of misunderstanding on the body of Russia ...! Pecka, speaking here at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs about this fucking date, he made a slip of his eye on Freud, blurting out that "the cunning of the Ukrainian government is best known to Ukrainians ". Not in the eyebrow, but in the eye! laughing
    5. RUSS
      RUSS 25 December 2017 08: 55 New
      +3
      The author writes in the article - “On December 25 one hundred years of Ukrainian statehood are celebrated. Until 1917, a state with that name did not exist.”
      He is either cunning or deliberately misrepresenting the facts, but what about the Ukrainian People’s Republic (Ukrainian. Ukrainian People’s Republic), the UPR is a state entity in federal relations with the Russian Republic, proclaimed III Universal of the Ukrainian Central Council on 7 (20) on November 1917, after the overthrow The interim government of Russia.
      1. Luga
        Luga 25 December 2017 09: 45 New
        +4
        Quote: RUSS
        He is either cunning or deliberately misrepresenting the facts, but what about the Ukrainian People’s Republic (Ukrainian. Ukrainian People’s Republic), the UPR is a state entity in federal relations with the Russian Republic, proclaimed III Universal of the Ukrainian Central Council on 7 (20) on November 1917, after the overthrow The interim government of Russia.

        The author wrote everything correctly.
        Recall that on 7 (20) on November 1917, the Small Council adopted a station wagon proclaiming Ukraine as a republic in federal relations with Russia.

        It’s just that the republic that was proclaimed in Kiev did not survive the civil war, and the proclaimed one in Kharkov turned out to be much more durable, therefore
        Thus began the history of Soviet Ukraine, to which, no matter how Ukrainian nationalists tried to prove the opposite, modern Ukrainian statehood dates back.

        So everything is correct.
        1. RUSS
          RUSS 25 December 2017 11: 33 New
          +3
          Quote: Luga
          It’s just that the republic that was proclaimed in Kiev did not survive the civil war, and the proclaimed one in Kharkov turned out to be much more durable, therefore

          I didn’t survive; this was another matter, but the republic either existed, and the author writes, then until 1917 there was no such state, and yet the UPR existed from 1917 to 1918, and some countries recognized it until 1920.
          1. Luga
            Luga 25 December 2017 13: 54 New
            +5
            Quote: RUSS
            Survived didn’t survive it is another question, but the republic was,

            And the dog with her, was and was, who argues? Then these, like, republics bred as mushrooms, toadstools. There was a FER (Far Eastern Republic) and the devil knows what else, remember laziness, colleagues can supplement. With the same success, Gulyai-Pole with Old Man Makhno may claim the laurels of the “founder of the Ukrainian state”. The author talks about the state formation that really was the basis of Ukrainian statehood, and not about those who claimed it, but did not pull it. I wanted to say just that. hi
            1. RUSS
              RUSS 25 December 2017 16: 03 New
              +1
              Quote: Luga
              And the dog with her, was and was, who argues?

              I argue laughing
    6. Olgovich
      Olgovich 25 December 2017 09: 21 New
      11
      Quote: populist
      The creation of Ukraine was a strategic mistake and a split of the Russian people.

      Not a mistake, but a crime against the Russian people, especially the forcible transfer of Novorossia with the cradles of the Russian fleet - Russians by Nikolayev, Kherson, Odessa. The crime was also the forcible Ukrainization of Russians in non-Russians. In the same Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih Republic in 1923 there were 2250 RUSSIAN schools and .... 7 Ukrainian (this happened at the request of citizens). In 1937, there were already 2250 UKRAINIAN schools and only 7 Russian-Ukrainian: so destroyed everything Russian in New Russia. Poor teachers taught on the so-called Ukrainian, and then forced the poor children to briefly explain in Russian.
      Actually, just like the name Novorossiya itself was banned, and the unknown was never introduced by anyone .... the so-called. Southern Ukraine! belay fool ALL monuments to the great New Russians were demolished: Catherine, Potemkin, Vorontsov, Paskevich, etc. -so the memory of the people of Russia was etched.

      The author forgot to mention that Little Russia did NOT recognize the October coup and the so-called SNK.
      The Bolsheviks, however, recognized Ukraine as EVERYTHING (independence, any land), if only it would give an opportunity to strangle the legitimate authorities of the Don and Urals.
      1. Looking for
        Looking for 25 December 2017 14: 11 New
        +4
        Monarchist, Black Sea NEVER was the cradle of the Russian Navy. And the supposedly "legitimate" authorities of the Don, the Urals, Siberia, and others, were destroyed not by the Bolsheviks, but by the people.
        1. Dart2027
          Dart2027 25 December 2017 19: 36 New
          +2
          Quote: Seeker
          not the Bolsheviks destroyed but the people. led by the Bolsheviks

          I mean, under their guidance?
        2. Olgovich
          Olgovich 26 December 2017 07: 52 New
          +2
          Quote: Seeker
          The Black Sea was NEVER the cradle of the RUSSIAN Navy.

          Ignoramus, we are talking about CITIES, not the sea. I’ll also take an interest in what the RUSSIAN Sea is.
          Quote: Seeker
          And the supposedly "legitimate" authorities of the Don, the Urals, Siberia, and others, were destroyed not by the Bolsheviks, but by the people known by the Bolsheviks.

          PEOPLE in the election of the Bolsheviks-ride.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 25 December 2017 19: 32 New
        +3
        Quote: Olgovich
        Not a mistake, but a crime against the Russian people, especially the forcible transfer of Novorossia with the cradles of the Russian fleet - Russians by Nikolayev, Kherson, Odessa.

        Ummm ... the cradle of the Russian Black Sea Fleet is still a neighborhood of Voronezh and the lower reaches of the Don. And Nikolaev - this is much later.
        B, EMNIP, the first large naval battle with the Turks on the Black Sea, a detachment of the Don Flotilla under the command of Jan Hendrik van Kinsbergen went on Don ships.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 26 December 2017 08: 38 New
          +2
          Quote: Alexey RA
          Ummm ... the cradle of the Russian Black Sea Fleet is still a neighborhood of Voronezh and the lower reaches of the Don. And Nikolaev - this is much later.

          Then it’s Pleshcheevo lake- and that was long before Voronezh yes
      3. Antares
        Antares 31 December 2017 12: 06 New
        0
        Quote: Olgovich
        ALL monuments to the great New Russians were demolished: Catherine, Potemkin, Vorontsov, Paskevich, etc. - this is how the people’s memory of Russia was etched.

        during Ukrainian independence, restored
    7. Monarchist
      Monarchist 25 December 2017 16: 10 New
      +4
      Comrade with such "simple" surnames: Bronstein, Blank, Rosenfeld, etc., very much opposed the populist.
      In 1921, Lenin found "Great Russian chauvinists" with such "Russian surnames": Dzerzhinsky and Dzhugashvili.
      Quote: Mu Diazwon
      COMMENTARY

      Quote: Mu Diazwon
      COMMENTARY

      No matter what they say or write, I remain convinced that the February betrayal (there was 100% betrayal) and subsequent events won: the Masons and the "modest uncle" Rockefeller and Hamer (then he was "a friend of Soviet Russia: at the" house price " bought up the property of Russia.), and now the hater of Russia. Apparently, he was disappointed that Russia would "climb out" of the swamp of "liberal values"
    8. Sergey-8848
      Sergey-8848 25 December 2017 19: 01 New
      0
      But you watch a movie of those times (precisely those years) - how fun, friendly and lively it is for everyone who behaves correctly. And rightly so - for those who still ratted and buried - fate was a camp. For a gangster’s essence - and gangster’s life.
    9. Gartny
      Gartny 9 January 2018 16: 00 New
      0
      As if Ukraine were before the creation of the USSR. But the creation of the USSR was a clear mistake. 11 million victims of the civil war during the collapse of the empire, 4 million victims of the famine in Ukraine, tens of millions of victims of the Stalinist repressions and its very existence for only 69 years, is proof of this. And there is no single Russian people. These tales are also in the past.
  2. Blue cop
    Blue cop 25 December 2017 07: 04 New
    19
    The head of Soviet Ukraine is the de facto second person in the USSR
    Representation at the UN and much more
    It was good to Soviet Ukraine
    And now I think I didn’t abandon the Soviet regime - in return for the oligarchy
    As a matter of fact, probably - and we
    Как
  3. Mik13
    Mik13 25 December 2017 07: 10 New
    12
    The author forgot to talk about the Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih Republic.
    This is a very important part of the story when it comes to the formation of Ukraine.



    As for Skrypnik, this character is notorious for total Ukrainization in those places where no one spoke Ukrainian for a long time.
    1. captain
      captain 25 December 2017 18: 35 New
      +1
      Quote: Mik13
      So, already in the 1917 year, the lands of Donbass were included in Ukraine, which were developed and settled already during their entry into the composition

      The author did not indicate at all how the lands recaptured from Turkey (modern Odessa, Kherson, Nikolaev, Zaporizhzhya, Dnepropetrovsk, Donetsk, Lugansk, Kharkiv reg, Crimea) were included in Ukraine. At that time, when most of modern Ukraine was part of the Commonwealth, these lands were part of Russia already in 1791 in the Yassky world. And the right-bank part of modern Ukraine was annexed to Russia in 1795. It is the Bolsheviks who gave the Russian lands to the Russian peoples, to all whom they wanted. And now crocodile tears are pouring over the Russians in Ukraine.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 25 December 2017 07: 17 New
    +4
    The Soviet government, having prevented the separation of Ukraine from Russia in 1917, was not able to ensure the complete elimination of nationalist sentiments in the republic.
    .... Unfortunately so, there was not enough time .. Yes, and nationalism began to develop not under the Soviet regime ....
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 25 December 2017 07: 31 New
      +3
      Have they seen nationalism? Or did you think that by joining industrial areas everything will happen by itself? Following the example of the working class, are all elements re-educated themselves? And with the accession of Western Ukraine, who began to re-educate whom.
    2. Gopnik
      Gopnik 25 December 2017 12: 28 New
      +4
      Actually, the Soviet government encouraged the nationalist mood of Ukrainians, unlike the “whites,” see "indigenization" and "Ukrainization." They opposed "nationalism of small peoples" to "imperial nationalism" - "Great Russian chauvinism"
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 25 December 2017 19: 38 New
        +4
        Quote: Gopnik
        Actually, the Soviet government encouraged the nationalist mood of Ukrainians, unlike the “whites,” see "indigenization" and "Ukrainization."

        Not just encouraged, but carried out forced Ukrainization, especially on the lands newly joined to Ukraine. For this, they did not even disdain to attract Grushevsky himself.
        And those who did not want to learn the Ukrainian language were fired, and in relation to such persons it was officially allowed not to comply with the norms of the current labor legislation.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 25 December 2017 19: 39 New
        +2
        And another example is now Kharkov:
  5. cobalt
    cobalt 25 December 2017 07: 50 New
    +2
    In general, it was like this: at first the sun appeared in the darkness of the universe, then the Solar system formed, then great Ukrainians appeared on the planet Earth, then all kinds of bacteria, arthropods, dinosaurs, all kinds of brontosaurs and other mammoths appeared, then people appeared and Muscovites appeared as one from subspecies of people, and during this time, the great Ukrainians dug the Black Sea, built Atlantis, the pyramids, settled Mars and settled a little bit on the East European part of the planet, well, closer to the sea, that they dug, so that Great Ukre is already a billion years old and here it’s all a hundred years old and a hundred years old, not creatively somehow.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 26 December 2017 10: 13 New
      +1
      Quote: cobalt
      In general, it was like this: at first the sun appeared in the darkness of the universe, then the solar system was formed, then on the planet Earth great uk-ry appeared

      At first there were ukry ... and only then did the darkness of the Universe appear. smile
  6. Odysseus
    Odysseus 25 December 2017 08: 00 New
    +3
    Honestly, it’s just too lazy to tell 150 times the meaning of the Ukrainian problem and the principles of the Bolshevik national policy, I will limit myself to the remark that the author has proved to himself perfectly that Ukraine should erect monuments to Lenin and that the thesis about the “occupation” of Ukraine of the USSR is completely nonsense.
    However, the fact is that the monuments to Lenin are demolished there, and they speak of "anti-Ukrainian Soviet power", "famine", "occupation", etc. That is, the author’s submission (who generally wrote a completely correct and reasonable article) about statehood in general, and about the Ukrainian problem in particular, contain a very significant flaw.
  7. svp67
    svp67 25 December 2017 08: 05 New
    +1
    One hundred years of Soviet Ukraine
    Maybe it’s time to remember that Kharkov was the capital of that Ukraine ... and it is worth reviving
    1. RUSS
      RUSS 25 December 2017 09: 04 New
      +2
      Quote: svp67
      One hundred years of Soviet Ukraine
      Maybe it’s time to remember that Kharkov was the capital of that Ukraine ... and it is worth reviving

      Then it will be necessary for Ukraine to return part of the Russian and Belarusian territory, since the borders of that Ukraine were different, and part of the territory was within the present borders of Russia and Belarus
      1. svp67
        svp67 25 December 2017 09: 07 New
        +1
        Quote: RUSS
        Then it will be necessary for Ukraine to return part of the Russian and Belarusian territory, since the borders of that Ukraine were different, and part of the territory was within the present borders of Russia and Belarus

        Map of those territories can be? To make it clear what the conversation is about ...
        1. RUSS
          RUSS 25 December 2017 09: 14 New
          +1
          Quote: svp67
          Map of those territories can be? To make it clear what the conversation is about ...

          Internet to help you.
          1. svp67
            svp67 25 December 2017 09: 17 New
            +1
            Quote: RUSS
            Internet to help you.

            Thank you, but there are VERY many different cards and I would like to understand which one you are talking about. At that time there were VERY many Ukrainians ... Here try and figure out this "daub ..."
            1. RUSS
              RUSS 25 December 2017 11: 41 New
              +1
              Quote: svp67
              I would like to understand which one you are talking about
              1. svp67
                svp67 25 December 2017 11: 45 New
                +1
                Quote: RUSS
                I would like to understand which one you are talking about

                So what? Yes, I see part of Russia in this State, these are the lands of the Don army, and Belarus WHERE?
            2. RUSS
              RUSS 25 December 2017 11: 51 New
              +2
              There were good appetites in the UPR
              1. svp67
                svp67 25 December 2017 11: 57 New
                +1
                Quote: RUSS
                There were good appetites in the UPR

                UNR is a state entity of Ukrainian nationalists
                The capital of Kiev
                Kam'yanets-Podilsky (de facto), Vinnitsya (de facto), Zhmerynka (de facto), Proskuriv (de facto), Rivne (de facto)
                Kharkiv, on the list I DO NOT SEE
            3. Looking for
              Looking for 25 December 2017 14: 20 New
              0
              Please consider any documents. in Ukrainian, a LIE recently concocted by Vyatrovich & Co.
      2. andj61
        andj61 25 December 2017 10: 52 New
        +2
        Quote: RUSS
        Quote: svp67
        One hundred years of Soviet Ukraine
        Maybe it’s time to remember that Kharkov was the capital of that Ukraine ... and it is worth reviving

        Then it will be necessary for Ukraine to return part of the Russian and Belarusian territory, since the borders of that Ukraine were different, and part of the territory was within the present borders of Russia and Belarus

        Then, during the creation of Soviet Ukraine, a lot was done to please the political moment. For example, the Don army was divided in half between the Ukraine and Russia, but a little later part of the territory with Taganrog was returned to the RSFSR. Mglinsky, Novozybkovsky and Starodubsky districts of the Bryansk province were returned to the RSFSR. What guided us, including them in the Ukrainian SSR, is not clear. Actually, Ukrainians in small numbers lived only in Starodubsky district. it is also not clear why this Belgorod and Grayvoron districts became part of the Ukrainian SSR at the beginning - apparently, in order to emphasize that decent territory is under the rule of the Bolsheviks. Also, in the 20s, Putivl Uyezd, part of the territory of Valuysky Uyezd, Sevsky Uyezd, Sudzhansky and Belgorod Uyezds was completely transferred to Ukraine.
  8. baudolino
    baudolino 25 December 2017 08: 53 New
    +9
    The creation of Ukraine as a state entity is the main crime of the Bolsheviks. No gulags can compare with this division of the Russian people. And it will take a very long time to treat this hemorrhoids.
    1. RUSS
      RUSS 25 December 2017 09: 05 New
      +1
      Quote: baudolino
      No gulags can compare with this division of the Russian people. And it will take a very long time to treat this hemorrhoids

      Well, treatment began on March 18, 2014.
    2. Mu Dialer
      Mu Dialer 25 December 2017 09: 22 New
      +6
      Yes, the entire national policy of the Bolsheviks was Russophobic, at least 18 years after the revolution.
  9. Gardamir
    Gardamir 25 December 2017 09: 38 New
    +4
    Again the damned communists bonbas laid down! And the fact that the ideas of Ukrainization appeared back in 19 and took shape, the author does not know? None? Maybe the author does not know about Taras Shevchenko?
    How did you get the writers of history!
    Author minus the whole monitor!
    1. Mu Dialer
      Mu Dialer 25 December 2017 10: 12 New
      +4
      The idea appeared in the 19th century, and the Bolsheviks realized it.
      1. Gardamir
        Gardamir 25 December 2017 10: 29 New
        +2
        The idea appeared in the 19th century, and the Bolsheviks realized it.
        So what about the ideas of liberalism, more than three hundred years. However, only now the current president is realizing them.
        1. Mu Dialer
          Mu Dialer 25 December 2017 10: 48 New
          +2
          Be-be-be-be-be!
          Nobody has spoken to you like that yet.
        2. RUSS
          RUSS 25 December 2017 11: 45 New
          +1
          Quote: Gardamir
          So what about the ideas of liberalism, more than three hundred years. However, only now the current president is realizing them.

          You do not seem to understand what liberalism is.
    2. RUSS
      RUSS 25 December 2017 11: 44 New
      +4
      Quote: Gardamir
      ! And the fact that the ideas of Ukrainization appeared back in 19 and took shape, the author does not know?

      Appeared and not without the help of Austria-Hungary, and the Bolsheviks finished their work
      1. Gardamir
        Gardamir 25 December 2017 13: 39 New
        +2
        Appeared and not without the help of Austria-Hungary, and the Bolsheviks finished their work
        I have other data. Ukraine is what is now called the Ivanovo-Frankivsk region was before. and Little Russia was separate from that Ukraine.
        Now the action to secession of Little Russia is carried out by a certain Putin. maybe our Crimea, only Kharkov was never Ukrainian. Turn on the TV, on the first button from morning till night, residents of Russia are told about the bad and stupid Ukrainians. Another term in power and two people will hate each other.
        1. already a Muscovite
          already a Muscovite 25 December 2017 18: 01 New
          +1
          Quote: Gardamir
          on the first button, from morning till night, residents of Russia are told about bad and stupid Ukrainians.

          A must talk about the good and smart ??
          Quote: Gardamir
          . Another term in power and two people will hate each other.

          Are you blind? For a long time, a people was formed that wholeheartedly hated Russians and Russia.
          1. Gardamir
            Gardamir 25 December 2017 18: 22 New
            +1
            should talk about the good and smart ??
            if they should, is it not time to start doing transfers about your country? Or we have absolutely nothing to be proud of, then we’ll tell you about the bad Ukrainians in order to look better against their background.
            long formed a people wholeheartedly hating Russians and Russia.
            have to communicate did not notice hatred.
            1. already a Muscovite
              already a Muscovite 25 December 2017 19: 00 New
              0
              Quote: Gardamir
              if they should, is it not time to start doing transfers about your country?

              Again, what would you like under the USSR only about the achievements of agriculture and about the transfer of milk yield? Broadcasts and content are done on the "malice of the day" ... If somewhere, something happens, why not talk about it? Or even flip? Cable right now 300 channels, the Internet is generally limitless ... There is where to get the truth from ...
              Quote: Gardamir
              have to communicate did not notice hatred.

              that is, all lies and lies? Are they hiding the truth from us again?
              1. Gardamir
                Gardamir 25 December 2017 19: 12 New
                +1
                Cable right now 300 channels, the Internet is generally limitless.
                and you really are already a Muscovite, reasoning as if you were standing in a village at a well.
                1. already a Muscovite
                  already a Muscovite 25 December 2017 19: 42 New
                  +2
                  Quote: Gardamir
                  argue as if you stood in a village at the well.

                  Chu ... Here it is a separation from realities ... A village, a well, a woman with a yoke, a blockage ...- You revised the Soviet cinema ...
                  1. Gardamir
                    Gardamir 25 December 2017 22: 27 New
                    +1
                    You revised the Soviet cinema ...
                    no, I lived there.
        2. Gartny
          Gartny 9 January 2018 16: 05 New
          0
          Little Russia began to be called that part of Ukraine, which was occupied by the Muscovites, after the betrayal of Khmelnytsky. By the way, in the same period, part of occupied Ukraine, began to be called Ruin.
    3. Gopnik
      Gopnik 25 December 2017 12: 31 New
      +5
      Quote: Gardamir
      And the fact that the ideas of Ukrainization appeared back in 19 and took shape, the author does not know?


      These are the ideas that the “cursed tsarism prison of nations" nipped?

      Quote: Gardamir
      Maybe the author does not know about Taras Shevchenko?


      Is this the one who was insulted and spread by the king-priest?
    4. ALEA IACTA EST
      ALEA IACTA EST 25 December 2017 18: 05 New
      +2
      Instead of centralizing and spreading the main culture, no government can think of breaking up the country into autonomy and cultivating antagonism to the state-forming people.
    5. Dart2027
      Dart2027 25 December 2017 19: 39 New
      +2
      Quote: Gardamir
      And the fact that the ideas of Ukrainization appeared in 19

      And who implemented these ideas?
  10. Gopnik
    Gopnik 25 December 2017 12: 33 New
    +4
    Ukraine is the beloved child of the Bolsheviks. However, the design and separation of Ukraine is a favorite idea of ​​all Russophobes, the Bolsheviks are no exception
  11. The Siberian barber
    The Siberian barber 25 December 2017 13: 09 New
    +1
    Congratulations to the people "Square", on the anniversary! I wish you happiness, peace and prosperity!))
  12. long in stock.
    long in stock. 25 December 2017 13: 45 New
    +1
    .if anyone really wants to rummage around in this matter -Nikolay Ulyanov. The origin of Ukrainian separatism. A gopnik with Russ cannot be read, a book will not overpower a large text ...
    1. Gopnik
      Gopnik 25 December 2017 14: 37 New
      +1
      By the way, I read. And she, by the way, is small. Although someone like, of course. For someone, perhaps all that is more than the Short Course of the CPSU (B.) Is already a "big book". The book is not bad, it’s interesting to read, to understand how the Bolsheviks embodied the aspirations of the Ukrainian separatists.
      1. long in stock.
        long in stock. 25 December 2017 17: 05 New
        +2
        if you read something that would be postponed in your head. but judging by your comments, nothing was postponed ...
  13. Looking for
    Looking for 25 December 2017 13: 58 New
    0
    To recognize the centenary of Ukrainian statehood means to recognize the right of present-day Ukraine to the legacy of Soviet Ukraine.
  14. Monarchist
    Monarchist 25 December 2017 16: 19 New
    +3
    "During the Great Patriotic War, the Red Army, the territory of Ukraine was liberated from the Nazi invaders," the author, are you sure about this? The "evil rabbit" claimed that the Soviet Union invaded the territory of Ukraine
  15. ALEA IACTA EST
    ALEA IACTA EST 25 December 2017 16: 57 New
    0
    Stupidity or treason?
  16. Varyag77
    Varyag77 25 December 2017 17: 25 New
    +3
    Quote: Gardamir
    Now the action to secession of Little Russia is carried out by a certain Putin

    When you already stop writing your nonsense here. The whole site is littered with Bolshevik slogans and komunyak delusions.
    1. Gardamir
      Gardamir 25 December 2017 18: 25 New
      0
      Bolshevik slogans and komunyaksky delirium.
      anti-adviser is always Russophobe.
      1. RUSS
        RUSS 25 December 2017 19: 07 New
        +4
        Quote: Gardamir
        anti-adviser is always Russophobe.

        Why on earth? Moreover, there have been no anti-Soviet as such for a quarter of a century since the Union collapsed, but among the Russians are many anti-communists and that they are all Russophobes?
        1. Gardamir
          Gardamir 25 December 2017 19: 14 New
          0
          that they are all Russophobes?
          Russians are exactly all Russophobes. I am Russian and do not be shy about it.
          1. RUSS
            RUSS 25 December 2017 19: 41 New
            +1
            Quote: Gardamir
            Russians are exactly all Russophobes. I am Russian and do not be shy about it.

            That is, in Russia all who are not Russian are Russophobes?
      2. Mu Dialer
        Mu Dialer 25 December 2017 19: 33 New
        +1
        No, not always at all.
    2. Mu Dialer
      Mu Dialer 25 December 2017 19: 34 New
      +2
      I agree about the nonsense, completely - but nonsense is found in other shades, not only komunyatsky.
      1. ALEA IACTA EST
        ALEA IACTA EST 25 December 2017 20: 56 New
        +1
        Rather, it will be like this:
        only

        not

        komunyatsky

        Communism in Russia is almost extinct, and what is presented as it is just a mixture of statism and egalitarianism.
        1. Mu Dialer
          Mu Dialer 26 December 2017 07: 43 New
          +1
          "Paprashu not use indecent words!" :-)

          By the way, I don’t understand why the commies so scolded Solzhenitsyn, as if he had stolen sausage from them :-)
  17. pro100y.belarus
    pro100y.belarus 26 December 2017 21: 38 New
    0
    Quote: Mu Dialer
    "Paprashu not use indecent words!" :-)

    By the way, I don’t understand why the commies so scolded Solzhenitsyn, as if he had stolen sausage from them :-)
    1. pro100y.belarus
      pro100y.belarus 26 December 2017 21: 49 New
      0
      From the word "commies" smacks of a woman Leroy Novodvorskaya.
      The Kommunyaki, by the way, hoisted a red flag over the Reichstag, and the Germans hung white flags in the windows. Exactly the same as now the "non-communist" Olympic.
      And Solzhenitsyn has three significant letters in his surname, but you pray for him.
  18. Nemesis
    Nemesis 4 January 2018 20: 52 New
    0
    Soviet Ukraine, Bandera is not much different from Ukraine .... It was Soviet Ukraine, in 1922, which occupied the Russian Donbass, beginning there forcible Ukrainization, and in 1954 stole the Crimea from Russia ... All these Bandera Farion were in the Communist Party .. .
  19. Gartny
    Gartny 9 January 2018 16: 02 New
    0
    Quote: Alexey RA
    carried out forced Ukrainization

    violent "Ukrainization" is how? Is there such a thing as violent Russification?
  20. Alexander Schastnev
    Alexander Schastnev 20 June 2018 16: 42 New
    0
    Question to the author of the article, Ilya Polonsky - where did you get that Vladimir Sergeyevich Luxembourg is the son of an honorary citizen of St. Petersburg? Before the revolution, only 9 people were awarded this title, but among them there is not a single Luxembourg and especially Sergey.
    Again, as a great-grandson of Vladimir Sergeyevich, I am pleased to feel like a descendant of the Habsburgs, but in our family we did not have such information. At least my father didn’t tell me about this and his mother.
    Can share the source? But I know from my maternal side my pedigree to the fifth knee, and on my father's side I stopped at the third.