The All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets was initiated by the Bolsheviks in the difficult period of the collapse of the Russian statehood. The Bolsheviks hoped that the Congress of Soviets would be able to prevent the secession of Ukraine and swallow the Ukrainian Central Council. Recall that 7 (20) in November 1917, Malaya was glad to accept a wagon, declaring Ukraine a republic in federal ties with Russia. The structure of Ukraine included 8 of the former provinces of the Russian Empire with a predominantly Ukrainian population. Supporters of Ukrainian nationalist organizations were able to provide at the Kiev Congress a most serious numerical superiority over the Bolsheviks. Without an invitation to the congress, 670 delegates from the Selyanskaya Spilka (Peasant Union) and 905 delegates from Ukrainian army organizations, most of whom supported the nationalists, arrived. Thus, the 125 Bolshevik delegates were in an absolute minority among the 2 thousands of other participants in the congress and could no longer push their positions. Once in the majority, supporters of the Central Council were able to easily neutralize the resistance of the Bolsheviks.
The Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR sent a “Manifesto to the Ukrainian people with ultimatum demands on the Central Rada”, which said that the latter was not recognized for its ambiguous and bourgeois position, manifested, inter alia, in obstructing the activities of the Bolsheviks in Ukraine, moving parts from the front into the European part Russia and the Caucasus, and so on. Naturally, the Central Rada Manifesto did not recognize and put forward counterclaims, which included recognition of the Ukrainian People’s Republic, division of finances of the former Russian Empire, Ukraine’s participation in negotiations with Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. In turn, the Bolsheviks could not go to meet these requirements - a stalemate was obtained.
Under these conditions, the Bolsheviks had no choice but to assemble a new congress of Soviets in Kharkov. Impressive forces were sent to Kharkov - 1600 soldiers and sailors under the command of Rudolf Sivers, and then another 5000 soldiers under the command of Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko and Mikhail Muravyev. Although the main task of troops deployed in Ukraine was to prepare for hostilities against Kaledin's troops, it turned out that the presence of a significant number of pro-Bolshevik forces allowed the Ukrainian commandant of Kharkov to be removed and a congress of Soviets held in Kharkov.
The congress held 24-25 December 1917 of the year (11-12 December) and gathered 127 people - delegates of the Kiev Congress of Soviets and 77 representatives from the Soviets of Donetsk-Krivoy Rog region, who were at that time in Kharkov at the Third Regional Congress of the Donbass and Krivorozhie Soviets. At this congress, the creation of the Ukrainian People’s Republic of Workers ', Peasants', Soldiers 'and Cossacks' Deputies composed of the federated Russian Soviet Republic was proclaimed. At the same time, the congress declared that all power in Ukraine had been taken over and deprived the Central Rada and the General Secretariat of authority. Created by the Central Rada, the Ukrainian People’s Republic was declared illegitimate. Thus began the history of Soviet Ukraine, to which, no matter how the Ukrainian nationalists tried to prove the opposite, and modern Ukrainian statehood goes back.
A CEC of the UNRS was formed, which consisted of 40 people, including 35 Bolsheviks. The CEC was chaired by 31-year-old Yefim Grigorievich Medvedev - a member of the Ukrainian Social Democratic Labor Party (its left wing, blocked with the Bolsheviks). In the past, an electrical engineer who worked at the Kharkov tram depot, a participant in strikes and strikes, the revolutionary events of 1905, worker Medvedev was a wonderful personification of the transfer of power in the republic into the hands of the working people. The All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee (VUTSIK) was considered the main body of Soviet power in Ukraine and, by virtue of its authority, managed all spheres of public life. 18 (31 December) 1917 of the year at the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee was created the Regional Military Revolutionary Committee to Combat Counter-Revolution, which was to deal with the direct creation of the Red Guard detachments to protect the revolutionary gains throughout Ukraine.
As the government of the UNRS, the People’s Secretariat was created, which included secretaries for the main areas. It makes sense to list them in full, especially with references to nationality, in order to dispel famous myths about who made the revolution.
The Russian worker Fyodor Sergeyev, the legendary Artyom, became the secretary for trade and industry. Vladimir Khristianovich Aussem, a native of the intelligentsia family of Flemish origin, who began his revolutionary activities at the end of the 1890, became the people's secretary of finance. Labor and labor relations were supervised by secretary Nikolai Alekseevich Skrypnyk, Little Russia, son of a railway employee, also from the end of 1890-ies participating in the activities of social democratic organizations in St. Petersburg and Yekaterinoslav, and in the days of the October Revolution 1917, former member of the Military Revolutionary Committee of Petrograd Council. Yevgeny Petrovich Terletsky, Little Russia, the son of a village priest and a graduate of the Poltava Theological Seminary, who has been a member of the Socialist Revolutionary Party since 1911, was appointed secretary for agriculture.
The Secretariat of Education was headed by Vladimir Petrovich Zatonsky (in the photo) - Russian, the son of a parish clerk from the Podolsk province, a teacher of physics at Kiev University, who previously belonged to the Mensheviks, but after the October Revolution he joined the Bolshevik Party. In March 1918, it was Vladimir Petrovich Zatonsky who replaced Yefim Medvedev as chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.
Sergey Sergeevich Bakinsky was appointed people's secretary on inter-ethnic affairs. Under this pseudonym lived Ludwig Markovich Bernheim - a German, born in Riga, a member of the revolutionary movement from the beginning of the twentieth century (for which he was expelled from the university) and a member of the editorial board of the newspaper Pravda. Yevgenia Bogdanovna (Gotlibovna) Bosch, an ethnic German, daughter of the German colonist Gotlib Bosch and noblewoman Maria Parfentevny Krusser, became the people's secretary of the interior affairs of Ukraine. In the RSDLP, Bosch entered the 1901 year, and by the Second Party Congress moved to Bolshevik positions, and by the 1917-1918 years. she was in ultra-left positions.
- Vasily Matveevich Shakhrai
The Little Russian Vasily Matveevich Shakhrai, a World War I participant, an ensign of the Russian army and a former teacher of the Vilna military school, was appointed people's secretary on military issues. He went down in history as an ideologist of Ukrainian national communism. Subsequently, this circumstance led to the exclusion of Shakhrai from the ranks of the RCP (B.) And dismissal from the Soviet authorities. Yakov Martyanov, a Russian secretary of post and telegraph, became the people's secretary of the post.
Vladimir Sergeevich Luxemburg, the people's secretary in judicial matters, a representative, a surname dating back to the house of the Habsburgs and the son of an honorary citizen of St. Petersburg, who, despite his aristocratic background, was still a very remarkable person, even when he was a student (he studied at the Faculty of Law) contacted the revolutionary movement and soon became an active participant in the Bolshevik Party. In the period between the February and October revolutions, he was a member of the judiciary commission of the executive committee of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies.
The Jews in the People’s Secretariat were two people — the people's secretary for food issues, Emmanuel Viktorovich Portugalis — an Odessite, a revolutionary from the beginning of the twentieth century, and the people's secretary for foreign affairs, Ivan Yulianovich Kulik (real name is Israel Yudelevich Kulik), a prose writer and poet. Thus, the first part of the Ukrainian government consisted of the Great Russian and Little Russian majority, several Germans and two Jews. Actually, these were the main ethnic groups of the then Ukraine. All these people were convinced that Ukraine should remain a part of Soviet Russia and, as the majority of them were natives and residents of Ukraine, they had every right to their point of view.
It is worth noting that at the dawn of the existence of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic, debates in party circles about the future of Ukraine as part of the Soviet state did not cease. A number of prominent figures of the Ukrainian revolutionary movement who stood at the origins of the creation of the first Ukrainian Soviet government, advocated the construction of a state according to confederative principles, with a wider autonomy of Ukraine. So, for example, from these positions Nikolay Skrypnyk, who later, in 1927-1933, acted as people's commissar of education of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and personally oversaw the creation of the Ukrainian national education system, spoke.
In the early years of its existence, the Ukrainian Soviet Republic had a hard time. She defended her right to exist in bloody battles with Austro-German troops, Ukrainian nationalists, white guards, anarchists of Nestor Makhno, detachments of all kinds of "lords atamans." Nevertheless, with the help of Soviet Russia, the Ukrainian Soviet Republic survived. It was then, in December 1917, the foundations were laid for the future political and economic development of Ukraine for virtually the entire twentieth century.
Thanks to the Soviet power, Ukraine not only gained the status of a republic as part of a federal state, but also gained its state borders. So, already in 1917, the lands of Donbass were incorporated into Ukraine, which were settled and settled already during their entry into the Russian Empire. The territory of Ukraine grew due to the policy of Joseph Stalin, aimed at expanding the borders of the Soviet Union. In the 1939 year, after the occupation of Poland by Hitler's troops, the lands of Eastern Galicia became part of the Ukrainian SSR. By the way, it was the Red Army, which today they love to throw mud in Ukraine, and ensured the reunification of Galicia with the rest of Ukraine. In 1940, the lands of Northern Bukovina and Southern Bessarabia, which were previously part of the Romanian state, were included in Ukraine. During the Great Patriotic War, the territory of Ukraine was liberated from the Nazi invaders by the victorious Red Army, which included people from all nations of the Soviet Union, including millions of people who had never lived in Ukraine. In the 1945 year, following the results of the Second World War, the Transcarpathian region was inhabited by Ukraine, populated by Rusyns and Hungarians and formerly belonged to Czechoslovakia, and after the partition of Czechoslovakia in the 1938 year - Hungary.
A separate issue - the national policy, which in Ukraine, as in other republics that were part of the USSR, was seriously “limping”. But it was a feature of the entire Soviet system, and not only Ukraine. Having prevented Ukraine’s disconnection from Russia in 1917, the Soviet government failed to ensure the complete elimination of nationalist sentiments in the republic. These sentiments were strongly heated from the outside, and their main distributors were residents of the regions that were part of Ukraine late. When Ukrainian politicians today speak of the “Soviet occupation” of Ukraine, they forget that Soviet Ukraine was created by the Ukrainians themselves, and the lands of Galicia were not part of Ukraine at all and belonged to Poland until 1939. It is also forgotten that ethnic Ukrainians and natives of Ukraine traditionally played a huge role in Soviet political life.
Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev and Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev headed the Communist Party and the Soviet state, there were a lot of Ukrainians among the representatives of the political, military, economic elite of the Soviet Union. Therefore, it is ridiculous to think that the Soviet Union, they say, occupied Ukraine and suppressed the desire of Ukrainians for independence. The Soviet Union just gave Ukraine statehood. For the Ukrainian state, oddly enough, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin and other Soviet statesmen did much more than all the ideologues and practices of Ukrainian nationalism in the entire history of its existence. Modern Ukrainians should be erected, and not demolished monuments to the leader of the world proletariat.