Military Review

Russian "sphinx"

36
Russian "sphinx" 240 years ago, 23 December 1777, the Russian Emperor Alexander I Pavlovich was born. “The Sphinx, not unraveled to the grave,” said the Russian poet, historian P. A. Vyazemsky, about him.


Alexander was born 12 (23) December 1777 of the year in St. Petersburg. The eldest son of Emperor Paul I and Maria Feodorovna (Princess of Württemberg). In childhood, the boy was under the great influence of his grandmother, Empress Catherine II. Catherine considered her son Pavel incapable of taking the throne and planned to build Alexander on the throne, bypassing his father. The Empress took her son away from her father and mother, and he lived in Tsarskoe Selo, far from her parents, who lived in their palaces (in Pavlovsk and Gatchina) and rarely appeared at the “big yard”. Alexander was raised by the Swiss-humanist Frederic César La Harp and Nikolai Saltykov. Having received an excellent upbringing and a brilliant education, he was fluent in three European languages. He was outwardly handsome, which helped him win the hearts of people. From the father took over the love of military brilliance, parades.

In 1793, he married the daughter of Margrave of Baden, Louise Maria Auguste, who took the name of Elizabeth Alekseevna. Both their daughters died in early childhood (Mary and Elizabeth). Alexander's relationship with his wife was very cool. He had mistresses, apparently, and illegitimate children.

Since childhood, Alexander has become accustomed to hiding his true thoughts and feelings, maneuvering between his grandmother and his father. He learned to like everyone. "Byzantine slyness" became the core of his character and after he became an independent person, a Russian autocrat. Thus, the French ruler Napoleon called him "an inventive Byzantine", northern Talma, an actor who is able to play any noticeable role. And Alexander, I must give him his due, outplayed the great Frenchman.

“It’s not for nothing that this face is bilingual. Such was the lord, the harlequin was accustomed to counter-feelings, in the person and in the life of the harlequin, ”wrote the great Russian poet A. Pushkin (“ To the Conqueror’s Bust. ”1829). The Russian genius quite well characterized the epoch of Alexander (“On Alexander I”):

Raised under the drum,
Our king was a captain:
Under Austerlits he ran,
In the twelfth year he trembled,
But there was a professor of fruntov!
But the hero is tired of the fruit!
Now collegiate he is assessor
In terms of foreign affairs.

And in the tenth chapter of Eugene Onegin (1830), he expresses himself even more sharply:

The sovereign is weak and crafty,
A bald dandy, the enemy of labor,
Unintentionally warmed by glory,
Reigned over us then.

Why such a tough assessment? Alexander's reign was hard for Russia. In March 1801, King Paul was killed by conspirators in his castle. Pavel Petrovich challenged England, abandoned the role of the Russians as "cannon fodder" in the struggle of London against Paris. Pavel received a strategic base and base in the Mediterranean - Malta, created a union of northern countries against British pirates, and even planned a campaign to India. For a long history Russia was practically the first attempt at direct confrontation with England. And Britain was then the "command center" of the western project of globalization - the creation of a global slave civilization.

For centuries, the masters of England pitted the European and Asian countries with each other and received from it all the main benefits. In particular, London constantly set Turkey, Persia, Sweden and France on Russia. And England itself reaped the fruits of other victories. So it was after the murder of Paul, organized in British gold, when England poisoned Napoleonic France and Russia. In the 20th century, the Anglo-Saxons also set off two great Aryan nations, Russians and Germans, and will get all the benefits from this battle of the titans. At the beginning of the XIX century, the owners of England skillfully bleed the French and Russians with a skillful combination. Although Russia and France did not have a common border and fundamental contradictions - historical insults, territorial disputes, intractable economic disputes, etc. All benefits from the clash of France and Russia were received by London, and partly by Vienna and Berlin.

Pavel understood all this and was the first to refuse to fight for the global interests of London. Moreover, he raised his hand to this then lair of the “world parasite”, encroaching on the will of all mankind and claiming absolute power on planet Earth. In alliance with France and Prussia, Russia could limit the appetites of the Anglo-Saxon parasites. However, the great Russian ruler was slain, and then slandered, created the myth of "the Tsar Fool", "idiot".

Alexander was in a difficult situation. Apparently, he was afraid for his life and was “blood-bound”, as he had information about the conspiracy. The liberal-pro-Western, Masonic environment at first tightly took care of the young king. He wanted to lead the way "liberal" reforms in Russia. And as we know all good wishes lead to hell. All “reforms” and restructuring ”end with degradation, the collapse of a great power, the death of millions of people, duped by“ reformers ”. Liberalization of Russia according to Western models is always beneficial only to our Western "partners", since it leads to the weakening and destruction of their main competitor on the planet, the Russian civilization.

Alexander, thanks to his “Byzantine” (said one thing, did another), was able to gradually remove many “well-wishers” from himself, to sabotage the program of “perestroika” of Russia, which led to the destruction of the empire. On the other hand, evil was sown and led to the military rebellion of the “Decembrists”, who dreamed of doing good to Russia in the Western way. In his reign, many "mines" were laid, which exploded later and became factors of the collapse of the Russian Empire. This is the creation of the Kingdom of Poland, and the “state in the state” - the Grand Duchy of Finland, etc.

In foreign policy, Alexander was unable to continue the line of his father. Russia became the "cannon fodder" of England, acted in the national interests of Austria and Prussia. A series of wars with France did not meet the national interests of Russia and led to the hardest and destructive World War 1812. The main resources and means of the Russian Empire (including the lives of many thousands of Russian people) were thrown into the fight against Napoleon’s power. But the main benefits of these wars were England, Austria and Prussia. Russian hands Anglo-Saxons buried their main rival in the Western project.

Thus, for many years (and time is the most valuable and irreplaceable resource), the forces and means of Russia were spent on an unnecessary war for the Russian people in order to save the national and global interests of England, Austria and Prussia. In another scenario, leaving Europe and maintaining a strategic alliance with Napoleon’s empire (and this was the priority goal of the French emperor), Russia could solve the most important tasks in the Balkans, in the zone of straits - Bosphorus, Dardanelles, Constantinople-Tsargrad, in the Caucasus, Central Asia, Far East (including Russian America). Not to mention the need for accelerated development of the inner regions of the empire. The scenario of the absolute victory of Napoleon in Europe was impossible. France restrained, on the one hand - England, on the other - Prussia and Austria. The Germans were defeated, but France was not able to completely subjugate them and "digest". Russia in such conditions received the status of an equal partner of Napoleon’s empire - without the Russians, France could not stand at the head of the then “European Union”.

Later, after the defeat of Napoleon and the appearance of Russian troops in Paris, Alexander sharply reduced the influence of his former "mentor friends." Russia became the “gendarme of Europe”, suppressing various revolutionary movements along with other conservative monarchies - Prussia and Austria. However, here England managed to use the Russian Empire. Again, Russia's resources went to the resolution of European problems and affairs, and genuine national interests suffered from this. In the end, it ended badly. Suffice it to recall how the Russians saved the Austrian Empire from the insurgent Hungarians, and then the “grateful” Vienna helped Russia lose the Eastern (Crimean) War.

However, fear haunted Alexander (the winner of the Great Army of Napoleon, the autocrat of the vast Russian Empire!) Until the end of his life. He hit mysticism. So, it is not established whether Alexander died exactly, as it was officially announced in 1825, or he himself left the big game, living out his age as an old hermit (under the name of Fyodor Kuzmich).

Until the end of his life, Alexander retained a passion for travel, which forced him to travel around a significant part of Russia and Europe, and died far from his capital. Two years before his death, he ordered a secret manifesto in which he accepted the abdication of his brother Constantine from the throne and recognized him as the legal heir of his younger brother, Nicholas.
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 23 December 2017 06: 04 New
    +8
    Pushkin in "Eugene Onegin" gave an exhaustive description. The further - the more convinced.

    It is very significant that liberals, as a rule, have a very positive attitude towards the figure of Alexander I.
    And it is no coincidence that they do not spare black paints to describe Paul I and Nicholas I.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 24 December 2017 12: 45 New
      0
      That's right. Pavel and Nikolai the First seriously hindered development
      Of Russia. After a powerful jerk made by Catherine the Great, Paul’s short brake
      had no influence, but the long reign of Nicholas the first was natural
      stagnation. Ended in the rout in the Crimean War.
      Alexander the First was neither this nor that. He did not slow down, but he did not press the gas either.
  2. ImPerts
    ImPerts 23 December 2017 07: 04 New
    +4
    On Peter III, the Romanovs ended, Alexander III specifying who can be considered the father of Paul I was glad that he had Russian blood.
    On Alexander I, the blood of his father Paul I, Alexander knew about the conspiracy.
    Poklonskaya would have tackled this issue, you look and would have calmed down. After all, the death of Nicholas II can be considered as the answer for the death of Paul.
    1. Sovpadenie
      Sovpadenie 27 June 2018 16: 38 New
      0
      actually on Peter II, and even then, his mother is German
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 23 December 2017 07: 27 New
    +5
    Poland and Finland the Constitution, the Baltic states the abolition of serfdom ..
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 23 December 2017 12: 52 New
      +4
      Alexey Anatolyevich, I read this "In the XX century, the Anglo-Saxons also pit two great Aryan nations - Russians and Germans, and will receive all the benefits of this battle of the titans"and immediately realized who author... drinks
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 24 December 2017 12: 48 New
        +1
        This is his key idea - from the era of the Pharaohs to the present day. smile
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 24 December 2017 16: 46 New
          +1
          yes a hundred pounds! good
        2. Rey_ka
          Rey_ka 25 December 2017 13: 14 New
          0
          Well, you see, Paul became an ally of Bonoparte. No wonder Napoleon said on the assassination of Paul: they could not reach me in Paris but hit in St. Petersburg!
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 25 December 2017 17: 39 New
            0
            Frankly, I was ready to hit a snuffbox on Paul’s head in Petersburg
            every second nobleman, (but did not dare). Paul got everyone ... p_s_ih in the wild,
            according to descriptions of contemporaries. Caricature of Peter the Great.
            So, the machinations of Britain were not required. Guard officers from him
            sick and so.
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 23 December 2017 07: 32 New
    +2
    Russia became the "cannon fodder" of England, acted in the national interests of Austria and Prussia. A series of wars with France did not correspond to the national interests of Russia and led to the most difficult and destructive Patriotic War of 1812.

    Napoleon then occupied almost the whole of Europe. No wonder he was compared with Hitler. Russia, on the other hand, tried to stop the monster, restore freedom to the peoples of Europe and prevent the invasion even on foreign fields.
    Who said that an alliance with the invader of Europe, which millions hated, was beneficial to Russia? Did Hitler, having captured Europe, stopped? Not.
    Europe was grateful to Alexander for liberation, and the Holy Union was the first attempt to establish an international order, a prototype of the UN.
    Pavel Petrovich challenged England, refused the role of Russians as "cannon fodder" in the struggle of London against Paris. Paul received a strategic bridgehead and base in the Mediterranean - Malta

    Pavel was, first of all, the master of the Order of Malta, and only then the emperor of Russia. Captured Malta France-he is fighting TOGETHER with England against France, captured Malta England-he is fighting with France against England. That's all his logic in the fight against the Anglo-Saxons.
    1. Weyland
      Weyland 23 December 2017 13: 02 New
      +5
      Quote: Olgovich
      Napoleon then occupied almost the whole of Europe. No wonder he was compared with Hitler.

      And which of the peoples of Europe did he genocide? I really do not compare the attitude towards Russian prisoners of war ...
      Most important: Hitler wanted to conquer Russia, and partially destroy the population, and partially enslave. Napoleon just wanted Russia to abide by the agreement on the trade embargo with the brazen ones (which Alexander brazenly violated).
      Quote: Olgovich
      Captured Malta France-he is fighting TOGETHER with England against France, captured Malta England-he is fighting with France against England.

      Ask any staff admiral: how useful the military base in Malta would be to the Russian Navy (especially since the fleet was already ready for it — the Order!)
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 23 December 2017 14: 58 New
        0
        Quote: Weyland
        And which of the peoples of Europe did he genocide? I really do not compare the attitude towards Russian prisoners of war ...
        Most important: Hitler wanted to conquer Russia, and partially destroy the population, and partially enslave. Napoleon just wanted Russia to abide by the agreement on the trade embargo with the brazen ones (which Alexander brazenly violated).

        Spanish, for example, genocide.
        Napoleon occupied almost all of Europe, climbed into Egypt. Prussians, Austrians, Italians, Poles-became an integral part of his army, the strongest army in the world. And for Russia, it’s not dangerous, yes fool
        . When prudent military leaders discouraged him from going to Russia, he bluntly told them: “I cannot but go. If I stop, I will fall. ” He restored Poland to the mortal enemy of Russia, promised her Russian lands, also "normal", yeah.
        The Aleskander agreement was not impudent, but FAVORABLE for Russia violated.
        Quote: Weyland
        Ask any staff admiral: how useful the military base in Malta would be to the Russian Navy (especially since the fleet was already ready for it — the Order!)

        Yes, yes, and Hawaii is also a beautiful port and Oceania. Where is Malta and where is Russia?
        1. Weyland
          Weyland 23 December 2017 18: 40 New
          +1
          In Spain there was a counter-guerrilla operation, and if you recall how the Spaniards treated the prisoners, the cruelty of the French is understandable.
          Napoleon promised a lot to Poland, but "to promise does not mean to marry"
          It was beneficial for us to break the embargo - I do not argue, but Alexander was more concerned about the interests of the brazen ones - he was on a short leash because they could always make public the information about patricide! For it would be beneficial to violate further - having knocked Naoloeon out of Russia, it was necessary to take a huge indemnity from him and make peace. They liberated Europe - the embargo has disappeared, and the benefits of breaking it, too, have collapsed their economy!
          Quote: Olgovich
          and Hawaii is also a beautiful port and Oceania. Where is Malta and where is Russia?

          Therefore, pin-ups and have bases there - although from Pin-up-stan to Hawaii no closer than from Russia! And that's why Malta did not want to return the impudent Paul!
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 23 December 2017 20: 29 New
            0
            Quote: Weyland
            In Spain there was a counter-guerrilla operation, and if you recall how the Spaniards treated the prisoners, the cruelty of the French is understandable.

            There was genocide. And no one called the French.
            Quote: Weyland
            Napoleon promised a lot to Poland, but "to promise does not mean to marry"

            The Duchy has ALREADY given.
            Quote: Weyland
            It was beneficial for us to break the embargo - I do not argue, but Alexander was more concerned with the interests of the brazen ones - he was on a short leash because they could always make public the information about patricide!

            Very "scary", especially in those days. And there is NO evidence, either then or today.
            And England is the main trading partner of Russia.
            Quote: Weyland
            For it would be profitable to violate further - having knocked Naoloeon out of Russia, it was necessary to take a huge indemnity from him and make peace.

            Naroleon was NOT going to give up after the defeat in Russia and rushed to Paris to recruit NEW troops! Not having finished off the beast, it was impossible to hope for peace. As with Hitler. Alexander acted WISLY, destroying the Buonoparty coalition created by him.,
            Quote: Weyland
            Therefore, pin-ups and have bases there - although from Pin-up-stan to Hawaii no closer than from Russia! And that's why Malta did not want to return the impudent Paul!

            What does return mean? To whom? Who is Paul then? Chapter Nonexistent Order! request
            1. Weyland
              Weyland 23 December 2017 23: 32 New
              0
              Quote: Olgovich
              Naroleon was NOT going to give up after the defeat in Russia and rushed to Paris to recruit NEW troops!

              Of course - he really wanted to make peace with us, but he wouldn’t give up if we refused to make peace!
              Quote: Olgovich
              Who is Paul then? Head of the nonexistent Order!

              Firstly, in those days - a very existing one. And secondly, more importantly - he was the head of a great power, with whom it was dangerous to quarrel, how dangerous!
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 24 December 2017 10: 56 New
                0
                Quote: Weyland
                Of course - he really wanted to make peace with us,

                I wanted to, yes. For a break.
                Quote: Weyland
                Firstly, in those days - a very existing

                And where? Except Peter?
                1. Weyland
                  Weyland 24 December 2017 20: 51 New
                  0
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  And where? Except Peter?

                  The order is primarily people. And not just any, but extra-class fighters. And the territories - their Order has lost more than once and always acquired others in return. And if it were not for the vile murder of Paul - there is no doubt that the Order would be reborn again!
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 24 December 2017 21: 16 New
                    +1
                    Quote: Weyland
                    . And if it were not for the vile murder of Paul - there is no doubt that the Order would be reborn again!

                    Paul was mortal. And the Order of his help would only prolong the agony. The order died at the end of the 18th century. Then, only mummers, I see so. hi
            2. Rey_ka
              Rey_ka 25 December 2017 13: 19 New
              0
              If you wanted to finish what you didn’t go to St. Petersburg at once, but stubbornly go to Moscow, almost a province?
    2. chenia
      chenia 23 December 2017 14: 27 New
      +2
      Quote: Olgovich
      Who said that an alliance with the invader of Europe, which millions hated, was beneficial to Russia? Did Hitler, having captured Europe, stopped? Not.


      And you read Tarle, you will understand a lot. And Eidelman's "Edge of Ages" also advise.

      Stupidity Sasha 1 froze, it was necessary to give his sister for the Buonopartia now they went to Constantinople as in the Crimea.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 23 December 2017 15: 02 New
        0
        Quote: chenia
        And you read Tarle, you will understand a lot. And Eidelman's "Edge of Ages" also advise.

        And you read Kolenkur A. "Napoleon's Campaign in Russia" Memoirs-first-hand memories, right from under Bonaparte’s wing, you’ll understand a lot
        Quote: chenia
        Stupidity Sasha 1 froze, it was necessary to give his sister for the Buonopartia now they went to Constantinople as in the Crimea.

        Who needed an adventurer to ruin France?
        1. chenia
          chenia 23 December 2017 17: 41 New
          +1
          Quote: Olgovich
          And you read Kolenkur A. "Napoleon's Campaign to Russia" Memoirs


          Ha, in 1807 Napoleon thought differently. And already being rejected by the groom, and a loyal (according to Tilsit) ally and deciding to punish him, he began to invent fairy tales about the fight against wild Asians.
          And already being in Moscow, the “winner” suddenly begged the “conquered” has peace, offering the latter more concessions than they were before the war (here again a different position).
    3. Monarchist
      Monarchist 23 December 2017 15: 23 New
      +2
      Olgovich, I partially agree with you: the Holy Alliance, and then the League of Nations (you forgot about it) the predecessors of the UN.
      "Europe was grateful to Alexander for the liberation," just as Europeans now honor the liberators of fascism? Especially in Poland, the Baltic, etc.
      1. Vladimir73
        Vladimir73 23 December 2017 21: 06 New
        0
        I fully support, but you forgot to indicate how grateful Europe went to the Crimea to punish the son of Alexander for too free behavior ...
    4. Conductor
      Conductor 23 December 2017 21: 51 New
      0
      The new idea is that Paul placed the Maltese interests above the interests of his own empire. Dare and develop it.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 24 December 2017 10: 58 New
        0
        Quote: Conductor
        The new idea is that Paul placed the Maltese interests above the interests of his own empire. Dare and develop it.

        This is new for you. request
  5. Curious
    Curious 23 December 2017 10: 56 New
    +1
    “An invisible thread - like a cobweb - comes from the heart of his imperial majesty Emperor Alexander the Third and others,” she passes through the ministers, through his excellency the governor and all ranks up to me and even to the last soldier. Everything is connected with this thread, everything is entwined with its invisible fortress and is held forever by the sovereign kingdom. And - the Poles, Jews and Russians are bribed by the cunning English queen, try to break this thread wherever possible, as if they were for the people! "
    Even the city Nikiforych from Gorky's book “On the dangers of philosophy” saw through through the insidious plans of the British and easily identified the fifth column of cunning Anglo-Saxons. And what can we say about emperors and ministers with fellow ministers.
    And anyway "Russia became the" cannon fodder "of England, acted in the national interests of Austria and Prussia."
    Some kind of direct oxymoron! Everyone, down to the simple urban in Russia, knows that the British will use them for their own purposes - and despite this - they are "used" !!!
    Maybe for a reason Alexander I got into mysticism? I realized that only the influence of otherworldly forces can explain this state of affairs. Can continue research in this direction?
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 23 December 2017 15: 12 New
      +2
      Kurios, I somehow suspect the otherworldly: Dunno knows, maybe Satan Christians fools? Joke.
      Seriously, mysticism is a pretty convenient thing: it’s convenient to push all 5 problems.
  6. Monarchist
    Monarchist 23 December 2017 15: 03 New
    +2
    Quote: Korsar4
    Pushkin in "Eugene Onegin" gave an exhaustive description. The further - the more convinced.

    It is very significant that liberals, as a rule, have a very positive attitude towards the figure of Alexander I.
    And it is no coincidence that they do not spare black paints to describe Paul I and Nicholas I.

    Corsair, you tore off my tongue: all Russian autocrats who, to one degree or another, did not please London, which means the Liberals are programmed to slander. You forgot to add Alexander 3 there, the Liberals also do not really like him.
    The most interesting thing is that in Soviet historiography the emperors: Pavel, Nikolai and Alexander 3 are shown from the negative side, and Alexander 1 or Alexander 2 is almost positive.
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 23 December 2017 17: 11 New
      +1
      Did not forget. Just limited to those who start

      "Days of Alexandrov
      Great start. "

      And who began to dissolve the rebellion in the Senate.
    2. Monarchist
      Monarchist 27 December 2017 17: 20 New
      +1
      Kamrad Corsair, yesterday I remembered such a detail about the "cruelty of Nicholas1": in England in 1822 (?) Several people were ONLY GOING to change power. The judge sentenced: not to hang up to death, alive to speed up the stomachs to take out the insides. And then Europe treated this with understanding, and the Russian Tsar Nikolai hung five against the guns, it is cruel. The liberals condemn Nicholas1, but they are silent about the British. Apparently, it’s not cruel to rip open the stomach and take out the insides, but it may matter WHERE the verdict is issued?
  7. smaug78
    smaug78 23 December 2017 16: 00 New
    +1
    "when England pitted Napoleonic France and Russia. In the XX century, the Anglo-Saxons also pitted two great Aryan nations - Russians and Germans, and will receive all the benefits of this battle of the Titans" - the author and the diagnosis are immediately clear)))
  8. parma
    parma 25 December 2017 09: 31 New
    0
    And again, a conspiracy theory ... As for Pavel - who sent Suvorov on a campaign during which the latter had to climb the Alps (this is about preventing cannon fodder)? Paul was just a changeable politician! At first he did not like the French Revolution, then when his favorite toy (Malta and the Order) was taken away, he forgot that at first he was the RUSSIAN EMPEROR, and then the Master of the Order and entered the war with the former ally!
    All Napoleon’s power was based precisely on constant campaigns and victories! He just couldn’t but go to us sooner or later with the war, it makes no sense to start a war of conquest if you are going to stop — as an example, Alexander the Great, Ancient Rome, Arab conquests!
    And about the base in Malta ... Well, well, would there be a base, but what's the use of it without straits and access to the Mediterranean Sea? And what's the point of it?
    1. Rey_ka
      Rey_ka 25 December 2017 13: 53 New
      0
      After that, in order to make peace with Pavel Napoleon, he gathered all the Russian prisoners, paid them cash allowance for "forced absenteeism in captivity", sewed new uniforms, bought tickets for the Titanic, and sent them to Russia
    2. Ehanatone
      Ehanatone 4 March 2018 18: 52 New
      -1
      Parma
      You really are so narrow-minded or carefully pretend to be so careful to mix flies and cutlets ...
      You should change the flag - well, some kind of star in a strip ...