In early December, the Main Military Clinical Hospital (GVKG) named after Academician N.N. Burdenko celebrated 310 anniversary of the start of treatment activities. Him история - This is the military history of the whole country. The wounded were saved here, when the French stood near Moscow, when they fought with the Turks, when the Russian-Japanese war was on. They fought to save the lives of soldiers and officers, both in the First World War, in the Civil War, and in the Great Patriotic War. There were other wars - Afghanistan, Nicaragua, and not count all. The doctors of the hospital were constantly working in hot spots and in our time, they are well aware: today is the duty in the native walls, and the next, perhaps, in combat conditions. When the count goes on for minutes, operations are carried out even in the air.
FROM THE DEPTH OF THE CENTURIES
Date of appearance of the first medical institution in Russia dates back to the XVIII century. Interestingly, the anniversary date varies from one source to another. According to some reports, this is June 5 (May 25 old style) 1706 of the year, December 2 (November November 21 old style) 1707 of the year. The memorial plaque on the wall of the hospital reads “The Military Hospital was founded by Peter I in 1707”. The royal Romanov family, led by Nicholas II, celebrated the 1907 anniversary of the December General Military Hospital 200 on 4. And in accordance with the directive of the Chief of General Staff 12 February 1996, the number 328 / 295, as the date of foundation of the Main Military Clinical Hospital named after Academician N.N. Burdenko can be considered May 1706 of the year.
What day should be considered the beginning of the glorious path of the first hospital establishment in Russia?
Back in 2003, during the beginning of preparation for the 300 anniversary, the leadership of the HVKG made a request to the Institute of Military History of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation “On the founding date of the Main Military Clinical Hospital named after academician N.N. Burdenko. The head of the hospital at the time was Academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Major General of the Medical Service Vyacheslav Klyuzhev. This year, the general celebrated his 70 anniversary, and taking this opportunity, the editors of the Independent Military Review congratulated the hero of the day with all their hearts and wished him long years of life.
An expert commission of the Institute of Military History of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation responded to his name, stating that research of archival documents on the basis of the Main Military Clinical Hospital named after Academician N.N. Burdenko and establishing that the idea of creating a place in Moscow for the care of sick, wounded and injured soldiers arose during the reign of Fyodor Alekseevich (1676 – 1682). It was he who ordered to arrange in such a way that “heal the sick and teach the healers”. But this command then was not destined to be fulfilled. Only in the reign of Peter I the decision was implemented. 5 June 1706 of the year issued a decree to build behind the Yauza River a “gofspital for the treatment of sick people.” "And that treatment should have Dr. Nikolai Bidloo, and two healers: Andrei Rybkin, and another who will be sent, yes from foreigners and from Russians, from all sorts of officials of the people, to recruit 50 people for pharmaceutical science, and for the construction and purchase of medicines , and for all sorts of things that belong to the case, and to the doctor and doctors and students for salary, keep money in the expense of the fees of the Monastyrsky order. ” Thus, the commission concluded that Peter I signed a decree in May 1706 of the year on the establishment of a military hospital in Moscow and this date can be used as the date of foundation.
Construction began in the 1706 year, and the first patients in Moscow Lefortovo were taken on 2 in December 1707. December 1707 of the year, namely December 4, is considered the beginning of practical work and treatment of the sick and wounded. It is this date that is celebrated now.
MILESTONES OF HISTORY
In 1807, the hospital turned 100 years. This anniversary was not celebrated in any way because of the outbreak of wars with Napoleon in Europe. As a result of the defeat of the Russian-Austrian army under Austerlitz and the collapse of the anti-Napoleonic coalition in connection with the withdrawal of Austria from it, the war of Russia and France continued on the territory of Prussia, where the battle of Friedland took place in 1807. This bloody battle ended in a heavy defeat for the Russian troops and forced Alexander I to sign the Peace Treaty of Tilsit with Napoleon Bonaparte. The Russian emperor went for it to give Russia a temporary respite. At the same time, the Russian-Persian (1804 – 1813) and Russian-Turkish (1806 – 1812) wars took place.
The Patriotic War of 1812 was the natural result of the development of international relations in Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. In those years, the main military hospital was filled with thousands of wounded and sick. During the years of the Patriotic War, medical aid was provided to 17 thousand people, and before the French entered Moscow, almost everyone was evacuated. Temporary military hospitals were deployed in Ryazan, Vladimir, Kolomna and Kasimov, and the medical staff of the Moscow Military Hospital became their foundation. Doctors participated in all battles, but the military medicine of those years lagged behind the needs of the war both in methods and in treatment methods, assistance was provided whenever possible. There were no antiseptics, there were no dressings, the main postoperative problem was gangrene. Iodine was discovered in the 1814 year, and it was used for treating wounds only after 40 – 50 years. Cotton wool and gauze were used only in the 1870 year, instead they were used lint - a cloth stitched together.
Evacuation of the wounded in the Russian army in 1812 was divided according to different, and not even medical, departments: the chief of the transport service was responsible for organizing the removal of the wounded from the battlefield. In addition, different officials were responsible for hospitals of different levels. All this created very big problems in helping the wounded. For example, in December 1812, the commander-in-chief of the Russian army, Mikhail Kutuzov, wrote to the tsar: "He cannot recover from different hospitals and backward, collected along the roads, which I cannot determine the true number, but I hope that those will arrive at a speed of at least 20 000."
The hospital survived. The following information was preserved in the historical chronicles: “In 1812, the Moscow hospital survived the French captivity. Moscow was burned, but the hospital was spared. ” The main building of the HVKG, which was built in 1802 year, almost completely retained its original appearance to this day.
TWO CENTURIES ON GUARD
200 anniversary of the hospital was celebrated very widely. Emperor Nicholas II for the merits of the hospital in front of the Fatherland and paying tribute to its great founder Peter I by decree of October 14, 1907 of the year gave him the name - Moscow General Emperor Peter I Military Hospital with a compliment to the staff of the monogram PP (Peter I). At the same time, the special status of the hospital was emphasized by the definition of “general”; previously, only the General Staff was in the Russian army.
Russkoye Slovo Daily No. 269 from 23 November 1907 wrote that on November 21 the Moscow military hospital celebrated its 200 anniversary of its existence. The celebration began with divine services in the ancient Peter and Paul church of the hospital, where all the top military ranks of the Moscow Military District, a mass of people who came to greet, many public figures, representatives of academic societies, and educational institutions gathered to the service. Almost to the beginning of the service, the Moscow governor-general and the commander of the troops of the Moscow military district managed to arrive, having escaped from the assassination attempt that had just been committed. From the archive of the same newspaper: “The Moscow governor-general and the commander of the troops of the Moscow military district were assassinated. An unknown woman threw a bomb while passing through the Governor-General to a military hospital. The criminal was killed by an explosion. "
During the First World War 1914 – 1918 in the Moscow General Emperor Peter I military hospital (as it was then called GVKG) 376 thousand people received medical care. Among the imperial specialists was a surgeon VN. Rozanov, who later operated and treated V.I. Lenin after the assassination attempt on him SRs Fanny Kaplan.
The Great October Socialist Revolution introduced its changes, and the name was changed. In December 1918 of the year by the decision of the Moscow Council executive committee, he became the First Communist Red Army Military Hospital, and in March 1919, the State Higher Medical School was opened, designed to train military doctors for the Red Army, where Prof. L.O. Darkshevich (founder of neurosurgery in Russia), professor V.F. Zelenin (everyone knows his drops Zelenin). A great influence on the development of military medicine had N.N. Burdenko. During the First World War, for three months he served as the head of the Main Military Sanitary Directorate by order of the Provisional Government of March 7 of 1917, and considered his main task to eliminate departmental fragmentation of the medical-evacuation case.
During the years of the Great Patriotic War, when the wounded began to arrive at the hospital on the fourth day, military and civilian physicians heroically performed their duty, and Burdenko and other leading consultants provided substantial assistance in diagnosis and medical work. In total, more than 1941 thousand wounded and sick, many of whom were returned to service, were treated with 1945 to 74 a year in the Main Hospital.
12 November 1946 was assigned the name N.N. Burdenko - an outstanding scientist, consultant-surgeon from 1934 to 1946, chief surgeon of the Soviet army during the Great Patriotic War, colonel-general of medical service, academician, founder and first president of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Hero of Socialist Labor.
HOLIDAY OF THREE CENTURIES
In the presidential decree of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin dated April 15 2006 370 “On the celebration of the 300 anniversary of the founding of the Main Military Clinical Hospital named after academician N.N. Burdenko ”emphasized the great international significance of this event, and the government of the Russian Federation was entrusted with the formation of an organizing committee for the preparation and holding of the celebration. The state authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation were recommended to take part in the preparation and holding of events dedicated to the celebration of the 300 anniversary.
In June, 2006, the president congratulated the staff of the Burdenko Hospital on the 300 anniversary. In particular, the congratulation said: “The anniversary of your hospital is a significant event for the national health care. The foundation of this renowned medical institution marked the beginning of the development of a hospital business in Russia, the creation of a system for training national medical personnel. Over the past three centuries, generations of doctors, scientists and specialists have made a huge contribution to the theory and practice of treating the wounded and sick. Their selfless labor and talent saved the lives of many thousands of servicemen and civilians.
And today, the Main Military Clinical Hospital is rightfully one of the leading medical institutions in the country, the flagship of military medicine. A well-coordinated team of brilliant professionals works here, advanced techniques and progressive technologies are developed and implemented. ”
The head of the hospital, Vyacheslav Klyuzhev, in an interview about the 300 anniversary of the military hospital, said: “Yes, unfortunately, we always have a very cruel opponent and teacher. His name is war. The hospital treats more than 20 thousand patients annually, and performs up to 10 thousand operations. In Moscow alone, more than half a million reserve officers, many of whom need medical assistance, bring wounded and sick people from the outbreaks of hostilities and armed conflicts to us. We return them to the system, to a full life. We have this principle: we treat a soldier as a marshal, and a marshal - as a soldier. ”
MEMORY OF THE MEMORY
More than 300-year-old history of Russian military medicine and scientific school, which proceeded within these walls, is reflected on the stands, which were prepared for the celebration of the jubilee. A great merit in this was the head of the museum - Colonel Medical Service Dmitry Dronin. In the hospital always treated their history with care. Scrupulously and responsibly equipped stands with illustrations, which capture the entire history of the hospital.
The History Museum of the HVKG was established in 1947 year, it keeps bits of the history of Russian military medicine from Peter I to the present day. It is a subdivision of the information-analytical department of the methodical center of the hospital and in the museum halls presents an exhibition showing the stages of the development of the institution and the development of the domestic hospital business. Documents and subjects of different eras, medical equipment, tools and photographs reflecting the development of domestic and world medical science and practice. Copies of the decrees of Emperor Peter I on the hospital and on the appointment of Nikolai Bidloo as chief doctor, Peter’s correspondence with Bidloo are kept. 600 copies of books of the XVIII – XIX centuries and periodical medical publications of the XIX – XX centuries are in the library of the museum. A series of windows depicts anatomical theater, pharmacy, and the first Hospital School. Rarities - documents and books, the author of which is N.I. Pirogov, his personal anatomical atlas. The museum has preserved the workplace and tools N.V. Sklifosovsky, who for many years was a surgeon-consultant here. The exhibition reflects participation in numerous wars that Russia fought in the middle of the XIX - early XX century. A separate room is devoted to the history of the hospital from the second half of the 20th century to the present day. It tells about the daily activities of all medical units, about the wide possibilities of diagnostic and medical departments in providing modern high-tech care to patients. A number of exhibits demonstrate the work of military medics in hot spots, confirming their high combat readiness.