Military Review

Was Dzerzhinsky Russophobe?

66



In the very question in the headline, one can hear an assessment of the activities of Felix Dzerzhinsky. It is assumed that as the chairman of the Cheka-OGPU, he committed "atrocities", and it is necessary to explain how he was guided. It is natural for a native Pole to attribute the motive of Russophobia.

For people who evaluate the activities of Dzerzhinsky fundamentally different, so the question is not. For them, he is part of the force that brought the country out of the catastrophe. XX century, defended its sovereignty in the fight against the interventionists, recreated almost collapsed Russia, of course, in a different, Soviet guise.

However, this question, regardless of subtext, deserves a serious answer. Let us recall where Dzerzhinsky came from, on what ideas he was brought up, what he loved and what he hated in his youth with his ardent heart. Yes, he himself gave "compromising" on himself. In 1922, Felix Edmundovich allegedly mentioned that as a boy he “dreamed of an invisible hat and the destruction of all Muscovites.”
This phrase (let's talk about its authenticity just below) was a gift for the “white” biographers of the Cheka founder. So, Roman Gul in the brochure "Dzerzhinsky", published in 1935 in Paris, writes: "The Invisible Cap" was dressed in Dzerzhinsky, probably when he, for example, 25 of September 1919, was "pale as a canvas", with shaking with his hands and interrupted voice, he arrived in a car at the Moscow check prison and gave an order for all the prisons and places of imprisonment in Moscow to shoot people “right on the lists”. ” And further: "The shot were in fact Muscovites, who fell into the hands of not only the frantic communist, but, perhaps, the tender boy Felix who wore an invisible hat."

In experienced hands, the “invisible cap” can work wonders in terms of the emotional impact on the audience. She obviously explains everything, including what may not have been.

The book of Roman Guly and in exile was called "feuilleton." For example, he circulated a “joke” that the head of the Cheka, having misunderstood Lenin’s note, gave the order to shoot one and a half thousand people. Felix Edmundovich was a supporter of simplified justice in wartime, but, of course, not to such an extent. Decisions on those accused of counterrevolutionary conspiracies were made by extraordinary triples after a rather lengthy preliminary investigation. In September 1919, Anton Denikin’s army was rapidly approaching Moscow, having the decision of the Special Conference (government) that all communists — and there were already 300 of them in the country — were to be destroyed. A major terrorist attack took place in Leontievsky Lane, which claimed the lives of a group of party leaders in the capital (terrorists marked Vladimir Lenin, but he did not attend the meeting). In September, in Moscow and Petrograd, a ramified underground organization (National Center) was exposed, awaiting Denikin's approach. The head of the special services had reasons for excitement. However, we note also what Gul does not write about: in this historical moment, the leadership of the Bolshevik party made a decision obliging the Dzerzhinsky commission to work "in normal mode", without resorting to a policy of red terror. That is, everything turned out to be more complicated.

The words about the “invisible cap” with the clarification that they are taken from the memories of Dzerzhinsky himself have long been cited without reference to the original source. But did he pronounce them? If we follow a long chain of reprints, it will lead us to the essay of the Lithuanian revolutionary Vincas Mitskyavichus-Kapsukas. In 1922, the Lithuanian escorted the People's Commissar of Railways Dzerzhinsky on an official trip to the Caucasus. On the way back, he persuaded the People's Commissar to dictate the memories. Excerpts from the essay Mitskyavichusa-Kapsukas were published in the newspaper "Gudok". Felix Edmundovich, in particular, told how romantic and maximal he was in his youth. Years before 16, he fervently believed in the Catholic god, was about to become a priest. But the oppression of the Poles in the Russian Empire was so acute that he dreamed of acquiring an invisible cap and proceeding with the destruction of the “Muscovites”. The phrase was pronounced, of course, with self-irony.
One historical source is not enough to say that Dzerzhinsky was quoted exactly. People's Commissar and his fellow traveler spoke, probably, in Polish or Lithuanian. Mitskyavichus-Kapsukas could freely express the idea of ​​the interlocutor. The word "Moskal" is actually not Polish ... Although what of this? Even if the phrase sounded different. Ardent young man Dzerzhinsky really wanted to take revenge on the enemies of the motherland. Until a certain age, he was a "Russophobe." Did he stay with them afterwards? Did it affect his life choices?
Felix Dzerzhinsky was born on September 11 (according to the new style) 1877, on the estate of Dzerzhinovo in the Vilna province about 50 km west of Minsk. Locals historically attributed themselves to the Poles, who to the Belarusians, who to the Lithuanians of their choice. There is a known case when three siblings lived in three states, enrolling in Lithuanian, Byelorussian, and Polish.

Dzerzhinsky from time immemorial considered themselves Poles. Felix received his primary education at home from his mother. In the evenings, in the light of a lamp, he heard from Mrs. Helena stories about the atrocities of Count Mikhail Muravyov ("The Hanger"), who suppressed the uprising in 1863 year. The fact that in the churches then prayers were forced to sing in Russian. About unbearable indemnities imposed on the population.

At the age of seven, Felix Shasny (at baptism, he received a double name, meaning “happy”, respectively, in Latin and Polish) is taken to study Russian. Older sister prepares him for admission to the gymnasium. These lessons hardly bring him joy. It is necessary to learn: the language of the metropolis in the Kingdom of Poland is considered official, in many institutions there are signs: “To speak Polish is strictly forbidden.” In 1887, Felix enters the Vilna Gymnasium. And here he, like other classmates, often experiences national humiliation. In 1896, without having completed his studies, Dzerzhinsky commits an act that leads to his expulsion from the institution he hated. He tears the announcement from the wall, obliging the students to express themselves exclusively in Russian, bursts into the teacher’s room with him and splashes out his outrage. Not only him is expelled, but soon his younger brothers Vladislav and Ignatius, who will go to complete their education in St. Petersburg (Vladislav will become a famous neurologist).

In the same year, 1896, Felix, who had previously been a zealous Catholic and even once wanted to become a priest, lost faith in the Christian god. This circumstance, as well as the loss of loved ones - parents and Wanda’s beloved sister (shot by his brother Stanislav through carelessness), being in a hateful gymnasium prompted an active young man to join the protest movement. Here is an interesting fork. It would seem that the whole previous life of Felix led him on the direct road to the camp of Polish nationalists who fought for the creation of a united, independent Poland - in associates to Joseph Pilsudski, his countryman. However, Dzerzhinsky chooses another way. He becomes a social democrat, an internationalist. For the party of the Polish-Lithuanian Social Democrats, led by Rosa Luxemburg, therefore, for Felix, the nationalists and Pilsudski are the worst enemies. Two movements compete in the struggle for Poland. From this point on, the conversation about the "anti-clumsiness" of Dzerzhinsky loses its meaning. He becomes an opponent of the separation of Poland from Russia. The Rosa Luxemburg Party works closely with the Bolsheviks of Lenin. One of the fundamental disagreements between them is that the Polish Social Democrats condemn Lenin's slogan of the right of nations to self-determination! In their opinion, in this way the “Russian comrades” repel other peoples. Lenin is justified by the fact that they want to guarantee this right to nations, but they do not call for secession ...

Why did the young “anti-moskal” Felix Dzerzhinsky eventually become an ardent enemy of “professional Russophobes” such as Pilsudski?
Apparently, there are several reasons for this. The romanticist and maximalist Dzerzhinsky, who had lost faith in the Catholic god, needed not just a lofty goal, but a new value system, a new — secular — religion. At the turn of the century, Marxism best responded to these needs. Marxist high school student Dzerzhinsky began to attend in 1894 year. Then he began to teach in this circle. Under the influence of his new comrades, he apparently came to the conclusion that "there is no god."
There is another consideration that predetermined the party affiliation of Dzerzhinsky. The fact is that in Vilna, where Felix lived and studied, the population consisted mainly of Polish and Jewish artisans, Lithuanian peasants, who were suspicious of Polish nationalists. On the contrary, the Social Democrats enjoyed sympathy. It should be noted: in order to successfully propagate among the Jewish population, Felix, in whom there was no Jewish blood, independently mastered Yiddish. And very successfully. Karl Radek will write in his memoirs: “We laughed later that during the rule of the Polish Social Democracy, in which there were a number of Jews, only Dzerzhinsky, a Polish nobleman and a Catholic, could read Hebrew.

The theme of oppression by the "Muscovites" of the Poles ceases to possess the thoughts of Felix Dzerzhinsky. In 1897, he will be subject to the first arrest. Characteristically, what papers will be found during a search at the apartment of a young Social Democrat, who was preoccupied at that moment mainly with the protection of workers' rights. These include newspaper clips with explanations of various labor law issues, reports of strikes abroad, a list of local industrial enterprises, a handwritten Polish-Lithuanian dictionary, and Leo Tolstoy's “Prisoner of the Caucasus” in Lithuanian. Dzerzhinsky learned from captivity based on the story of a Russian writer. This skill is useful to him three times.
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  1. Hurricane70
    Hurricane70 23 December 2017 15: 20 New
    +2
    How many people, so many opinions! It is a pity that we are not moving a step closer to the truth ...
    Kredov Sergey. "Dzerzhinsky"
    Gul Roman. "Dzerzhinsky. The beginning of terror."
    1. Varyag_0711
      Varyag_0711 24 December 2017 01: 39 New
      18
      Hurricane70 Yesterday, 15:20
      How many people, so many opinions! It is a pity that we are not moving a step closer to the truth ...
      Kredov Sergey. "Dzerzhinsky"
      Gul Roman. "Dzerzhinsky. The beginning of terror."
      Nonsense is complete, especially if you do not have your own opinion. People must be judged by their deeds, that’s all. EVERYTHING IS VERY SIMPLE! What did Dzerzhinsky do to call him a Russophobe? And NOTHING! He did exactly what he had to do and there was no Russophobia in his actions. He put things in order with an iron hand, but that would have been done by any other sane boss in his place. The order should have been put in place at all costs, even at the cost of tens, if not hundreds of lives. But, do not make this sacrifice for the sake of order, then millions more would have died.
      So there is nothing to pour dirt in the name of Dzerzhinsky.
    2. iouris
      iouris 6 January 2018 23: 45 New
      +1
      Quote: Hurricane70
      How many people, so many opinions!

      Opinion not based on knowledge, is an ideology, a false consciousness. I advise you to watch the wonderful movie "July 6th."
    3. Alber
      Alber 28 February 2018 22: 03 New
      0
      Quote: Hurricane70
      How many people, so many opinions! It is a pity that we are not moving a step closer to the truth ...
      Kredov Sergey. "Dzerzhinsky"
      Gul Roman. "Dzerzhinsky. The beginning of terror."

      ! ++
      All the commissars were Rus-haters
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 23 December 2017 15: 27 New
    10
    The best thing is to judge people by their deeds, by their work.
    1. Lexus
      Lexus 24 December 2017 17: 07 New
      +1
      The best thing is to judge people by their deeds, by their work.

      Today's bureaucrats have no good deeds, and at work they sit out and get rich trousers. You need to judge them, not about them.
  3. ImPerts
    ImPerts 23 December 2017 15: 28 New
    19
    For some reason, the FED has never been associated with Russophobia in me. Yes, tough, but not cruel. Principal, but not petty pedant.
    And about feuilleton ...
    “The former commandant of the Bolshoi Theater, and in fact one of Stalin’s guards A. Rybin, told me how they traveled with Stalin to Lake Ritsa. We went in full confidence that everything was ready to receive the leader at the cottage. But, as usual with us, everything turned out to be so - even there was nowhere to sleep and nothing to do. They lay right on the shore - in sleeping bags. In the middle of the night, Stalin woke up.
    “Well, you snore!” He said to the guards, took his sleeping bag and went to sleep alone.
    - Oh, he was a simpleton too, this Stalin! - I remember verbatim the phrase of A. Rybin.
    Sometimes Stalin, having rolled up his trousers with stripes, walked barefoot on the water. I asked A. Rybin if Stalin had six toes on his leg, which I read about in a “democratic” publication at the height of perestroika. Rybin was even taken aback:
    - If it were, we would probably immediately pay attention ... "
    Chuev F.I. Soldiers of the Empire: Conversations. Memories. Documents. M., 1998. C. 544.
    1. RUSS
      RUSS 23 December 2017 18: 54 New
      +5
      Quote: ImPerts
      For some reason, the FED has never been associated with Russophobia in me. Yes, tough, but not cruel. Principal, but not petty pedant.

      In his youth, Dzerzhinsky became close to a criminal element, often taking part in street battles. There is a version that it was Felix who shot his sister Wanda (according to another, his brother Stanislav shot). Later, the young man, along with his Zionist peers, became interested in underground circles, sticking out anti-government leaflets around the city. And in 1898 he joined the Jewish Social Democratic group.

      In 1904, Dzerzhinsky tried to activate explosives at an officer meeting in the city of Novo-Alexandria, intending to provoke unrest in the massacre of Russian officers. It didn’t work out. His partner chickened at the last moment, and the bomb did not explode. According to fellow revolutionaries, Felix Dzerzhinsky mercilessly killed everyone who was suspected of having connections with the police. He was arrested six times, but finding no evidence, he was released. They could not have been, since Dzerzhinsky’s comrades-in-arms quickly liquidated witnesses to the massacres. If the prosecutor had any questions to Dzerzhinsky, then after the threat of killing children, the ministers of themis closed the case.
      . After the revolt of the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, the Chekists were unable to repulse. On July 7, he was removed from the leadership of the Cheka, but on August 22 he was reinstated in his post. Following the return of Dzerzhinsky, two terrorist attacks took place in the country: in Petrograd, Socialist Revolutionary Leonid Kannegiser killed the head of the Petrograd Cheka, Moses Uritsky, and in Moscow, Socialist Revolutionary Fanny Kaplan seriously wounded Lenin. In response, what was later called the “Red Terror” followed. From now on, Dzerzhinsky will act decisively and cruelly. According to various estimates, the structures of the Cheka under the vigilant supervision of its leader on the verdicts of the tribunals and extrajudicial meetings liquidate from 50 thousand to 140 thousand people. Among the victims of Dzerzhinsky, almost all the Romanovs remaining in Russia.
      1. ImPerts
        ImPerts 23 December 2017 19: 16 New
        +9
        Well, you yourself wrote everything. Yes, red terror was the answer to white. At first, the Chekists released their ideological opponents, to be honest, not to buzz.
        1. RUSS
          RUSS 23 December 2017 19: 47 New
          +5
          Quote: ImPerts
          . Yes, red terror was the answer to white

          This is when the Left Socialist Revolutionaries became "white"? laughing
          1. Looking for
            Looking for 23 December 2017 20: 43 New
            +6
            6 July 1918.
            1. RUSS
              RUSS 23 December 2017 21: 22 New
              +5
              Quote: Seeker
              6 July 1918.

              Do you write down all the opponents of the Bolsheviks in white?
              1. ImPerts
                ImPerts 24 December 2017 08: 20 New
                +2
                Quote: RUSS
                Do you write down all the opponents of the Bolsheviks in white?

                Quote: ImPerts
                red terror was the answer to white

                Many leaders of the counter-revolution, as can be seen from the documentary materials — Generals Krasnov, Vladimir Marushevsky, Vasily Boldyrev, prominent politician Vladimir Purishkevich, ministers of the Provisional Government Aleksey Nikitin, Kuzma Gvozdev, Semyon Maslov, and many others — were released on an honest basis. a word, although their hostility to the new government was not in doubt.

                How many of them are SRs?
      2. long in stock.
        long in stock. 24 December 2017 00: 13 New
        +2
        there is a version that you shot Dzerzhinsky’s sister. and there’s also a version that you stole potatoes from McDonald's .. and what’s wrong to lie like that? Am I right? lol
      3. MrK
        MrK 24 December 2017 11: 48 New
        +2
        RUSSAccording to various estimates, the structures of the Cheka under the vigilant supervision of its leader on the verdicts of the tribunals and extra-judicial meetings liquidate from 50 thousand to 140 thousand people.

        This is according to the book by Gulya, editions of the Russian Christian student society and from intellectual cuisines. Today, any historian, not a communist, will tell you that throughout Russia as a result of red terror Ballo shot about 7 000 people.
    2. SAG64
      SAG64 24 December 2017 11: 40 New
      0
      You're right. Tiananmen Square, in a more favorable situation, is proof of this.
  4. Moskovit
    Moskovit 23 December 2017 15: 29 New
    12
    It is possible that Dzerzhinsky believed in his youth that the whole thing was Muscovites. But then he grew up and realized who the true enemies of the Polish and Russian people are.
    1. captain
      captain 23 December 2017 17: 24 New
      +8
      Well, yes, I grew up and understood. Like Pilsudski, like Trotsky, like Sverdlov, etc. You are not surprised that the top of the RSDLP (b), and later the CPSU (b), consisted mainly of non-Russians who understood everything. Unlike the Socialist Revolutionaries.
      1. moskowit
        moskowit 23 December 2017 18: 57 New
        16
        Allow me, dear, to introduce the “hero” of a true Russian who led the Russian state to destruction ... Do not you remember Yeltsin? So he and his team brought the country more grief and loss than all the aliens in the revolution and in the early stages of the formation of the USSR .... Thank God then the “wonderful Georgian” took control of everything, led a team of patriots and brought the State to the forefront in the world in all respects.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 23 December 2017 19: 56 New
          +4
          That’s right off the tongue, dear MOSCOWIT!
          It remains only to add that the drunk had assistants in this matter. Both domestic and imported. Somehow delayed.
          It was small, I watched the dolls on TV, such a transfer. There, drunk with a bottle, a sofa, a monster in a car, in the desert, and behind him, people are exhausted. He says he will drive them for 40 years. Until the last one born in that country dies ...... Painful thoughts.
        2. captain
          captain 24 December 2017 13: 38 New
          +1
          Quote: moskowit
          Allow me, dear, to introduce the “hero” of a true Russian who led the Russian state to destruction ... Do not you remember Yeltsin? So he and his team brought the country more grief and loss than all the aliens in the revolution and in the early stages of the formation of the USSR .... Thank God then the “wonderful Georgian” took control of everything, led a team of patriots and brought the State to the forefront in the world in all respects.

          By the way, Yeltsin was a candidate member of the Politburo, and you’re talking about the leader of your favorite party ... Regarding the foreigners and Stalin. Due to my age, I found Khrushchev and lived to see Putin. There is something to compare. It is useless to argue with the red-flagged about the advanced role of the USSR in the World. But I recommend looking at the sources; how much and using what equipment the Transsib and BAM were built. And most importantly who. And all that we have achieved; this is thanks to the tsars who managed to grow so much land in Russia. As much as this land was distributed by our Bolshevik gods, even the Germans could not capture. Compare the borders of the Republic of Ingushetia and the Russian Federation today and the population, or rather its quantity.
          1. long in stock.
            long in stock. 24 December 2017 14: 54 New
            +2
            what was the use of the spliced ​​land. Was it possible to keep Poland? Or the Baltic states with the Finns? they couldn’t capture anybody, but they could master it ... here the kings had eternal problems .. and if you decided to compare bam with the Trans-Siberian Railway, at the same time compare the throughput and cargo turnover. and not only the length and speed of construction .. age you may have considerable, but knowledge is extremely superficial ..
          2. moskowit
            moskowit 25 December 2017 11: 55 New
            +1
            Because of my age, I found Khrushchev and lived on to Putin.

            "What an immense one-sidedness ...." (from the film "Pokrovsky Gate")
            Dear Yuri, on 8 of December you already "trumped" your age ... This is not entirely ethical in relation to older site visitors .... You can, of course, justify this with youthful maximalism, but still you have to be more modest .. I apologize for the forced moralizing ...
            Nikolai Ivanovich ... Born under Stalin and I hope to survive the rule of the oligarchy and live up to a truly people's democracy ...
            1. long in stock.
              long in stock. 25 December 2017 13: 20 New
              0
              you really try ..
          3. Doliva63
            Doliva63 25 December 2017 19: 07 New
            +5
            Senile senility, it seems? My mother is 90, she remembers dispossession, orphanage, work at the factory for the assembly of PPSh at -40. She remembers what Soviet power gave her. She was a happy person until the 90s came.
      2. chenia
        chenia 23 December 2017 18: 59 New
        +5
        Quote: captain
        further and the CPSU (b) consisted mainly of non-Russians,


        And you were in the Communist Party (sorry for immodesty) were convinced or so, for the sake of a career?
        1. captain
          captain 24 December 2017 13: 45 New
          +2
          Quote: chenia
          Quote: captain
          further and the CPSU (b) consisted mainly of non-Russians,


          And you were in the Communist Party (sorry for immodesty) were convinced or so, for the sake of a career?

          You know, for the sake of a career. But here is the interesting thing; when I was preparing the brigade for landing on Kubinka in 1991, the real communists subsequently wrote to me at the prosecutor's office. And I was lucky to visit our prosecutor in Nikel, where they took testimonies from me. Filmed for preparing a brigade for the restoration of Owls. authorities. And there were a lot of “real” communists, such as those who saw life in VO, all the talkers turned out to be, and none of them came out with an automatic machine to defend Soviet power. Here is the word (language) under the nickname heroes.
          1. long in stock.
            long in stock. 24 December 2017 14: 57 New
            +2
            and in your brigade that everyone was a communist? no. and it’s not you fighters who were preparing to protect. And yes you didn’t defend. And you didn’t drop the brigade .. so you nicely fit into the ranks of the heroes of scratching your tongue.
          2. chenia
            chenia 24 December 2017 15: 32 New
            +2
            Quote: captain
            You know, for the sake of a career.


            Well, here is the answer to many questions, and you were not alone. Here (on the forum) there is one type - Caliber (Shpakovsky, our age, over 60), he described his sufferings upon joining the CPSU, also for the sake of a career), a terry anti-communist and at the same time the former secretary of the district committee (the first and third - I don’t know) And what you want, and at the top was pretty slagged. Well, there were people who were ready to die for their beliefs (for example, Gen. Polevik (a kind of person, but sincere), he headed the PU in your system).
            But the idea itself is generally pure, but the person is not perfect.
      3. Moskovit
        Moskovit 23 December 2017 20: 14 New
        +7
        Pilsudski will be in Russian. And here he is, I do not understand. We are talking about the Bolsheviks, which led Russia to the greatest prosperity and influence in the world. We still rest on the wreckage of this power.
      4. Looking for
        Looking for 23 December 2017 20: 48 New
        +1
        It won’t surprise me. If you really W ... D,
        1. moskowit
          moskowit 23 December 2017 20: 59 New
          +5
          W ... D,

          Is it necessary to think Railwayman? A very difficult and respected profession ....
        2. Moskovit
          Moskovit 24 December 2017 00: 22 New
          +3
          Bugaga. Well, of course, you immediately saw nationality through the lines. Very sharp eye))
  5. Curious
    Curious 23 December 2017 16: 14 New
    +8
    The article is more like another sketch for the device of srach between the "crust bakers" and the "Bolsheviks" with a corresponding increase in visits to the site.
    1. RUSS
      RUSS 23 December 2017 18: 45 New
      +5
      Quote: Curious
      The article is more like another sketch for the device of srach between the "crust bakers" and the "Bolsheviks" with a corresponding increase in visits to the site.

      It's all about advertising, the more the site is viewed, the more income from advertising posted on this site.
      1. Curious
        Curious 23 December 2017 20: 02 New
        +3
        So I about it. The easiest and most affordable way.,
    2. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 23 December 2017 19: 58 New
      +1
      Quote: Curious
      The article is more like another sketch for the device of srach between the "crust bakers" and the "Bolsheviks" with a corresponding increase in visits to the site.

      Is it, isn’t it, but I consider, as repetition, the mother of learning. So no one missed.
    3. Looking for
      Looking for 23 December 2017 20: 51 New
      +3
      This doubles the sense of disappointment in today's Russia-Russia only by name.
  6. svp67
    svp67 23 December 2017 16: 30 New
    12
    Was Dzerzhinsky Russophobe?
    Of course not. He was a true revolutionary-an internationalist, and he did not care deeply both in Russia and in Poland. He dreamed of a WORLD REVOLUTION.
    1. Golovan Jack
      Golovan Jack 23 December 2017 16: 38 New
      13
      Was Dzerzhinsky Russophobe?

      Quote: svp67
      .. he didn’t care much about both Russia and Poland ...

      It inevitably follows that Dzerzhinsky was simply misanthrope, not? winked
      1. solzh
        solzh 23 December 2017 16: 48 New
        +5
        Quote: Golovan Jack
        It inevitably follows that Dzerzhinsky was just a misanthrope, no?

        Misanthrope - a person who avoids the society of people, is unsociable, suffers, or vice versa enjoys hate (misanthropy)
        where is the word misanthrope present in the word INTERNATIONALIT or in its concept?
        1. Golovan Jack
          Golovan Jack 23 December 2017 19: 39 New
          12
          Quote: solzh
          where is the word misanthrope present in the word INTERNATIONALIT or in its concept?

          Internationalism - an ideology preaching friendship and cooperation between nations

          The adherents of the "world revolution" (one of which was Dzerzhinsky) may have been internationalists. Somewhere deep in the soul.
          But at the same time, they were ready to burn not only Russia, but also other and other countries in the "fire of the world revolution." For the sake of universal happiness, understandably.
          Here are just the methods ... well, very much give away with the very misanthropy.
          IMHO.
    2. avva2012
      avva2012 23 December 2017 16: 46 New
      +7
      He "dreamed" of justice. The usual one, where the same applies to all people. Revolutionary. Danko.
    3. Dalailama
      Dalailama 23 December 2017 16: 48 New
      +2
      So it was.
    4. Vladimir73
      Vladimir73 23 December 2017 19: 28 New
      +6
      Quote: svp67
      Of course not. He was a true revolutionary-an internationalist, and he did not care deeply both in Russia and in Poland. He dreamed of a WORLD REVOLUTION.


      His affairs show that he was rather a very good organizer and manager.
      “we will destroy the whole world of violence to the core, ...” and Trotsky and the companies were most likely involved in the export of this destruction, and these are usually called TRUE revolutionaries. Dzerzhinsky, Ordzhonikidze, Stalin, etc. they perfectly understood that without a material base (industry) and correctly ideologically educated people (human resources, not “meat”), nothing good will come of it. They built a state that shows by example that people can live, create in a free and equal society. The future showed that they were right.
      1. RUSS
        RUSS 23 December 2017 19: 54 New
        +2
        Quote: Vladimir73
        They built a state that shows by example that people can live, create in a free and equal society. The future showed that they were right.

        What are you right about? The union stood a little over 70 years. Where else are their ideas alive? In China? In the DPRK? China is tightly capitalist, and the DPRK is a terry totalitarian country, one of the poorest countries in Asia.
        1. chenia
          chenia 23 December 2017 20: 35 New
          +4
          Quote: RUSS
          DPRK is a terry totalitarian country, one of the poorest countries in Asia.


          And you do not compare the window of Yu.Korey (where the states broke a bunch of dough and technology) with the DPRK (all in sanctions for decades). as the superiority of capitalism over socialism.

          Compare Ukraine, for example, comparable. Under socialism and capitalism. Well, what can you say?
          Feel the difference.
          Here is a pure experiment.
        2. Vladimir73
          Vladimir73 23 December 2017 20: 35 New
          +4
          Quote: RUSS
          What are you right about?


          After the Second World War, the authority of the USSR was as high as possible. The USSR served as an example of how you can live (not survive) and work productively for yourself and your country.
          What successes the USSR has achieved - everyone knows and is quite appreciated abroad, the activity and popularity of the communist parties of the West are an example of this.

          But! Read my comment a little more carefully: "... and correctly ideologically educated people ..." The coup d'état in the USSR of party nomenclature led by Khrushchev and K, the actual state of affairs left by Brezhnev and K, and the surrender of Gorbachev and K actually reduced all work to educate the “creator man” to empty formalism and verbiage. How can you become better spiritually if your leaders act and live contrary to the requirements set for you ?!
          So - PROVE! They proved by their own example that only people who think of a business in the first place can achieve HUGE and AMAZING results.
          And China is now at a crossroads, too many people with money want current power for themselves ... it’s quite possible that purges will take place.
          DPRK - too much has been written, but much Western propaganda. Of course, I understand that the rich historical traditions of the rulers of Korea have a place to be, but if everyone is starving for hunger, there’s an almost miserable existence and there are defectors from both North and South Korea ... while students go abroad to receive education ... vigorous rockets fly ... not everything is so simple, you cannot hold people for so many years with one zombie.
          I am silent about other regions - Vietnam (a dynamically developing economy) on the socialist path, Cuba - depended on supplies from the USSR, but despite the difficulties it is still not capitalistic ... many countries claim that they are socialist, but usually a dictatorship in such countries does not last long, because to the dictator only "would cut the dough" (they are either socialist or capitalist ...)

          So the example is valid and still works.
        3. long in stock.
          long in stock. 24 December 2017 00: 17 New
          +4
          this poorest country independently produces turbines for hydropower plants and we buy them .. they even produced and sold their own cell phones. until the Americans forced the French to close sales ... what other manuals do you know?
        4. Doliva63
          Doliva63 25 December 2017 19: 24 New
          +5
          Their ideas are alive in me and my children. This is already a lot. Koba and co did not live their lives in vain.
    5. Looking for
      Looking for 23 December 2017 20: 54 New
      -1
      You somehow primitively interpret the term internationalist
    6. captain
      captain 24 December 2017 13: 55 New
      0
      Quote: svp67
      Was Dzerzhinsky Russophobe?
      Of course not. He was a true revolutionary-an internationalist, and he did not care deeply both in Russia and in Poland. He dreamed of a WORLD REVOLUTION.

      Sorry svp67, but did he tell you a secret or did you invent it? The top of the Cheka at Dzerzhinsky consisted of Latvians, Jews, Armenians and other foreigners. For some reason, they dreamed of a world revolution, not in their homeland, but in Russia. And what is interesting; with a hot iron they burned the counter-revolution from the Russians.
  7. Dalailama
    Dalailama 23 December 2017 16: 48 New
    +1
    Wasn’t it?
    1. captain
      captain 23 December 2017 17: 27 New
      +7
      He studied with Pilsudsky in the same gymnasium. Visible to the "poor." Here the tsar was a usurper, he gave education to all fighters against the autocracy. Here's how to mock revolutionaries.
  8. Gopnik
    Gopnik 23 December 2017 17: 25 New
    +4
    Of course it was. The Bolshevik is always Russophobe.
    1. Dalailama
      Dalailama 23 December 2017 17: 33 New
      +1
      but there were still Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries.
    2. Looking for
      Looking for 23 December 2017 20: 55 New
      0
      And the gopnik is always -.
      1. long in stock.
        long in stock. 24 December 2017 00: 18 New
        +2
        he’s such a gopnik .. divan ..
  9. Pushkar
    Pushkar 23 December 2017 17: 26 New
    18
    My grandfather and grandmother were orphans in 1918-20. The elimination of homelessness was led by the "bloody" Dzerzhinsky. My ancestors went to an orphanage, graduated from high school, labor school, then college, got married and had a wonderful life. Yes, for this alone Felix Edmundovich is worthy of eternal memory and the highest honors. But there was still the restoration of the railway sector, the creation and establishment of the Cheka.
    1. Dalailama
      Dalailama 23 December 2017 17: 36 New
      +2
      didn’t he also deal with the “eradication of illiteracy”?
  10. avva2012
    avva2012 23 December 2017 18: 16 New
    +9
    Was Dzerzhinsky Russophobe?
    Question for the Nazis. It is they who divide people into Poles, Russians, Lithuanians, Jews .... Divide and conquer, kill the worker, peasant, and intellectual not of his nationality. Love your master, lay his heels. Let him calmly travel to Courchevel, and you to a three-star hotel in Thailand. Is everything fair?
  11. Looking for
    Looking for 23 December 2017 20: 37 New
    +2
    Quote: RUSS
    In response, what was later called the “Red Terror” followed.

    Later. Is it ever in a week. A month, a year, ten years? A fucking historian.
    Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR


    DECISION
    from 5 September to 1918 year


    ABOUT RED TERROR


    The Council of People's Commissars, having heard the report of the Chairman of the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for the Fight against Counter-Revolution, Speculation and Crime by Position on the activities of this Commission, finds that in this situation, ensuring the rear through terror is a direct necessity; that in order to strengthen the activities of the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for the fight against counter-revolution, speculation and crime in office and to make it more systematic, it is necessary to send as many responsible party comrades as possible there; that it is necessary to ensure the Soviet Republic from class enemies by isolating them in concentration camps; that all persons touched by White Guard organizations, conspiracies and rebellions are subject to execution; that it is necessary to publish the names of all executed, as well as the grounds for applying this measure to them.

    Signed: People's Commissioner of Justice D. KURSKIY
    People's Commissar for Internal Affairs G. PETROVSKY
    Manager of the Council of People's Commissars Vl. BONCH-BRUEVICH
    SU, No. 19, Division 1, Art. 710, 05.09.18/XNUMX/XNUMX.
    1. RUSS
      RUSS 23 December 2017 21: 28 New
      +2
      Quote: Seeker
      The historian of horseradish.

      Sanya, who are you? Do you have all those who are so cool in your rogue colony of Hohland?
  12. Mu Dialer
    Mu Dialer 24 December 2017 00: 41 New
    +2
    All Soviet power was Russophobic, at least until the second half of the 30s, and when the situation smelled of war, the situation changed, we remembered Nevsky, Kutuzov, Peter the Great, etc., etc.
  13. M. Michelson
    M. Michelson 25 December 2017 04: 03 New
    0
    Yes there was, of course. It seems that he was even a Jesuit.
    But what does it matter to us? We need myth about Dzerzhinsky, not the scrupulous facts of his biography (the veneration of all leaders without exception is based on myths). But Dzerzhinsky's mythology, in my opinion, is very promising; his cult will now be even more useful than the cult of Lenin or Stalin.
    So we must end all these conversations and demand the return of the monument to Felix. (Well, also the name Kaganovich on the subway to the heap.)
  14. Doliva63
    Doliva63 25 December 2017 18: 54 New
    +4
    My parents and their ancestors were proud / proud of their Polish origin. In the Polish Herbovnik recorded. The great-great-great-grandfathers have been in the royal service for centuries: subordinates, delegates in the Sejm, etc. They made scandals in the Sejm against joining Russia at the “historical” level. Catholics, of course, were. Great-grandfather kept a whole parish (or whatever it was). As a result, it turned out that the founder of the clan was the Russian boyar Vasil from the Lithuanian-Russian principality. I mean, Dzerzhinsky was born 50 km from Minsk. That is, ours, historically Russian. drinks laughing
    Two ancestors - the general-general and the hired manager of the Demidov factories buried in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra - treated the Poles badly, however! laughing You just need to know your story.