Military Review

Rose white, rose scarlet ... (part 1)

And also me. - Victorious York,
Until you take the throne,

Which house the Lancaster owns,
By God, I will not close my eyes.
Here is the king of the cowardly palace
And there is his throne. Own it, York;
He rightfully belongs to you,
And not the posterity of Heinrich the Sixth.
William Shakespeare. "Henry VI." Part Three Translation E. Birukova

The struggle of the two dynasties, the Yorks and Lanksters, entered into history England as the war of scarlet and white roses. No, no, yes, both venerable scientists and modest lovers of the history of the Middle Ages return to this amazing page in the life of two famous families. Let us try and we go back a few centuries ago, look into the past and feel the spirit of that time, the time of palace secrets, intrigues and conspiracies. Let's start with an explanation of the term itself. It became used only in the 19th century, after Walter Scott based on the fictional scene from William Shakespeare’s tragedy I Henry VI, in which opponents choose roses of different colors in the Temple church, used it in the story Anna Geyershteynskaya.

Participants in the historical reconstruction on the street of St. Albans.

Although roses, as symbols, were actually used during the war, the majority of the participants naturally used symbols of their own emblems or overlords. For example, the troops of Henry at Bosworth fought under a banner depicting a red dragon, and the Yorkists used the personal symbol of Richard III - the image of a white boar. Roses, as symbols, began to matter later, when King Henry VII at the end of the war combined red and white roses into a single red and white Tudor Rose.

Rose white, rose scarlet ... (part 1)

Red Rose Lancaster.

For some reason it was believed that the “Rose confrontation” was at that time one of the longest and bloodiest wars in England, since, they say, it lasted thirty years, from 1455 to 1485.

White Rose of York.

Such a point of view is the merit of the Tudor advocates who tried to defame the previous government and put Heinrich Tudor as the defender of the fatherland and his main benefactor. So it was always, at all times, after the successor ascended to the throne, the chronicles were in haste, the libraries were shaken up, so that, God forbid, no negative information would cloud the new ruler.

Count Warwick in front of Marguerite of Anjou. (“The Chronicle of England.” Page 417. British Library)

As for the duration of the war, after a careful analysis of the events, it becomes obvious that almost all campaigns took three to four months, after which the active military phase passed into the passive, backstage, and more specifically, intrigue. Several times an undeclared truce came, which was caused by the need to recover from the defeat of one of the parties.

A confirmation of the talk of bloodiness can only serve the loss of the old English aristocracy. A true picture of the loss will help provide a comparison of the composition of the parliament before the war and after it. In the parliament, convened by Heinrich Tudor after a devastating victory in the war, there were only 20 lords, against 50, who met before the war. By the way, most of these twenty received their titles already during the war. The opposing sides, ruthlessly destroying the captive nobles, were very generous towards the prisoners of the simple class. And of course they did not carry out any punitive actions against the population. On the contrary, people were constantly asked for help. Yorks, appealing to the patriotic feelings of the people, tried to achieve his favor, emphasizing that they were a national party. According to York, Margaret d'Anjou, being a Frenchwoman, could not take care of the English people as much as she should.

An interesting fact is that after the victory of one of the parties, a parliament was immediately convened, the purpose of which was to obtain the approval of the representative body of government and legally formalize the results of the victory. None of the parties opposed the current system of government. And the war was only the highest point of the dynastic struggle between the Yorks and Lancaster, and in no way affected the existing system of government.

“England and York! England and Lancaster! ”

The beginning of the rule of the feeble-minded Henry VI of Lancaster was very calm, and all the outbreak of internal conflicts were instantly resolved by his surroundings by peaceful means. The reason for this calm was simple. The entire elite of the English aristocracy was drawn into the “Hundred Years War”, and it took the most active part in it, fiercely fighting on the mainland. Thus, the probable “candidate” for the throne is Duke Richard York, who was the grandson of the son of Edward III (as well as the ruling king Henry) fought in Normandy, holding the post of “lieutenant of all France”. His foe, John Beaufort (died in 1444), was in France.

The famous gilded effigiya of Richard Boscham, 13-th Earl of Warwick (1382 – 1439) in the Church of Sts. Mary in Warwick, England.

Same effect, side view.

Henry VI was pious, overly sensitive, and also extremely naive. In addition to the lack of tricks, he still lacked intelligence. In essence, this was an ordinary person who was poorly versed in international politics (as well as in domestic politics as well). Many contemporaries said that in him more from the hermit than from the king.

Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. Portrait of an unknown artist.

Anyone who was able to have a little influence on the king had absolute control over the royal court, because His Majesty unconditionally agreed to what was required. In addition to all the “virtues”, Heinrich inherited from his eminent grandfather periodic fits of madness. Well, how could a king with such a "set" of hereditary "sores" manage the state?

The position of England in the Hundred Years War was getting worse and worse, and in the royal entourage the party of peace prevailed, whose leader, Count Suffolk, offered to arrange an alliance through the marriage of the king and a certain French noble lady, through whom a truce would finally be established, and with it French appetites will die in English territory. The bride turned out to be a young Margaret of Anjou, the niece of the French king and the daughter of the influential René of Anjou. Wanting to conclude a lasting peace, the two peoples declared a truce, but at this time England received an excellent bride for her sovereign. However, the plan was attractive only in theory. In fact, during the negotiations, Rene Anjou explained that he would not only give no dowry for his daughter, but also insistently demanded the Isle of Man and England itself.

The marriage ceremony nevertheless took place, and the court union, which included Earl Suffolk and Edmund Beaufort (brother of the deceased John Beaufort Duke Sommerset), was now led by Queen Margaret of Anjou (lady, by the way, very determined, ambitious and vindictive). The decision to make peace was successfully implemented. They were opposed by York, who remained in disgrace. His party then included highly influential members of the Neville family: Earl Richard Salisbury, as well as his son Richard, Earl of Warwick.

Seal of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick.

Whatever it was, but the conclusion of peace with France brought England more harm than good. Unsuccessful war, plus the presence of disgruntled aristocracy led by the claimant to the throne, a considerable number of free people who can only fight and can not do anything else, a rapidly empty treasury - all this was the reason for unleashing the "War of the Roses."

The origin of this name is found in Shakespeare in his tragedy Henry VI, in a scene where York and Somerset point to a white and red rose, as a symbol of their enmity - in the arms of York was a white rose, and Lancaster - red. Both sides had many supporters. Lancaster, for example, supported in the northern and north-western regions of England, York - in the south and south-east. So gradually the political struggle turned into armed struggle.

Duke Sommerset led the troops of Lancaster, and Earl Warwick led the Yorks. For the first time, battle cries began to sound over the green fields: “England and York! England and Lancaster! ”

What are the types !!! All the same, as in that distant time ...

The first battle took place near the small town of St. Albans 22 May 1455. Adherents of Lancaster numbers around 3 000 people took refuge behind the barricades in the city and managed to repel the first onslaught more than twice as large as the number of Yorkists. The number of troops of the Duke of York was 7 000 people. The detachment, headed by Count Urvik, quietly made his way to the quiet outskirts of the streets and, bypassing a rather extensive garden, suddenly struck Sommerset's troops in the rear. The soldier was panic-stricken, it was decidedly impossible to command the troops scattered about, and the battle broke up into separate segments on the streets of the city.

The battle ended in victory for the White Rose supporters. Oddly enough, there were very few casualties - around 100 people, mostly from the enemy. Heinrich's loyalists — Edmund Beaufort, Duke Somerset, Humphrey Stafford, Clifford, Henry Percy, Harington — killed in a fight. Heinrich himself did not take part in the hostilities, but was accidentally wounded by an arrow and made an attempt to hide in one of the houses where the soldiers found him.

Under pressure from York and Warwick, Heinrich declared the supporters of Somerset to be his enemies in Parliament, and the actions of York to be completely legitimate rebellion for the sake of the liberation of the king. He returned a high position at the court. Warwick appointed Captain Calais - at that time the only port in France, remained in the hands of the British. After becoming captain, Warwick began to energetically free the English Channel from pirated and simply undesirable ships. Sometimes it seemed that he destroyed everything that was moving in the Straits. So, having met five Spanish ships on the way, Warwick sank three, at the same time interrupted a lot of Spaniards, and on another occasion seized the ships of the friendly city of Lübeck, which resulted in an immediate diplomatic scandal. But, anyway, these active actions Captain Calais once again approved his reputation. In addition, he won the authority of his garrison, which at that time consisted of experienced, battle-hardened soldiers, and the city of Calais for many years ahead made the base of supporters of York.

Now, it seemed, peace and tranquility should prevail, but Queen Margaret once again tries to influence her husband by promoting her own plans that she alone knows, and York never abandoned the idea of ​​the throne. Both sides hastily prepared the troops, recruited supporters and slowly prepared for the continuation of the war. Margarita tried to destroy Warwick twice. At first he was invited to Coventry. Warwick, who didn’t trust Margaret too much, thought of putting forward a small cavalry unit in which a man dressed in his clothes rode. The trick was a success - upon entering the city, the Queen’s people attacked the squad, mistakenly believing that Warwick himself was in front of them. Another time, he, as if on behalf of Heinrich, was called to report on his service as Captain Calais. During the conversation, he heard the sounds of the struggle, which were heard from the courtyard. Looking out of the window, Warwick beheld his people fighting violently from the royal soldiers. Instantly descending into the courtyard, he immediately joined his soldiers, and together they broke through to their ship, which was waiting on the Thames.

Meeting Warwick and Margaret of Anjou. Fig. Graham Turner.

Hostilities resumed in the autumn of 1459. York supporters were going to unite at Lidlow. In September, one of the large units, numbering about 4 000 man, led by the Earl of Salisbury, was intercepted in Blor-Heath by a Lancastrian army numbering about 8 000 man. Details of the course of the battle are missing It is only known that the Lancastrian cavalry, which rushed to the attack, was first shot by archers, and then attacked by infantry. Losing order in the ranks, she left the battlefield in panic. Losses amounted to about 3000 people, of whom approximately 2000 Lancasters.

The groups of supporters of York united in Ladfort, and their total number was about 30000 people. Not wanting to resist the king anymore, Andrew Trollop and his squad went over to the side of the Lancasters. Heinrich promised to pardon the soldiers who lay down weapon and go over to his side. And now the army of York began to thaw rapidly, and York and its people had to flee. After that, the remnants of the army surrendered and Heinrich captured Lidlow. There was the Duchess of York and her two young sons, George and Richard (who would later become Richard III).

York, through Devon and Wales, moved to Ireland, Warwick hastily went to his garrison in Calais. However, he was soon deprived of the position of Captain Calais and the young Sommerset was appointed in his place. But the garrison and the sailors refused outright to obey the new commander. In June, 1460, Somerset came across the ships of his successor in the strait, attempted to attack them, but the teams of his ships went over to the side of the enemy. Earl Warwick and Edward York, having obtained this very unexpected reinforcement, together with the two thousand army landed in Kent, and quickly captured London. After that, they moved against the royal troops stationed in Coventry.

The coat of arms of Warwick is so interesting that it makes sense to describe it, it would be more correct to say - to blazonirovat according to all the rules of heraldry. The founder of the clan, Richard Neville Sr., was the youngest son of Ralph Neville the First Earl of Westmoreland and received his father's coat of arms - in a scarlet scarlet scarlet (ie St. Andrew's) silver cross. But since he was the youngest in his family, an image of the title in the colors of the Lancaster family, silver and azure, in honor of his mother Joanna Beaufort appeared in it. After the death of Count Thomas Montague, who was the fourth earl of Salisbury, Richard married his heiress, which gave him the title and the coat of arms of the Salisbury clan - a four-piece shield - which has three scarlet spindles in a silver field and a green gold field an eagle spread its wings. He also placed all the emblems on his coat of arms in order of precedence. The son of Richard, and also Richard, entered into marriage with Anna Beauchamp, heir to the thirteenth Earl of Warwick. His coat of arms included the Boshanov coat of arms (in the scarlet field a golden belt and six crossed crosses of gold), the coat of arms formerly owned by Warwick graphs to Newburgh (alternately in azure and azure rafters with an ermine fur), the coat of arms of Claires with three scarlet lines in the gold field Despensers - the quadruple shield - alternately silver and scarlet, in which the first and fourth quarters are intertwined with gold, and the left - with a black tie over everything. This emblem of Richard Beauchamp was also received by marrying Isabella, the daughter and heir of Thomas Despenser, the first Earl of Gloucester, a descendant of Gilbert de Claire. Interestingly, the shield of Richard Neville Count Warwick was depicted only his family coat of arms. But here his banner, fluttering over the castle, and the blanket of his horse were decorated with all the details of these emblems. The first in seniority were the emblems of Warwick and Salisbury, they were in the first and second quarters, the Neville coats of arms in the third, the Despensers coat of arms in the fourth. Neville also had two Kleynod - a swan head rising from the crown of red (for the coat of arms of Warwick), and a griffin on the crown (for the coat of arms of Salisbury). His personal emblem was a bear on chains and coarse, unhewn stakes.

Battle of Northampton

19 July 1460, at the place of Northampton, located south of Coventry, another battle broke out. York's forty-thousandth army defeated Henry’s twenty-thousand army for half an hour. The queen managed only miraculously to escape from captivity, and she hurried out of England and fled to Scotland. Poor Henry was again captured and taken to London.

Northampton battle plan

Richard York delivered a speech in front of Parliament and frankly declared his desire to occupy the throne of England. His statement met a storm of indignation even among his supporters. The only thing promised to him was the granting of the throne after the death of King Henry. With this did not want to put up Queen Margaret, who by that time had managed to gather a new army, consisting of the Scots and the Welsh.

Richard York with the 5 000 man advanced to meet her. And on December 30, 1460, at Wakefield, took place on the 6 mid-battle. The army of Lancaster, commanded by Heinrich Beaufort, second duke of Somerset, Lord Henry Percy, inflicted a heavy defeat on the Yorkists. Some sources claim that the queen's advocates used military trick, dressing around 400 a man in liveried supporters of York. Warwick's father, Earl of Salisbury, was captured and later beheaded, and York himself died in battle. The heads of York and Salisbury, by order of Margarita, were nailed above the gates of the city of York.

Since then, the country has irreversibly divided into two parties. Already 2 February 1461, Edward, the new Duke of York, utterly defeated the enemy's army with a number of 4 000 people.

Most of the well-born captives were executed, thus creating a precedent for mass executions of nobles in this war.

The second battle of St. Albans. Fig. Graham Turner.

17 February 1461, the royal army attacked Warwick's small army at St. Albans. Paradox, but the attacked army of York suffered a defeat in exactly the same place where the Yorkists won their first victory six years ago. Henry VI was released. The queen hurried back to London. But the young Duke of York arrived there first and not without the help of Warwick, as well as with the support of the people, 4 March 1461 was crowned to the throne under the name of Edward IV. In England, there were two kings, and now the question arose: “Which of them will hold the throne?” A couple of days after the ceremony, Edward IV and Richard Neville, who received the nickname “creator of kings” after the story of Edward IV, went to the royal army, the path of which could easily be traced to the ravaged villages (which was the work of the Scots Margarita). Margarita's army always considered England an enemy country, and the unfortunate villages surrendered to plunder as a reward. The true reasons were carefully hidden: the queen simply did not have enough money to pay the troops.

To be continued ...
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. XII Legion
    XII Legion 29 December 2017 06: 49
    Feudal wars are characteristic of Europe
    And England is no exception
    But here is what
    Most noble captives were executed
    - quite a mess. Knocked out the color of the nobility.
    Thank you!
    1. venaya
      venaya 29 December 2017 07: 24
      Quote: XII legion
      .. But here's what
      Most noble captives were executed
      - quite a mess. Knocked out the color of the nobility. ..

      It is likely that this was the main and first task in organizing such wars. This option cannot be ruled out in any way, someone could "warm up their hands" on this, since wars always always benefit someone - this is the question that should be considered in more detail.
      1. moskowit
        moskowit 29 December 2017 09: 45
        No wonder ... All socio-political formations are developing according to the same laws .... The Scarlet and White Rose War in England 1455-1485 years ....
        The internecine war in Russia 1425-1453 years ... For those who have forgotten give an extract

        The internecine war in Moscow Russia (1425 — 1453) - the war for the great reign between the descendants of Dmitry Donskoy, Prince of Moscow Vasily II (Dark) Vasilyevich and his uncle, Prince of Zvenigorod and Galich Yury Dmitrievich and his sons Vasily (Kosy) and Dmitry XEMYa 1425 years. The Grand Duke’s throne changed hands several times.

        The main causes of the war were: increased contradictions among the Russian princes in connection with the choice of ways and forms of centralization of the state in the context of Tatar raids and Lithuanian expansion; political and economic consolidation of the principalities. [1] The result was the liquidation of most of the small estates within the Moscow principality and the strengthening of the power of the grand duke. The last internecine war in Russia and one of the last in Europe.

        1. venaya
          venaya 29 December 2017 10: 45
          Quote: moskowit
          ... All socio-political formations are developing by the same laws.

          But it’s nothing so that at first all these “amazing” wars arise, after society destabilizes and in the future the government gradually, with quiet drafts, transfers to outspoken foreigners, such as in England, after Cromwell, to immigrants from Hanover (Hanover), Karla, Karla. In the same way in Moscow Russia, it was either to the protégé of the Commonwealth Misha Romanov (Zakharyins-Koshkins), or, later, to the long-tailed Peter I (No. 2). Do not notice anything "strange"? So your comment: "No wonder ..."- it has surprisingly too many meanings. I think you will agree on this.
        2. Luga
          Luga 29 December 2017 15: 50
          Quote: moskowit
          No wonder ... All socio-political formations are developing according to the same laws ....

          I agree, golden words.
          By and large, when the number of nobles claiming land begins to significantly exceed the number of these lands, wars begin during which either the number of nobles decreases or the amount of land increases. War for the throne, no matter for the royal throne or Great reign, the essence of the war for the possession of land. During such wars, the number of people wishing to take an active part in them has been steadily falling, as a result, the situation is stabilizing, power is centralized, "the winner gets everything." And as for
          Quote: venaya
          But it’s nothing so that at first all these “amazing” wars arise, after society destabilizes and in the future the government gradually, with quiet drafts, transfers to outspoken foreigners, such as in England, after Cromwell, to immigrants from Hanover (Hanover), Karla, Karla. In the same way in Moscow Russia, it was addressed to the protégé of the Commonwealth Mischa Romanov (Zakharyins-Koshkins), then, later, to the long-tailed Peter I (No. 2). Do not notice anything "strange"? So your remark: "No wonder ..." - has surprisingly too many meanings. I think you will agree on this.

          then in such wars very often the winner is a sort of parvenu, “homo novus”, a person who did not take an active, and often no, participation in previous disassemblies. This is explained simply - parties tired of the war agree to the neutral option, “not ours not yours” and put forward an “independent candidate,” whose emblem simply does not annoy either one or the other. Although
          silent checkers
          I was amused.
          "World backstage" in the form of a conspiracy of Masons, Illuminati, Catholics, Anglo-Saxons, etc. absolutely nothing to do with it - everything develops in accordance with the laws of nature.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 29 December 2017 17: 21
            "World backstage" in the form of a conspiracy of Masons, Illuminati, Catholics, Anglo-Saxons, etc. absolutely nothing to do with it - everything develops in accordance with the laws of nature.

            and Annunaki reptilians, one of which is quite legal and pleasant to spend time on our site (if you read the Reptiloid, hello Dmitry!)wink drinks
            Count Warwick in the first photo of effigy clearly shows the photographer how to take focus correctly with his hands. fellow laughing and myadzvedz (bear in Belarusian laughing ) and the griffin are impressive! Able! good hi
            1. ICT
              ICT 29 December 2017 19: 31
              The famous gilded effigiya of Richard Boscham, 13-th Earl of Warwick (1382 – 1439) in the Church of Sts. Mary in Warwick, England.

              a bear in a muzzle and a collar, and the griffin is as if free,

              Is there any semantic implication ???
              1. kalibr
                29 December 2017 20: 17
                Oh, I would go there! I would shoot all of it in detail and consider everything. But alas.
        3. antivirus
          antivirus 29 December 2017 21: 24
          also wanted to give a note .-- the confrontation of Tver and Moscow
    2. seti
      seti 29 December 2017 09: 55
      Thanks so much for the article. This period in England is really very interesting. It is a pity I did not learn anything new, but I read all one with pleasure.
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 29 December 2017 07: 04
    Thank. The illustrations are good. And parallels can be drawn with the beginning of our Time of Troubles.

    "Then Fedor began to reign, the father a lively contrast.
    He was not vigorous in reason; he was only ringing much "(c).
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 29 December 2017 08: 14
    Rose white, rose scarlet ...
    ... A kind of civil war in England, when the "scarlet" fought against the "white" .. The English aristocracy was bleeding ...
    BRONEVIK 29 December 2017 10: 00
    Beautiful article
    In all senses
  5. Curious
    Curious 29 December 2017 10: 44
    The struggle of two dynasties, Yorks and Lancsters, went down in the history of England as the war of the Scarlet and White Roses.
    Yorkies and Lancaster are not two dynasties, but one Plantagenet. Therefore, the war of the Scarlet and White Roses is just an example of how the intra-dynastic strife of this very dynasty destroyed and replaced the Plantagenets by the Tudors, who laid the foundation on which the British Empire grew.
    In total, during the reign of the British Royal House, which will celebrate its millennium in 2066, seven dynasties were replaced.
    1. Curious
      Curious 29 December 2017 10: 56

      Henry Arthur Payne. The scene in the Temple Garden in the first part of the play "Henry VI", where supporters of the warring factions choose red and white roses.
    2. Looking for
      Looking for 29 December 2017 14: 49
      It would be more correct to say, the British monarchy.
    3. Looking for
      Looking for 29 December 2017 14: 58
      And I counted 11-Norman. Plantagenets, Lancaster. York. Tudor
      s, Stuarts. Oranskaya, again Stuarts, Hanover, Saxe-Coburg and finally Windsor.
      1. Curious
        Curious 29 December 2017 16: 26
        Norman House
        The Tudors
        1. Luga
          Luga 29 December 2017 17: 12
          Quote: Curious

          I would not separate Lancaster and York into separate dynasties. All of them were representatives of the Plantagenet dynasty. In your previous message, with which I agree, it was written that way.
          Quote: Curious
          Yorkies and Lancaster are not two dynasties, but one Plantagenet.

          So something needs to be done with the score. smile
          But after Richard III, who was the last descendant of Plantagenet on the English throne, the dynasty really changed. And I would argue whether Henry VII could be called a Tudor. He’s illegal. smile
          By the way, why does the English royal house keep a record of its existence from the Norman conquest? Alfred the Great, Edward the Confessor is not their story anymore?
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 29 December 2017 18: 28
            Alfred the Great, Edward the Confessor is not their story anymore?

            Michael, writing is for you. I put before the fact. soldier Sources and co-author you will find in Viktor Nikolaevich. Kick only its stronger on the sirloin, so that it is not involved in criticism, but creative creativity fellow
            1. Luga
              Luga 29 December 2017 19: 16
              Nikolay, thanks for the trust. hi
              This period of history, especially British, is little familiar to me, and starting to study it from scratch ... there are more interesting things for me.
              I love the XIII - XIV centuries, I am interested, mainly, in Russia. The Rose Wars was carried away from childhood after reading books about Calle Blomqvist and as a student (my girlfriend was fond of Simone Vilar, and she wrote about Anna Neville, daughter of Warwick smile ), therefore, I am relatively free to navigate in this matter. And then a few years ago I came across a book by Vadim Ustinov on the Wars of the Roses, I learned a lot. By the way, I recommend if you are interested. However, with the Hundred Years War (to a lesser extent) and the Wars of the Roses, my interests in the Western Middle Ages were actually limited. Aivengo and Jack Solominka did not impress me like Stevenson's Black Arrow and Conan Doyle's White Squad. smile
              So, if you expect anything from me, then return to the previous topic.
              Quote: Mikado
              Sources and co-author you will find in Viktor Nikolaevich.

              Viktor Nikolaevich is this Curious?
              1. Mikado
                Mikado 29 December 2017 19: 26
                then write what the soul asks yes
                Viktor Nikolaevich is this Curious?

                of course! so much without him! request
          2. Curious
            Curious 30 December 2017 01: 22
            So I would not highlight, but the Britons themselves think so, agreeing that the Yorks and Lancaster are two branches of the Plantagenets. I don’t see any reason to argue with them, because my experience with them allows me to conclude that there is no chance of convincing them in this matter.
  6. gaura
    gaura 29 December 2017 11: 44
    Note that there are no traditional shields in the pictures. Only the buckler, in the last picture and the tarchs of the knights, the luck of the archers and gunners. Probably because of such losses from archers. Halberd heyday
    1. Curious
      Curious 29 December 2017 12: 48
      "Notice that there are no traditional shields in the pictures at all."
      Approximately from the middle of the XIV to the beginning of the XV century there is a smooth development of the “white” armor. But already from 1420, knightly armor undergoes significant design changes and by the middle of the XNUMXth century it turns into those knightly armor that we used to associate with knights, that is, by this time the knightly “white” armor was fully formed. Accordingly, improving the armor and increasing its protective functions reduced the value of shields. Just the end of the XNUMXth century.
  7. Luga
    Luga 29 December 2017 14: 37
    To be honest, having seen an epigraph before the article and in the article itself an abundance of illustrations, I decided that the author of the article was kalibr, especially since, as I recall, he expressed his intention to cover this topic. But in the process of reading, some doubt crept in - a certain unsystematic exposition was felt, some characters appeared out of nowhere (Andrew Trollop, for example - who he came from, what he was famous for, what exactly Warwick earned the nickname of “the king of kings"), in other Suffolks and Sommertsets are also easy to get confused without prior preparation. The events described in the article are presented, as it were, out of the general context, separately, sometimes the connection between them is not captured at all. Nothing is said about the attacks of insanity of Henry VI, which to a large extent caused the aggravation of the political struggle between supporters of Lancaster and York, nothing is said about the dynastic rights of applicants to the throne proper, it is not even said why it is Lancaster and it is York, and not, say, Mortimers and (or) Staffords.
    I read with great interest the analysis of the coat of arms of Count Richard Neville of the 13 Earl of Warwick.
    The topic of roses themselves is also open, in my opinion, correctly, but I would definitely emphasize that the coats of arms of Heinrich Lancaster and Richard York, since they were representatives of the same family, were almost indistinguishable and not the same element as the rose did not have. And a rose is simply an identification mark, such as a chevron, or something similar, by which one could distinguish one's own from strangers in battle. Roses did not have any heraldic significance.
    Illustrative material is also rich and visual, I liked it.
    More content. The turning point of the Rose War was, in my opinion, just the Battle of Wakefield, it was after her that the captured lords were executed (this was not practiced before), which multiplied the degree of cruelty of the confrontation. The Wars of the Roses, in fact, differed from the rest of the feudal feuds in Europe in that they were waged with extreme bitterness, they did not take the Lords prisoner, and if they accidentally came across, they immediately put a marching scaffold on the battlefield and busily chopped off the heads of the prisoners, after which continued the hike. By the way, next to the heads of Earl of Salisbury and Richard York, a third head was hanged at the gates of York - Earl of Rutland, the seventeen-year-old son of Richard York, who was personally killed by Lord John Clifford, the son of the deceased at St. Albans (1455, after the end of the battle (!) ) Lord Thomas Clifford. I think this episode is very revealing. The hand-made and unpunished killing by an ordinary lord of an unarmed captive member of the royal family is not a trivial event.
    In general, it is interesting and informative for many. Thanks to the author, I will wait for the continuation. smile
    1. sivuch
      sivuch 29 December 2017 23: 50
      Yeah . When Pedro of Castile dealt with the captives 100 years before the Roses before, the British with the Black Prince at the head were terribly unhappy - and not chivalrous and just plain stupid to lose ransoms. And then it was repeated exactly.
  8. Some kind of compote
    Some kind of compote 29 December 2017 16: 37
    It is impossible to say that friendship won
    But the mass liquidation of immediately a significant part of the aristocracy was probably of great importance - for the subsequent democratic-bourgeois development of England.
    Respect for the author good
  9. NF68
    NF68 29 December 2017 17: 04
  10. Prometey
    Prometey 29 December 2017 17: 50
    Stevenson "Black Arrow" - with great interest, read in childhood. Just about those times.
    And the York coat of arms looks like a fried egg on a plate.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 29 December 2017 18: 06
      Stevenson "Black Arrow" - with great interest, read in childhood.

      few books so fascinated me at that age ... drinks
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 29 December 2017 22: 17
        But I somehow did not carry away .... Well, I'm generally a renegade. Offer me a choice to read Mozheiko or Bulychev, guess my preference three times.
        1. Cat
          Cat 30 December 2017 09: 29
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          But I somehow did not carry away .... Well, I'm generally a renegade. Offer me a choice to read Mozheiko or Bulychev, guess my preference three times.

          I dare to suggest Anton that you like V. Krapivin’s books? hi
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 30 December 2017 13: 03
            Hello, Vladislav! I like generally high-quality Russian-language fiction, here I am a "baaalshoy" specialist laughing , read (from 8 years old) and still read a lot. As for Krapivin, almost everything that was published in the Ural Ranger was read.
            1. Cat
              Cat 30 December 2017 14: 54
              I read Anton - EVERYTHING except detectives. Well, the soul does not lie to them. When I read the first fantastic book - I don’t remember? Although if you consider A. Volokov’s science fiction “The Wizard of the Emerald City”, then in the first class. And at home only two of the series. For the third "Seven Underground Kings" had to go to the library. The last two had to be read in the reading room. In turn, and sometimes by ear. I remember that they even gave each other the nicknames of the heroes of the book and played a game about the wizard of the Emerald City.
              I wipe off the first "fantastic" book which apparently I read was "Dunno in the sunny city", that is how the second book from the series was the first. I was 4-5 years old. The first part was bought in the first summer vacation. And he took parts about the moon from friends. Then it went like a dash, while I hated fairy tales. History, adventure, fantasy. He began to collect his first series from 1993-94 on "Combat Fantasy" - Argo, Armada, Alpha Book. The library has over 300 books from more than 2000. At one time he collected N. Perumov (I think of the best as “Skull on hand”, “Skull in heaven”, A. Orlov (series - “Fry”), Zolotnikov “Armagedon”, Kamsha “Face of Victory”, Belyanin “Nameless Sword”, Cruz “Land of the Extra” and many, many ...
              Krapivin for me was a writer more childish than science fiction. Moreover, he is the only one who created here and now, literally a hundred kilometers from my hometown in Sverdlovsk. From him I caught the sea and sails. It is ridiculous to say this while living on the slope of a half-kilometer mountain above sea level and a hundred and fifty kilometers from great water. The best work of V. Krapivin I consider "The Crane and Lightning". At the institute, at one time for such "addictions" my work colleague ridiculed me. They asked me what I would advise her to read. I advised .......
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 30 December 2017 21: 56
                I found a "brother in mind !!!!!! hi If there is a desire, we can chat in PM so as not to clog the air. For some reason, Krapivin’s most memorable for me was “Orange Speckled Portrait”
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 31 December 2017 12: 12
      Stevenson "Black Arrow" - with great interest read in childhood "///

      In-in! And I recalled - sclerotic ( negative ) - what is reading terribly fascinating
      in childhood! Thank you for reminding me. There were poems there - I even taught them by heart:
      “I will shoot four arrows - and I will avenge the fourth ...” I don’t remember very much further.
      1. kalibr
        31 December 2017 13: 30
        In the USSR, the film was shot good, better than English!
  11. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 29 December 2017 22: 12
    Svetlana, bravo !!! You get cool articles!
    1. kalibr
      30 December 2017 10: 53
      Svetlana, well done, you are right!