Military Review

Tamer "Narodnaya Volya"

25



The Minister of the Interior of the Russian Empire, Vyacheslav von Plehve, managed to set up a police apparatus in such a way that in a short time he managed to completely defeat the Narodnaya Volya party.

When Vyacheslav von Plehve was born in the town of Meshchovsk, his poor parents (German Russians who had become Russianized) could not even imagine in their wildest dreams what a brilliant career awaits their boy. Yes, their son brilliantly graduated from the Kaluga Nicholas Gymnasium with a gold medal, and then the law faculty of St. Petersburg University. But who could have imagined that the offspring of a poor family von Plehve would become the Minister of the Interior of the Russian Empire?

Fight sedition

After graduating from the University, Plehve worked in the judicial department, and so successfully that he was appointed in 1879, the prosecutor of the St. Petersburg Court of Justice. In this position, he was noticed by Emperor Alexander III, who made Vyacheslav Konstantinovich acting. the prosecutor in the Special Presence of the Governing Senate "to judge cases of state crimes and the 1 crime of March 1881 of the year" (that is, in cases involving the murder of Alexander II).

After a brilliant investigation and trial of terrorists, Plehve took the post of director of the police department. And he was able to establish a police apparatus in such a way that in a short time he managed to almost completely crush the Narodnaya Volya party: the terrorist attacks and even the attempts to commit them themselves ceased.

In 1884, Vyacheslav Konstantinovich became a senator. Ten years later, Nicholas II appointed him Secretary of State and Chief Executive Officer of the codification part of the State Council. Career Plehve is developing rapidly. In 1895, he is the comrade of the Minister of the Interior and the Emperor’s personal secretary of state.

Plehve possessed outstanding administrative abilities. In fact, managing the entire ministry, he significantly improved the work of the central office.

Vyacheslav Konstantinovich was revered for an intelligent and businesslike official. Plehve was ambitious and sought the appointment of the Minister of the Interior. At the same time, he sincerely loved Russia, was aware of the gravity of the crisis that she was experiencing, and tried to find a way out of it.

In 1899, Plehve was promoted to real secret advisers and appointed as acting minister to the state secretary of the Grand Duchy of Finland.

The Minister inaugurated the bill

Suddenly, in 1902, Vyacheslav Konstantinovich was recalled to Russia to take the place of the Minister of the Interior instead of the murdered Dmitry Sipyagin. Returning to Petersburg, on the very first report from the sovereign, Plehve, by the way, said: “If twenty years ago, when I was in charge of the police department, I would have been told that Russia was threatened by a revolution, I would have just smiled. Now, Your Majesty, I have to look at the situation differently. ”

The new Minister of the Interior began his activities with decisive measures to curb all anti-state activities, uprooting revolutionary inclinations. Plehve emphasized the expansion of the revolutionary movements from the inside, for which he widely supported the practice of introducing police agents and provocateurs into social democratic and Socialist-Revolutionary organizations. He strengthened the role of the heads of security departments, endowing them with administrative rights. In May 1903 was established the institute of the county police guard, replacing the rural police, which strengthened the Russian law enforcement agencies, made their work more efficient.

Plehve was an impeccably honest person, never engaged in financial scams and operations, did not set himself the goal of getting rich. Of the real estate, he had only a tiny, unprofitable estate - a summer house in the Kostroma province, where he spent his free summer time. As for cash, then, as it turned out after his death, all that he had accumulated for his long service in well-paid posts was reduced to 40 thousands of rubles ... Those who were in his uncontrolled disposal of large sums of money did not use Plehve for himself, but tried to help needy subordinates, often increasing the amount of the allowance requested.

Fatal explosion

The “hunt” of revolutionary terrorists against the Minister of the Interior began almost from the first days of his appointment. A militant organization led by Azef tracked every step of Plehwe for many months. Several times the attempt on Plehve failed. The terrorists changed their clothes in cabs, in street vendors. After long-term surveillance, they determined the routes and the exact time of Plehve’s movement around the city, the number of guards and the composition of the group of fillers who watched the crowd while the minister’s carriage followed. The filers were found easily: they were drawn obsequiously at the sight of high authorities. For the opportunity to destroy the enemy among the members of the military organization there was a real contest: who would have the honor of throwing a bomb. Finally, the roles were distributed: Egor Sazonov, an 25-year-old merchant son, a professional revolutionary, was the number one.

The bomb thrown by 28 on July 1904 of the year exploded, knocking down the Minister of Interior carriage to the wheels, killing Plehve on the spot and wounding, by some miraculous death, the bomber himself. “Governmental Herald” of 29 July 1904 reported: “... when the Minister of Internal Affairs, State Secretary Plehve was going to the Baltic Station to go to Peterhof, driving along Izmailovsky Prospect, a explosive shell was thrown under his carriage by a man standing near the pavement. The following explosion killed the Minister and the driver of his carriage, the peasant Ivan Filippov; of the Tsvetsinsky regiment of the Life Guards Semenov regiment who were accidentally wounded and received injuries: an ordinary non-combat headquarters of the 37 Infantry Division, Frizenberg, Leiba Moshkovsky, an office clerk, driver Kreinov, a painter, Ivan Khromtsov, a painter, Afanasyev, an employee, an employee of an employee of Leiba Moshkovsky, a driver, Philippe Krainov, a painter, Ivan Khromtsov, an artel worker Afanasyev, an employee of a worker, and an employee of a unit Olga Timofeeva and her granddaughter, 3, and spare private Friedrich Hartmann. The killer, who received several non-dangerous wounds during the explosion, was detained at the scene of the crime and refused to name himself. The case is being investigated by the judicial investigator of the St. Petersburg District Court on the most important issues. ”

To the surprise of the public, Prince Svyatopolk-Mirsky, who replaced Plehve, did not demand the death penalty for Sazonov. He ended his days in Akatui prison, taking poison.
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  1. verner1967
    verner1967 23 December 2017 07: 35 New
    +4
    The bomb he threw on July 28, 1904 exploded, demolishing the carriage of the Minister of the Interior to the wheels, killing Pleve on the spot
    what a pity, had this not happened, maybe there would have been no October 17th in the history of our country.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 23 December 2017 07: 47 New
      +6
      Quote: verner1967
      The bomb he threw on July 28, 1904 exploded, demolishing the carriage of the Minister of the Interior to the wheels, killing Pleve on the spot
      what a pity, had this not happened, maybe there would have been no October 17th in the history of our country.

      I’m not sure: the power of that time was excessively liberal towards the enemies of the state; it’s enough to remember how all sorts of ilichi grew fat and improved their health in .... so-called links.
      1. verner1967
        verner1967 23 December 2017 08: 19 New
        +4
        Quote: Olgovich
        it is enough to recall how all sorts of ilichi were getting fat and improving their health in .... so-called links.
        Well, Pleva wasn’t enough for them,
        and yes, prohvessionalnye revolutsioeneri, their mother! )))
      2. Baloo
        Baloo 23 December 2017 19: 17 New
        +4
        Quote: Olgovich
        Quote: verner1967
        The bomb he threw on July 28, 1904 exploded, demolishing the carriage of the Minister of the Interior to the wheels, killing Pleve on the spot
        what a pity, had this not happened, maybe there would have been no October 17th in the history of our country.

        I’m not sure: the power of that time was excessively liberal towards the enemies of the state; it’s enough to remember how all sorts of ilichi grew fat and improved their health in .... so-called links.

        The author did not say a word about the relations between the people of the Volunteers and the Naglobrites. One of them, a lover of stabbing sovereign servants, was a friend of Voinich, the author of The Gadfly. What is interesting is Voynich, who later became friends with Reilly. But the true author of the scenario of the assassination attempt on Lenin could only be Reilly, and he probably also wrote the killer out of the states. After all, the first words of Lenin were: did you take it? Him and her. And the witness who detained Kaplan claimed that he did not have a briefcase and an umbrella with him. This is what pros should be like to hold an umbrella and a briefcase from a browning. But this is a little-known version that for some reason no one takes attention, for some reason everyone is happy with the unhappy, unhealthy and half-blind Kaplan.
        1. Monarchist
          Monarchist 24 December 2017 16: 11 New
          +2
          Balu, which I agree with you in the case of shots at the Michelson factory: 100 crap.
          If you carefully read the testimony of the main witness, then there are enough mistakes, and I especially like it: the ILC request to bring the weapon from which they shot at Lenin, some conscious worker brought Browning obrz 1903 (thanks for not fusing the gun). Kaplan was beneficial to Yashinka Sverdlov, but what she saw as chicken was nothing
      3. Monarchist
        Monarchist 24 December 2017 15: 58 New
        +1
        About Lenin’s link to the point said
      4. wax
        wax April 3 2018 12: 10 New
        0
        You are mistaken - the government was not liberal, but very cruel. Her death was inevitable due to the conservatism of the prevailing noble worldview as opposed to the worldview of the emerging class of capitalists. Plus, a world war was imposed, the main purpose of which was to clear out the Eurasian space for Anglo-Saxons.
    2. Maki Avellevich
      Maki Avellevich 23 December 2017 09: 54 New
      +1
      Quote: verner1967
      The bomb he threw on July 28, 1904 exploded, demolishing the carriage of the Minister of the Interior to the wheels, killing Pleve on the spot
      what a pity, had this not happened, maybe there would have been no October 17th in the history of our country.


      but did Japan try?
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 23 December 2017 12: 13 New
        +2
        Anglo-Saxons, of course. Alexander Samsonov must be read, that's who! smile
        1. Baloo
          Baloo 23 December 2017 19: 21 New
          +1
          Quote: voyaka uh
          Anglo-Saxons, of course. Alexander Samsonov must be read, that's who! smile

          Perhaps the Americans, it was most profitable for them to draw Japan into the war with Russia. I do not think that Kuprin’s story about the captain was the author’s fantasy, not an artistic interpretation of the fact.
      2. verner1967
        verner1967 23 December 2017 18: 02 New
        +2
        Quote: Maki Avellievich
        but did Japan try?

        yes everything can be, I read the brochure "The Japanese General Staff during the Russo-Japanese War" by the way, printed in the USSR in the 30s, it says how the japs ​​helped the fifth column in Russia
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 23 December 2017 07: 48 New
    +6
    Almost nothing has been written about the taming of Narodnaya Volya ...
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 23 December 2017 08: 14 New
      10
      Quote: parusnik
      Almost nothing has been written about the taming of Narodnaya Volya ...

      Like little else. The meager retelling of W.
      Often Pleva quotes a quote about a small victorious war, which was supposed to prevent the revolution. How what happened --- is known. There is another, recalled quote about the Russian intelligentsia, where she was given a harsh assessment, also a foresight of the February revolution. It turns out that the intelligentsia in the country has always been like a woman with low social responsibility.
      Pleve was a supporter of reforms from above to prevent a revolution. The first proposed policy was the resettlement of peasants. Actually, many of Pleve's theses were used by Stolypin.
  3. elenagromova
    elenagromova 23 December 2017 10: 35 New
    +2
    Well, here, they crushed, crushed, tamed, tamed, as a result, in 1917, the valve was blown off by the people. And then supporters of the monarchy wondered why the people did not like “taming”
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 23 December 2017 11: 01 New
      +1
      I agree with you, Elena. Recipes for improvements from above were given ----- but what's the point ?. They did not fit at all. The people, driven to despair ---- reacted specifically. And instead of victorious wars, defeat was originally laid down.
  4. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 23 December 2017 12: 10 New
    +3
    He did not prevent the 1905 revolution. And could not prevent. She was economic.
    Workers wanted to improve working conditions. The terrorists have nothing to do with it, shoot them or don't shoot.
    1. Maki Avellevich
      Maki Avellevich 23 December 2017 12: 53 New
      +3
      Quote: voyaka uh
      He did not prevent the 1905 revolution. And could not prevent. She was economic.
      Workers wanted to improve working conditions. The terrorists have nothing to do with it, shoot them or don't shoot.


      for some reason, in the same England, the workers did not want to improve working conditions. were happy with everything. and in Russia, very demanding workers were, twice
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 23 December 2017 13: 36 New
        +2
        Why are the workers in England? ... And compare the incomparable. It is necessary to turn our eyes to the enclosure, then there will be something to compare
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 24 December 2017 00: 45 New
        0
        In England, authorities (parliament and the Crown) always managed to carry out economic reforms BEFORE the "revolutionary situation" arose. As soon as there were many strikes, some factory requirements were fulfilled and steam was released from the boiler. Therefore, in England there were no revolutions, no underground bombers.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 24 December 2017 05: 27 New
          +1
          Somehow, residents do not remember about the Jewish pogroms in the Republic of Ingushetia, as well as about getting an education without restrictions in the USSR.
          I see that on Saturday the comments continued, the Israelis were worried about Russia, despite the Saturday.
          1. Maki Avellevich
            Maki Avellevich 24 December 2017 08: 54 New
            0
            Quote: Reptiloid
            Somehow, residents do not remember about the Jewish pogroms in the Republic of Ingushetia, as well as about getting an education without restrictions in the USSR.


            comrade reptiloid, you from another article skidded?
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 24 December 2017 09: 50 New
              0
              For the time of comments ---- look, whom, where it blew. Yes to the calendar too. Know the days of the week. Yes, read the history book better.
        2. Monarchist
          Monarchist 24 December 2017 15: 53 New
          0
          Vovka, you are absolutely right, but what about the Irladians that rebelled in 1915.
          And the Latvian anarchists of 1911, when against the three anarchists with Mauser pistols, Churchill was forced to raise a rifle regiment and, in my opinion, was about to use artillery. Thank you for not airplanes, or else a third of London .... aunt
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 25 December 2017 11: 41 New
            +1
            So this funny thing happened because England didn’t know
            what is domestic terrorism. They also armed the police
            pistols only 20 years ago. And in their violent struggle of the working class
            for their rights they never came to firearms.
            Because their elites saw their light after the French Revolution:
            "the same can happen with us." There were heated discussions in Parliament
            (a real parliament is a great thing!). And they carried out urgent economic reforms.
            And so several times. After the revolutions of 1848 in Europe - the same thing.
            Urgent reforms in England. Therefore, they enjoy the monarchy still and not
            going to cancel it.
            1. Sergey Horuzhik
              Sergey Horuzhik 28 July 2018 22: 04 New
              0
              There was no internal terrorism for one reason: there was no financier who could finance internal terrorism. And those who want it ... I think that there were more than one hundred thousand Irish people alone. So, your untruth.